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Technical Paper

Piston-Turbine-Compound Engine — A Design and Performance Analysis

Exhaust heat utilization for internal combustion engines has centered around turbosupercharging in recent years, neglecting the promising field of compounding a piston engine with a gas turbine in which, unlike turbocharging, turbine power is fed back to the engine crankshaft. The piston engine can cope with high gas pressure and temperature, whereas the gas turbine can efficiently utilize the energy at relatively low pressure and temperature and large volume flows. By compounding, this-piston engine will handle the high pressure, high temperature phase of the combustion cycle and extend the expansion ratio of the gases to atmospheric pressure by completing the low pressure, low temperature phase in the gas turbine. The marriage of the two engines will result in an outstanding power package with the highest thermal efficiency possible.
Technical Paper

A Bench Test Facility for Engine Muffler Evaluation

The problem associated with laboratory evaluation of muffler acoustical characteristics are complicated both by the acoustical considerations involved in obtaining an adequate noise source and by the ambiguities involved in defining what constitutes quality in a muffler built for general application. In order to quantitatively define the characteristics of quality mufflers, an extensive series of field tests were conducted on a variety of sizes and types of mufflers in conjunction with four engine configurations. Work then turned to the development of a wide band siren noise source and acoustical test system which would simulate the high impedance character of an engine exhaust noise source, and in addition generate the necessary intensity and spectral characteristics required to obtain test data over the range of noise conditions encountered in the field.
Journal Article

Performance and Emissions of Diesel and Alternative Diesel Fuels in a Heavy-duty Industry-Standard Older Engine

Conventional diesel fuel has been in the market for decades and used successfully to run diesel engines of all sizes in many applications. In order to reduce emissions and to foster energy source diversity, new fuels such as alternative and renewable, as well as new fuel formulations have entered the market. These include biodiesel, gas-to-liquid, and alternative formulations by states such as California. Performance variations in fuel economy, emissions, and compatibility for these fuels have been evaluated and debated. In some cases contradictory views have surfaced. “Sustainable”, “Renewable”, and “Clean” designations have been interchanged. Adding to the confusion, results from one fuel in one type of engine such as an older heavy-duty engine, is at times compared to that of another type such as a modern light-duty. This study was an attempt to compare the performance of several fuels in an identical environment, using the same engine, for direct comparison.
Journal Article

Scuderi Split Cycle Research Engine: Overview, Architecture and Operation

The Scuderi engine is a split cycle design that divides the four strokes of a conventional combustion cycle over two paired cylinders, one intake/compression cylinder and one power/exhaust cylinder, connected by a crossover port. This configuration provides potential benefits to the combustion process, as well as presenting some challenges. It also creates the possibility for pneumatic hybridization of the engine. This paper reviews the first Scuderi split cycle research engine, giving an overview of its architecture and operation. It describes how the splitting of gas compression and combustion into two separate cylinders has been simulated and how the results were used to drive the engine architecture together with the design of the main engine systems for air handling, fuel injection, mixing and ignition. A prototype engine was designed, manufactured, and installed in a test cell. The engine was heavily instrumented and initial performance results are presented.
Technical Paper

Air-Assisted Direct Injection Diesel Investigations

Enhancement of fuel/air mixing is one path towards enabling future diesel engines to increase efficiency and control emissions. Air-assist fuel injections have shown potential for low pressure applications and the current work aims to extend air-assist feasibility understanding to high pressure environments. Analyses were completed and carried out for traditional high pressure fuel-only, internal air-assist, and external air-assist fuel/air mixing processes. A combination of analytical 0-D theory and 3D CFD were used to help understand the processes and guide the design of the air-assisted setup. The internal air-assisted setup was determined to have excellent liquid fuel vaporization, but poorer fuel dispersion than the traditional high-pressure fuel injections.
Technical Paper

Comparison of SCR Catalyst Performance on RMC SET Emission Cycle between an Engine and a High Flow Burner Rig

