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Technical Paper

Development of a Lean-NOx Catalyst Containing Metal-Ligand Complex Impregnated Molecular Sieves

This paper describes the development and evaluation of an operative catalyst for the reduction of NOx in lean exhaust. A catalyst that incorporates iron (II)-complex impregnated modified mesoporous molecular sieves (MCM-41) has been synthesized and further treated with [pd(NH3)4]Cl2 [1]. Experimental results suggest a hydrocarbon-independent reduction of NOx takes place on the iron center, and oxidation of CO is assisted by the palladium ion. The catalytic activity toward HC CO, and NOx removal was studied with simulated and real engine exhaust in the laboratory and on an engine, respectively. Engine test results demonstrate a reduction of NOx of up to 10 percent at catalyst inlet temperatures in the range of 260°C to 280°C. In this paper, possible NOx reduction pathways are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Shale-Derived Diesel Test Fuels for Utilization Studies

An untreated heavy distillate fraction from a mixture of Geokinetics and Occidental shale oils was hydrogenated at three levels of severity. The three products showed good ignition quality and met most of the current specifications for No. 2-D diesel fuel. Nitrogen contents ranged from 250 to 1890 parts per million. Good oxidation stability was obtained in the product with lowest nitrogen content. Stability of the other two products was marginal but would be improved by use of an antioxidant additive. The test fuels will be used in engine and combustion studies.
Technical Paper

A Bench Technique for Evaluating High Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion Tendencies of Automotive Crankcase Lubricants

A technique for evaluating high temperature oxidation and corrosion tendencies of automotive crankcase lubricants is described. The technique utilizes a versatile bench apparatus which, with a minimum of modification, can be used for either evaluating thermal oxidation stability of gear lubricants or oxidation-corrosion tendencies of automotive crankcase lubricants. The apparatus is relatively compact and requires a minimal lubricant sample. Design of the apparatus permits close control of all operating parameters and provides satisfactory test data repeatability. Retainable copper-lead test bearings are used as the indicator in predicting a pass or fail of fully formulated crankcase lubricants as in the case of the CRC L-38-559 (Federal Test Method 3405) technique. Engine and bench test data are compared to illustrate the capabilities of this new bench technique.
Technical Paper

Emissions Control of Gasoline Engines for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

This paper summarizes an investigation of reductions in exhaust emission levels attainable using various techniques appropriate to gasoline engines used in vehicles over 14,000 lbs GVW. Of the eight gasoline engines investigated, two were evaluated parametrically resulting in an oxidation and reduction catalyst “best combination” configuration. Four of the engines were evaluated in an EGR plus oxidation catalyst configuration, and two involved only baseline tests. Test procedures used in evaluating the six “best combination” configurations include: three engine emission test procedures using an engine dynamometer, a determination of vehicle driveability, and two vehicle emission test procedures using a chassis dynamometer. Dramatic reductions in emissions were attained with the catalyst “best combination” configurations. Engine durability, however, was not investigated.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Characterization of the Dual-Fuel Combustion Process in an Optically Accessible Engine

The dual-fuel combustion process of ethanol and n-heptane was characterized experimentally in an optically accessible engine and numerically through a chemical kinetic 3D-CFD investigation. Previously reported formaldehyde PLIF distributions were used as a tracer of low-temperature oxidation of straight-chained hydrocarbons and the numerical results were observed to be in agreement with the experimental data. The numerical and experimental evidence suggests that a change in the speed of flame propagation is responsible for the observed behavior of the dual-fuel combustion, where the energy release duration is increased and the maximum rate of pressure rise is decreased. Further, an explanation is provided for the asymmetrical energy release profile reported in literature which has been previously attributed to an increase in the diffusion-controlled combustion phase.
Technical Paper

Development of Chrysler Oxidation and Deposit Engine Oil Certification Test

With the impending development of GF-6, the newest generation of engine oil, a new standardized oil oxidation and piston deposit test was developed using Chrysler 3.6 L Pentastar engine. The performance requirements and approval for passenger car light duty gasoline engine oil categories are set by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval committee (ILSAC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) using standardized testing protocols developed under the guidance of ASTM, the American Society for Testing and Materials. This paper describes the development of a new ASTM Chrysler oxidation and deposit test that will be used to evaluate lubricants performance for oil thickening and viscosity increase, and piston deposits.
Technical Paper

Paint Integrity and Corrosion Sensor

Atmospheric corrosion of steels, aluminum alloys, and Al-clad aluminum alloys is a problem for many civil engineering structures, commercial and military vehicles, and aircraft. Paint is usually the primary means to prevent the corrosion of steel bridge components, automobiles, trucks, and aircraft. Under ideal conditions, the coating provides a continuous layer that is impervious to moisture. At present, maintenance cycles for commercial and military aircraft and ground vehicles, as well as engineered structures, is based on experience and appearance rather than a quantitative determination of coating integrity. To improve the maintenance process and reduce costs, sensors are often used to monitor corrosion. The present suite of sensors designed to detect corrosion and marketed to predict the lifetime of the engineered components, however, are not useful for determining the condition of the protective paint coatings.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Possible Methanol Fuel Additives for Reducing Engine Wear and/or Corrosion

The use of fuel additives is one possible approach to reduce wear and corrosion in methanol fueled automobile engines. One hundred and six compounds added to M100 fuel in modest concentrations (1%) were tested in a Ball on Cylinder Machine (BOCM) for their ability to improve lubricity. The most promising candidates were then tested in an engine using a modified ASTM Sequence V-D wear screening test. Additive performance was measured by comparing the buildup of wear metals in the oil to that obtained from an engine fueled with neat M100. The BOCM method of evaluating the additive candidates proved inadequate in predicting abrasive engine wear under the test conditions utilized for this research program.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Hydrocarbon Measurement with FTIR and FID in a Dual Fuel Locomotive Engine

Exhaust emissions of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and methane were measured from a Tier 3 dual-fuel demonstration locomotive running diesel-natural gas blend. Measurements were performed with the typical flame ionization detector (FID) method in accordance with EPA CFR Title 40 Part 1065 and with an alternative Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy method. Measurements were performed with and without oxidation catalyst exhaust aftertreatment. FTIR may have potential for improved accuracy over the FID when NMHC is dominated by light hydrocarbons. In the dual fuel tests, the FTIR measurement was 1-4% higher than the FID measurement of. NMHC results between the two methods differed considerably, in some cases reporting concentrations as much as four times those of the FID. However, in comparing these data it is important to note that the FTIR method has several advantages over the FID method, so the differences do not necessarily represent error in the FTIR.
Technical Paper

Predicting Sequence VI, VIA, and VIB Engine Tests Using Laboratory Methods

Engine tests are widely used to measure the ability of lubricating oils to reduce fuel consumption through improved mechanical efficiency. Previous publications have correlated laboratory-scale tests with the well-established Sequence VI and VIA engine methods. The present paper uses a matrix of 66 oils to produce an empirical model for the recently developed Sequence VIB engine test. A smaller matrix of oils was available for correlation with Sequence VI and VIA results. The models combine a purposely-designed friction test with conventional measures of kinematic and high-temperature high-shear viscosity. Good correlation was obtained with the Sequence VI, VIA and VIB results, as well as each of the five stages in the Sequence VIB test. The effects of lubricant oxidation in the 96-hour FEI-2 portion of the Sequence VIB test were similar for each of the oils. As a result, good correlation was observed between FEI-1 and FEI-2 results from the VIB test.