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Technical Paper

Anodizing method for aluminum alloy by using high-frequency switching electrolysis

2011-11-08
2011-32-0645
Anodizing is applied to improve the durability and the corrosion resistance of aluminum alloy parts of engines and car bodies. Generally, anodic oxide film is formed using direct current anodizing (DCA). However, in the case of anodizing high silicon aluminum alloy cast parts, it is difficult to derive uniform film thickness distribution. Furthermore, it takes a long treatment time which causes low productivity. In this study, the authors have developed an anodizing method by using high-frequency switching anodizing (HSA) to solve these problems. The growth process of anodic oxide film is susceptible to the metallographic structure. Thus, the typical DCA application to the high silicon aluminum alloy produces a non-uniform film thickness, while HSA has the potential to form uniform film without being affected by metallographic structure. Moreover, the current density of HSA is higher than that of DCA which reduces treatment time to 1/5 as the film formation enhances.
Technical Paper

Development of lead-free crankshaft for motorcycle

2011-11-08
2011-32-0649
Lead-added free-cutting steel has been used by many parts which need high machinability because lead improves chip friability and drill life. However, the demand of lead reduction increases in recent years, because of environmental impact substance reduction. Therefore, we developed lead-free crankshaft for motorcycle. Until now, crankshaft for motorcycle has been manufactured with lead-added free-cutting steel by a following process; Hot-Forging - Quenching and Tempering (QT) - Prior Machining - Nitrocarburizing - Finishing process because of strength and machinability. When we tried to change steel to lead-free, we examined to change to sulfur-added free-cutting steel. However, chip friability of sulfur-added free-cutting steel is inferior to lead one. Thus, we concerned about increase in machining expense. Then, heat-treatment after forging was examined to change from QT to normalizing for reducing the heat-treatment expense.
Technical Paper

The Stress Measurement of the Crankshaft for High-Performance Engine

2011-11-08
2011-32-0653
To measure the stresses acting on the crankshaft of an engine, signals must be taken out from the rapidly spinning shaft. This paper discusses the measurement of stress signals from the crankshaft using a slip ring, which is the conventional method. By developing a special fixture that allowed us to measure rotations up to 14,000 rpm and using the four-gauge method, we succeeded in accurately measuring stress waves. We confirmed that, during the motoring operation, stresses due to the secondary component of the inertia forces of the reciprocating parts are dominant and that, during the firing operation, deformation occurs at various frequency bands. As the engine speed increased, the stress amplitude increased and reached a maximum around the highest engine speed. The results of a static analysis predicted values close to actual measurements.
Technical Paper

Computational Study to Improve Thermal Efficiency of Spark Ignition Engine

2015-03-10
2015-01-0011
The objective of this paper is to investigate the potential of lean burn combustion to improve the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engine. Experiments used a single cylinder gasoline spark ignition engine fueled with primary reference fuel of octane number 90, running at 4000 revolution per minute and at wide open throttle. Experiments were conducted at constant fueling rate and in order to lean the mixture, more air is introduced by boosted pressure from stoichiometric mixture to lean limit while maintaining the high output engine torque as possible. Experimental results show that the highest thermal efficiency is obtained at excess air ratio of 1.3 combined with absolute boosted pressure of 117 kPa. Three dimensional computational fluid dynamic simulation with detailed chemical reactions was conducted and compared with results obtained from experiments as based points.
Technical Paper

Detecting a Fully-Closed Throttle by Manifold Pressure in Fuel Injection System with Idle Speed Control

2014-11-11
2014-32-0075
Various sensors including throttle position sensors (TPS), manifold pressure sensors (MPS), crank angle sensors, engine temperature sensors, and oxygen sensors are mounted in electronically controlled fuel injection (FI) systems to accurately regulate the air-fuel ratio according to the operating state and operating environment. Among these vehicle-mounted sensors, TPS has functions for detecting a fully-closed throttle and estimating intake air volume by the amount of throttle opening. Currently, we have conducted a study on transferring TPS functions into the MPS (manifold pressure sensor) in order to eliminate the TPS. Here we report on detecting a fully-closed throttle for achieving fuel cut control (FCC) and idle speed control (ISC) in fuel injection systems. We contrived a means for fully-closed throttle detection during ISC and controlling changes in the bypass opening during FCC in order to accurately judge each fully-closed throttle state via the manifold pressure.
Technical Paper

Transient Correction by Manifold Pressure in a TPS-Free FI System

2014-11-11
2014-32-0072
Cost reduction is an important development goal for small motorcycles (1). As a way to reduce costs, we have developed an electronically controlled fuel injection (hereafter FI) system without a throttle position sensor (hereafter TPS). Ordinarily, the high throttle range is controlled and computed by TPS, and the low throttle range by manifold pressure sensor (hereafter MPS). The intake airflow is estimated with consistent high precision regardless of the engine load, and the basic fuel injection is executed accordingly. Also, transient correction monitors the size of TPS changes, to inject fuel immediately when a TPS change equal to or greater than a threshold value is detected. In our development, we replaced these functions with control by MPS. For calculation of basic fuel injection quantity by MPS, we carried on the conventional method. However, MPS transient correction control had some aspects with poor tracking.
Technical Paper