Government agencies like EPA play an important role through regulation to reduce emissions and fuel consumption and to drive technological developments to reduce the environmental impact of burning petroleum fuels. Emissions testing and control is one of the leading and growing fields in the development of modern vehicles. Recently, Cummins Emissions Solutions (CES) and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) worked jointly in order to achieve a method to conduct emissions testing efficiently and effectively. The collaborative work between the two organizations led to the usage of FOCAS HGTR™ (a diesel-based burner test rig at SwRI) to simulate the exhaust conditions generated by a 2010 ISX Cummins production engine operating over an EPA standard Ramped Modal Cycle Supplemental Emissions Test (RMC SET) cycle.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Characterization of the Dual-Fuel Combustion Process in an Optically Accessible Engine

The dual-fuel combustion process of ethanol and n-heptane was characterized experimentally in an optically accessible engine and numerically through a chemical kinetic 3D-CFD investigation. Previously reported formaldehyde PLIF distributions were used as a tracer of low-temperature oxidation of straight-chained hydrocarbons and the numerical results were observed to be in agreement with the experimental data. The numerical and experimental evidence suggests that a change in the speed of flame propagation is responsible for the observed behavior of the dual-fuel combustion, where the energy release duration is increased and the maximum rate of pressure rise is decreased. Further, an explanation is provided for the asymmetrical energy release profile reported in literature which has been previously attributed to an increase in the diffusion-controlled combustion phase.
Technical Paper

Locomotive Emissions Measurements for Various Blends of Biodiesel Fuel

The objective of this project was to assess the effects of various blends of biodiesel on locomotive engine exhaust emissions. Systematic, credible, and carefully designed and executed locomotive fuel effect studies produce statistically significant conclusions are very scarce, and only cover a very limited number of locomotive models. Most locomotive biodiesel work has been limited to cursory demonstration programs. Of primary concern to railroads and regulators is understanding any exhaust emission associated with biodiesel use, especially NOX emissions. In this study, emissions tests were conducted on two locomotive models, a Tier 2 EMD SD70ACe and a Tier 1+ GE Dash9-44CW with two baseline fuels, conventional EPA ASTM No. 2-D S15 (commonly referred to as ultra-low sulfur diesel - ULSD) certification diesel fuel, and commercially available California Air Resource Board (CARB) ULSD fuel.
Technical Paper

Novel Renewable Additive for Diesel Engines

A novel oxygenate, 5-methyl furoate ethyl ester (EF), was made by a chemical process from biomass and ethanol. This compound was then used as a renewable diesel additive at concentrations up to 10 percent by volume. This unique ester, which is similar in composition to a know food additive, was studied for engine performance in comparison with two other oxygenated alternatives (i.e. ethanol - EtOH and ethyl levulinate - EL) and with B20 (20 percent biodiesel). Tests were performed with a 2012 6.7 L Ford diesel engine using the heavy-duty Federal Test Procedure. The emission results indicated that a blend of the ester with diesel was comparable to the base fuel. In addition, the results also indicated that EF reduces the formation of particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide. Other properties of EF seem to improve the physical properties of the blended fuel such as lubricity and viscosity when compared to the base fuel.
Journal Article

Particle Emissions from a 2009 Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Using Different Commercially Available Fuels

Total and solid particle mass, size, and number were measured in the dilute exhaust of a 2009 vehicle equipped with a gasoline direct injection engine along with an exhaust three-way-catalyst. The measurements were performed over the FTP-75 and the US06 drive cycles using three different U.S. commercially available fuels, Fuels A, B, and C, where Fuel B was the most volatile and Fuel C was the least volatile with higher fractions of low vapor pressure hydrocarbons (C10 to C12), compared to the other two fuels. Substantial differences in particle mass and number emission levels were observed among the different fuels tested. The more volatile gasoline fuel, Fuel B, resulted in the lowest total (solid plus volatile) and solid particle mass and number emissions. This fuel resulted in a 62 percent reduction in solid particle number and an 88 percent reduction in soot mass during the highest emitting cold-start phase, Phasel, of the FTP-75, compared to Fuel C.
Journal Article

Feasibility of Using Full Synthetic Low Viscosity Engine Oil at High Ambient Temperatures in Military Vehicles

