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Technical Paper

The Port Fuel Injector Deposit Test - A Statistical Review

The Port Fuel Injector (PFI) Deposit Test is a performance-based test procedure developed by the Coordinating Research Council and adopted by state and federal regulatory agencies for fuel qualification in the United States. To date, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has performed over 375 PFI tests between 1991 and 1998 for various clients. This paper details the analyses of these tests. Of the 375 tests, 199 were performed as keep-clean tests and 176 were performed as clean-up tests. The following areas of interest are discussed in this paper: Keep-clean versus clean-up test procedures Linearity of deposit formation Injector position effects as related to fouling Dirtyup / cleanup phenomena Seasonal effects This paper draws the conclusion that it is easier to keep new injectors from forming deposits than it is to clean up previously formed deposits. It was found that injector deposit formation is generally non-linear.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Hybrid Multi-Mode Hydromechanical Transmission

A multi-mode hybrid hydromechanical transmission (HMT) with infinite variability is designed to meet the power transmission needs of medium duty on- and off-road vehicles. A hydraulic pump-motor assembly provides output speed and torque variability in an input coupled split power configuration. Dual planetary arrangements with two multiplate clutches allow multi-mode ratio change and combination of power from the mechanical and variable branches of the power path. Hydraulic accumulators offer hydraulic power assist during launch conditions and storage of reclaimed energy during braking events. Transmission kinematic, force and power flow analyses will be developed for the HMT and analyzed for suitability in a bus application. The resulting benefits and areas for improvement will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Container Deformation Procedure for Ceramic Monolith Catalytic Converters

A typical automotive catalytic converter is constructed with a ceramic substrate and a steel shell. Due to a mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion, the steel shell will expand away from the ceramic substrate at high temperatures. The gap between the substrate and shell is usually filled with a fiber composite material referred to as “mat.” Mat materials are compressed during assembly and must maintain an adequate pressure around the substrate under extreme temperature conditions. The container deformation measurement procedure is used to determine catalytic converter shell expansion during and after a period of hot catalytic converter operation. This procedure is useful in determining the potential physical durability of a catalytic converter system, and involves measuring converter shell expansion as a function of inlet temperature. A post-test dimensional measurement is used to determine permanent container deformation.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulations of SAE #2 Machine Tests

For many years the SAE No. 2 friction machine has been used to measure the coefficient of friction obtained through the interaction of fluid, steel and clutch material. In addition, by forcing energy through the wetted clutch-steel interface and measuring the decay of the coefficient of friction over time, the durability of the materials and fluids can be determined. This paper discusses the use of a numerical computer model to duplicate SAE No. 2 data. The inputs for this model include test stand geometry and physical properties as well as output from a low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA). The LVFA uses a small disc of friction material, a small disc of steel material, and a small sample of fluid to generate a coefficient versus speed curve (m vs v). It was found that torque traces and speed traces generated by this model correlate well with actual SAE No. 2 data. THERE ARE SEVERAL REASONS for creating this model.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Sample Bag Hydrocarbon Emissions and Carbon Dioxide Permeation Properties

The equipment for collecting dilute exhaust samples involves the use of bag materials (i.e., Tedlar®) that emit hydrocarbons that contaminate samples. This study identifies a list of materials and treatments to produce bags that reduce contamination. Based on the average emission rates, baked Tedlar®, Capran® treated with alumina deposition, supercritical CO2 extracted Kynar® and supercritical CO2 extracted Teflon NXT are capable of achieving the target hydrocarbon emission rate of less than 15 ppbC per 30 minutes. CO2 permeation tests were also performed. Tedlar, Capran, Kynar and Teflon NXT showed comparable average permeation rates. Based on the criteria of HC emission performance, changes in measured CO2 concentration, ease of sealing, and ease of surface treatment, none of the four materials could be distinguished from one another.
Technical Paper

CO2 Pump for the Space Station Advanced Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem

The current operation of the International Space Station (ISS) calls for the oxygen used by the occupants to be vented overboard in the form of CO2, after the CO2 is scrubbed from the cabin air. Likewise, H2 produced via electrolysis in the oxygen generator is also vented. NASA is investigating the use of the Sabatier process to combine these two product streams to form water and methane. The water is then used in the oxygen generator, thereby conserving this valuable resource. One of the technical challenges to developing the Sabatier reactor is transferring CO2 from the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) to the Sabatier reactor at the required rate, even though the CDRA and the Sabatier reactor operate on different schedules. One possible way to transfer and store CO2 is to use a mechanical compressor and a storage tank.
Technical Paper

The Turbo Trac Traction Drive CVT

A unique and attractive variator mechanism has been developed by Turbo Trac, Inc. and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) for initial use in a heavy duty diesel truck application. High efficiency levels have been predicted with analytical models and confirmed with actual test data. Further, this variator incorporates a very stable and simple control system and has extremely high torque capacity. The prototype of the variator mechanism has also been configured with a modified Allison 650 series transmission for use as a series application in a Peterbilt truck, the final configuration will be a split power design. The setup includes a preliminary control system that allows for highway driving. It is emphasized, however, that Allison did not contribute to this design or any of the content of this paper.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Technology Readiness Level of a Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for Use on International Space Station

When technologies are traded for incorporation into vehicle systems to support a specific mission scenario, they are often assessed in terms of “Technology Readiness Level” (TRL). TRL is based on three major categories of Core Technology Components, Ancillary Hardware and System Maturity, and Control and Control Integration. This paper describes the Technology Readiness Level assessment of the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for use on the International Space Station. A team comprising of the NASA Johnson Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Southwest Research Institute and Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International have been working on various aspects of the CRA to bring its TRL from 4/5 up to 6. This paper describes the work currently being done in the three major categories. Specific details are given on technology development of the Core Technology Components including the reactor, phase separator and CO2 compressor.
Technical Paper

Analyses of the Integration of Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, Compressor, Accumulator and Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly

An analysis model has been developed for analyzing/optimizing the integration of a carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA), CO2 compressor, accumulator, and Sabatier CO2 reduction assembly. The integrated model can be used in optimizing compressor sizes, compressor operation logic, water generation from Sabatier, utilization of CO2 from crew metabolic output, and utilization of H2 from oxygen generation assembly. Tests to validate CO2 desorption, recovery, and compression had been conducted in 2002-2003 using CDRA/Simulation compressor set-up at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). An analysis of test data has validated CO2 desorption rate profile, CO2 compressor performance, CO2 recovery and CO2 vacuum vent in the CDRA model. Analysis / optimization of the compressor size and the compressor operation logic for an integrated closed air revitalization system is currently being conducted
Technical Paper

Reduced Energy and Power Consumption for Electrically Heated Extruded Metal Converters

Improved designs of extruded metal electrically heated catalysts (EHC) in combination with a traditional converter achieved the California ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) standard utilizing 50% less electrical energy than previous prototypes. This energy reduction is largely achieved by reducing the mass of the EHC. In addition to energy reduction, the battery voltage is reduced from 24 volts to 12 volts, and the power is reduced from 12 kilowatts to 3 kilowatts. Also discussed is the impact EHC mass, EHC catalytic activity, and no EHC preheating has on non-methane hydrocarbon emissions, energy requirements, and power requirements.