Piston Temperature Measurement in Internal Combustion with Telemetric Method

2014-11-11
2014-32-0051
Currently, the improvement of fuel economy is the most important issue in automobile engine development. To improve fuel economy via greater thermal efficiency, the enhancement of the compression ratio and the reduction of thermal losses because of cooling have been widely investigated. These efforts to improve thermal efficiency increase the thermal load on pistons. Ensuring the reliability of the pistons and the antiknocking capacity of engines require a better understanding of piston temperature distributions through accurate measurements under various engine operating conditions. Thus, direct and indirect measurement methods have been developed to estimate the actual piston temperature. Direct methods, such as linkage-type measurements, are not typically applicable under higher engine speeds because of the poor durability of linkages.
Technical Paper

21 Development of a Small Displacement Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2002-10-29
2002-32-1790
We have developed a small-displacement gasoline direct-injection engine (1.3L). Gasoline direct-injection engines rely on ultra-lean stratified combustion to deliver significantly better fuel economy, and are already used in many practical applications. When gasoline direct-injection is applied to a small-displacement engine, however, the amount of wall wetting of fuel on the piston surface will increase because the traveled length of the fuel spray is short. This may result in problems such as smoke production, high emissions of unburned HC, and poor combustion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Provision for Emission Reduction of Sports Utility Motorcycle

1999-09-28
1999-01-3259
The purpose of this study was to find compatible specifications both of emission reduction and high power output with good throttle response for a sports utility motorcycle. In the emission reduction challenge, we examined equipping the exhaust system with a catalytic converter to achieve sufficient emission reduction. The catalytic converter, however, caused a temperature rise in the exhaust system, which caused a pressure propagation change. Additional muffler design optimization effectively maintained high performance and acceleration. The exhaust valve device was also optimized for emission reduction and high power output over a wide engine speed range. The optimized control of the exhaust valve was beneficial to preventing short-circuit of fresh mixture gas and early activation of the catalyst. Such comprehensive specifications could satisfy the performance and driveability characteristics required for sports utility motorcycles.
Technical Paper

Development of an electronically controlled four-speed automatic transmission with a D-range neutral control system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0025
We have developed an electronically controlled four-speed automatic transmission with a "D-range neutral control system" for vehicles of small piston displacements (0.66 to 1.0 liter). When the vehicle is stationary with the engine idling, the system reduces the pressure being supplied to the clutch, thereby creating a neutral clutch condition. This helps reduces fuel consumption of the stationary vehicle without intervention of the driver. The non-intervention, however, can cause discomfort for the driver when the system is engaged and disengaged as the vehicle condition (i.e., engine revolution speed, vibration or noise transmitted to the vehicle) may change noticeably. Such a cause of discomfort that surfaced during the system development stage was thoroughly investigated and successfully eliminated by improving the method of control.
Technical Paper

Development of plasma spray-coated cylinders

2000-06-12
2000-05-0069
In recent years, one of the most important issues in the automotive industry is the improvement of fuel economy started from the environmental problem. Making cars lighter and reducing the coefficient of friction are two ways to improve fuel economy. Reducing the weight of a cylinder, an engine component, is a typical example. The traditional, mainstream method to reduce cylinder weight has been to convert cast iron cylinder blocks into aluminum cylinder blocks by using cast iron sleeves. To further make engines lighter and more compact, however, it is desirable that cast iron sleeves be abolished, or, in other words, making cylinder blocks sleeveless. A typical technology to make cylinder blocks sleeveless is applying anti- wear coating on a bore wall. Electroplating is currently the mainstream method used for this technology. It must be noted, however, electroplating is used primarily for low-pressure cast cylinders.
Technical Paper

Intake System Optimization by Intake Loss Coefficient Method

1999-09-28
1999-01-3337
Reduction of flow resistance in an intake system is essential for increasing the output of a four-stroke engine. Evaluation method regardless engine displacement or number of valves or cylinder must be required in intake system design. This study proposes intake loss coefficient as total evaluation method from flow in an intake port to charging flow into a cylinder. A three-dimensional, general-purpose Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code was used to calculate an intake loss coefficient. A correlation was confirmed between an intake loss coefficient and the engine power output. Intake loss coefficients and the CFD technique may be used for efficient optimization of the shape of an intake system.
Technical Paper

Comparative Investigation on Fuel Feed Methods in Two-Stroke Cycle Methanol Engine

1992-10-01
922312
A direct fuel-injection two-stroke cycle engine operated with neat methanol was investigated. The engine performance, combustion and exhaust-gas characteristics were analyzed experimentally and compared for operation with a carburetor, EFI injection at the intake manifold, and EFI injection at the scavenging port. The power and the brake thermal efficiency of the direct fuel-injection engine were higher than those of engines operated with a carburetor and either of the two EFI methods. The exhausted unburnt fuel of the direct fuel-injection engine was lower than that for operation with a carburetor, and formaldehyde and the CO concentration were of the same level as for operation with the carburetor and EFI methods. The NOx concentration of the direct fuel-injection was half the level of the result of carburetor operation.
Technical Paper