The US Army is currently assessing the feasibility and defining the requirements of a Single Common Powertrain Lubricant (SCPL). This new lubricant would consist of an all-season (arctic to desert), fuel-efficient, multifunctional powertrain fluid with extended drain capabilities. As a developmental starting point, diesel engine testing has been conducted using the current MIL-PRF-46167D arctic engine oil at high temperature conditions representative of desert operation. Testing has been completed using three high density military engines: the General Engine Products 6.5L(T) engine, the Caterpillar C7, and the Detroit Diesel Series 60. Tests were conducted following two standard military testing cycles; the 210 hr Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Cycle, and the 400 hr NATO Hardware Endurance Cycle. Modifications were made to both testing procedures to more closely replicate the operation of the engine in desert-like conditions.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of Diesel and Alternative Diesel Fuels in Modern Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles

Conventional diesel fuel has been in the market for decades and used successfully to run diesel engines of all sizes in many applications. In order to reduce emissions and to foster energy source diversity, new fuels such as alternative and renewable, as well as new fuel formulations have entered the market. These include biodiesel, gas-to-liquid, and alternative formulations by states such as California. Performance variations in fuel economy, emissions, and compatibility for these fuels have been evaluated and debated. In some cases contradictory views have surfaced. “Sustainable”, “Renewable”, and “Clean” designations have been interchanged. Adding to the confusion, results from one fuel in one type of engine such as an older heavy-duty engine, is at times compared to that of another fuel in another type such as a modern light-duty engine. This study was an attempt to compare the performance of several fuels in identical environments, using the same engine, for direct comparison.
Technical Paper

A Test Method for Evaluating Feasibility of Lean Nitrous Oxide Traps

The Lean NOx Trap (LNT) is a technology that could be used to reduce oxides of nitrogen from heavy-duty diesel engines to meet emissions standards (US 2010 and EURO 4/5/6). This paper describes a case-study for evaluating the feasibility of an LNT. LNTs suffer from sulfur poisoning and thermal aging limitations. Catalyst formulations allow reversal of sulfur poisoning through desulfation procedures. A case study was performed using a 7-liter diesel engine equipped with VGT, common rail fuel injection system, cooled EGR, oxidation catalyst and DPF. The LNT was positioned after the particulate filter. Gaseous raw emissions were measured from engine and various stages of aftertreatment. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyzer was used to characterize Ammonia and SO₂. Temperatures were measured in the substrate. Fast response NOx sensor allowed for continuous monitoring of the NOx in the LNT. A wide-range O₂ sensor was also utilized to measure equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

Verification of a Gaseous Portable Emissions Measurement System with a Laboratory System Using the Code of Federal Regulations Part 1065

This paper summarizes the validation testing of the Horiba Instruments OBS-2200 gaseous portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) for in-use compliance testing per Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 1065.920 (Section 1065.920). The qualification process included analyzer verifications as well as engine testing on a model-year 2007 heavy-duty diesel engine produced by Volvo Powertrain. The measurements of brake-specific emissions with the OBS-2200 were compared to those of a CFR Part 1065-compliant CVS test cell over a series of not-to-exceed (NTE) events. The OBS-2200 passed all linearity verifications and analyzer checks required of PEMS. Engine test validation was achieved for all three regulated gaseous emissions (CO, NMHC, and NOX) per 40 CFR Part 1065.920(b)(5)(i), which requires a minimum of 91 percent of the measurement allowance adjusted deltas to be less than or equal to zero.
Technical Paper

Dependence of Fuel Consumption on Engine Backpressure Generated by a DPF

In recent years, Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) systems have become the state-of-the-art technology to realize low particulate emission for light, medium or heavy-duty diesel vehicles. In addition to good filtration efficiency and thermo-mechanical robustness, the engine backpressure resulted from the DPF installation is an important parameter which directly impacts the fuel economy of the engine. The goal of this experimental test series was to determine the dependence of fuel consumption on engine backpressure resulted from a DPF installed on a heavy-duty application. The testing was executed on a MY2003 Volvo D12 heavy-duty diesel engine in an engine test cell at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). Empty DPF cans were used with an exhaust valve to mimic the post turbo pressure levels for two different types of DPF materials at nine selected engine operating points of the European Stationary Cycle (ESC).
Technical Paper

SCR Deactivation Study for OBD Applications

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts will be used to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from internal combustion engines in a number of applications. Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI)® performed an Internal Research & Development project to study SCR catalyst thermal deactivation. The study included a V/W/TiO₂ formulation, a Cu-zeolite formulation and an Fe-zeolite formulation. This work describes NOx timed response to ammonia (NH₃) transients as a function of thermal aging time and temperature. It has been proposed that the response time of NOx emissions to NH₃ transients, effected by changes in diesel emissions fluid (DEF) injection rate, could be used as an on-board diagnostic (OBD) metric. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and practicality of this OBD approach.
Journal Article

Determination of the PEMS Measurement Allowance for PM Emissions Regulated Under the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine In-Use Testing Program

This paper summarizes the Heavy-Duty In-Use Testing (HDUIT) measurement allowance program for Particulate Matter Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PM-PEMS). The measurement allowance program was designed to determine the incremental error between PM measurements using the laboratory constant volume sampler (CVS) filter method and in-use testing with a PEMS. Two independent PM-PEMS that included the Sensors Portable Particulate Measuring Device (PPMD) and the Horiba Transient Particulate Matter (TRPM) were used in this program. An additional instrument that included the AVL Micro Soot Sensor (MSS) was used in conjunction with the Sensors PPMD to be considered a PM-PEMS. A series of steady state and transient tests were performed in a 40 CFR Part 1065 compliant engine dynamometer test cell using a 2007 on-highway heavy-duty diesel engine to quantify the accuracy and precision of the PEMS in comparison with the CVS filter-based method.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Estimate of the Relation Between Rolling Resistance on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Tractor Trailers Using Both New and Retreaded Tires

Road tests of class 8 tractor trailers were conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on a new and retreaded tires of varying rolling resistance in order to provide estimates of the quantitative relation between rolling resistance and fuel consumption. Reductions in fuel consumption were measured using the SAE J1231 (reaffirmation of 1986) test method. Vehicle rolling resistance was calculated as a load-weighted average of the rolling resistance (as measured by ISO28580) of the tires in each axle position. Both new and retreaded tires were tested in different combinations to obtain a range of vehicle coefficient of rolling resistance from a baseline of 7.7 kg/ton to 5.3 kg/ton. Reductions in fuel consumption displayed a strong linear relationship with coefficient of rolling resistance, with a maximum reduction of fuel consumption of 10 percent relative to the baseline.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study and Secondary Circuit Model Calibration Using Spark Calorimeter Testing

The presented work describes how spark calorimeter testing was used for parametric study and secondary circuit model calibration. Tests were conducted at different pressures, sparkplug gaps and supplied primary energies. The conversion efficiency increases and the spark duration decreases when the gas pressure or the sparkplug gap size is increased. Both gas pressure and sparkplug gas size increase the positive column voltage which represents part of the electrical energy delivered to the gas. The opposite direction occurs when the supplied primary energy is increased. The testing results were then used to calibrate the secondary circuit model which consisted of the sparkplug, the sparkplug gap and the secondary wiring. A step-by-step method was used to calibrate the three constants of the model to match the calculated delivered energy with test data during arc / glow phase.
Journal Article

Development of a Synthetic Diesel Exhaust

A two-phase study was performed to establish a standard diesel exhaust composition which could be used in the future development of light-duty diesel exhaust aftertreatment. In the first phase, a literature review created a database of diesel engine-out emissions. The database consisted chiefly of data from heavy-duty diesel engines; therefore, the need for an emission testing program for light- and medium-duty engines was identified. A second phase was conducted to provide additional light-duty vehicle emissions data from current technology vehicles. Engine-out diesel exhaust from four 2004 model light-duty vehicles with a variety of engine displacements was collected and analyzed. Each vehicle was evaluated using five steady-state engine operating conditions and two transient test cycles (the Federal Test Procedure and the US06). Regulated emissions were measured along with speciation of both volatile and semi-volatile components of the hydrocarbons.