On-Line Oil Consumption Measurement and Characterization of an Automotive Gasoline Engine by SO2 Method

1992-02-01
920652
An on-line oil consumption measurement system using the SO2 tracer method has characterized automotive gasoline engine oil consumption under various engine operating conditions, including a 200-hour durability test. An oil consumption map of total engine, individual cylinder, and valve train was produced for various speed and load ranges under both steady-state and step-transient operating conditions. The effect of spark timing as an additional engine parameter on the oil consumption was also investigated. Oil consumption maps have enlightened the conventional understanding of oil consumption characteristics and broadened the areas of concern for control technologies. This paper reports the benefit of the on-line oil consumption measurement system, the result of oil consumption history over the durability test, discrete measurement of oil consumption contribution within the engine, and various oil consumption characteristics affected by engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Flow Vector Measurements at the Scavenging Ports in a Fired Two-Stroke Engine

1992-02-01
920420
The flow vector variations at the transfer port exit in a small two-stroke engine under firing condition were investigated experimentally. A fiber LDV system was used to measure the two-dimensional velocities near the cylinder to obtain the scavenging flow vector. The scavenging flow vector variations at different engine speeds were discussed, and the relation between its vector behavior and the pressure differences between the exhaust pipe and the crankcase was examined. The measurement results show that the velocity profiles at the scavenging port were not uniform and to obtain the representative velocity at the port exit was impossible. But the major features of the scavenging flow can be understood from the pressure difference between the exhaust pipe and the crankcase. The start timing of the scavenging flow was delayed due to the residual gas and high pressure in the cylinder when the scavenging port was opened.
Technical Paper

A New Cylinder Cooling System Using Oil

1995-09-01
951796
The design of engine cylinders must satisfy two conflicting requirements, good cooling performance and ease of manufacture. A cooling system was designed to permit the circulation of engine lubricating oil as a coolant at high speed through grooves provided on the external periphery of the cylinder liner. Testing in an actual operating engine confirmed that this cooling system design not only provides better heat transfer and higher cooling performance but also simplifies the manufacturing of the cylinder since external cooling fins are not required. In this paper, we will discuss the cylinder cooling effect of the new cylinder cooling system, referring mainly to the test results of a single-cylinder motorcycle engine with lubricating oil from the crankcase used as the coolant.
Technical Paper

Varnish Rating of Piston Skirt by Image Processing

1995-09-01
951799
A new method for rating the varnish of the piston skirt was developed by using image processing. The varnished area of a piston skirt was extracted from the developed color image in terms of the density and the color data. The figure of merit rating was calculated using a personal computer. The newly developed method makes it possible to rate varnish of the piston skirt automatically, quantitatively and quickly.
Technical Paper

Combustion Analysis and Its Optimization in Two-Stroke Engines

1995-09-01
951788
The purpose of this study is to show cycle-to-cycle combustion variation in transient conditions of quick throttle opening and to control the combustion fluctuation improve acceleration in a two-stroke motorcycle engine. Two phases of engine operation were focused on: the low-load condition before quick throttle opening, and the transient condition after quick throttle opening. The time-series variation of the heat release rate based on the in-cylinder pressure, the engine-speed and the exhaust pressure variation were measured simultaneously, in an engine with a new multiple-timing-ignition-system, and in an engine with a modified exhaust port. Stable ignition performance and fast burning velocity were the keys to attaining smooth acceleration.
Technical Paper

Experimental Detection of Misfiring Source from Flow Rate Variation at Transfer Port and Exhaust Pipe in a Two-Stroke Engine

1995-09-01
951781
The purpose of this study was to detect a misfiring cycle in terms of the transfer-passage and the exhaust-pipe flow rate by experimental measurements. Simultaneous measurements of flow rates and in-cylinder pressure were carried out. The flow rate data were grouped into the different combustion classes by the in-cylinder pressure. A large flow rate of exhaust blow-down and a large reverse flow rate were observed in the cycle before misfiring, compared with in the cycle before firing. It showed that high concentration of the residual burnt gas in the cylinder was the main source of misfiring, this feature was also demonstrated by the complementary measurement of CO and CO2 concentrations.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Flow Measurement and Its Application for Cyclic Variation Analysis in a Two-Stroke Engine

1995-02-01
950224
The purpose of this study is to experimentally investigate in-cylinder flows with cyclic variation in a practical part-loaded two-stroke engine. First, the in-cylinder LDV measurements are introduced, which were carried out above the port layout and the combustion chamber as well as the exhaust pipe or the transfer port together with the simultaneous pressure measurements. Second, the in-cylinder flow characteristics in different combustion groups were discussed. The in-cylinder flow and the combustion-chamber flow were not simply characterized by the pressure variation in the engine or the other passage flow in the exhaust pipe or the transfer port. Finally, the in-cylinder flow structure with three stages was shown using the vector variation analysis and the drawing of the velocity profiles in the engine parts.
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