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Technical Paper

Meeting Important Cuing Requirements with Modest, Real-Time, Interactive Driving Simulations

1994-03-01
940228
Interactive simulation requires providing appropriate sensory cuing and stimulus/response dynamics to the driver. Sensory feedback can include visual, auditory, motion, and proprioceptive cues. Stimulus/response dynamics involve reactions of the feedback cuing to driver control inputs including steering, throttle and brakes. The stimulus/response dynamics include both simulated vehicle dynamics, and the response dynamics of the simulation hardware including computer processing delays. Typically, simulation realism will increase with sensory fidelity and stimulus/response dynamics that are equivalent to real-world conditions (i.e. without excessive time delay or phase lag). This paper discusses requirements for sensory cuing and stimulus/response dynamics in real-time, interactive driving simulation, and describes a modest fixed-base (i.e. no motion) device designed with these considerations in mind.
Technical Paper

Requirements for Vehicle Dynamics Simulation Models

1994-03-01
940175
Computer simulation and real-time, interactive approaches for analysis, interactive driving simulation, and hardware-in-the-loop testing are finding increasing application in the research and development of advanced automotive concepts, highway design, etc. Vehicle dynamics models serve a variety of purposes in simulation. A model must have sufficient complexity for a given application but should not be overly complicated. In interactive driving simulation, vehicle dynamics models must provide appropriate computation for sensory feedback such as visual, motion, auditory, and proprioceptive cuing. In stability and handling simulations, various modes must be properly represented, including lateral/directional and longitudinal degrees of freedom. Limit performance effects of tire saturation that lead to plow out, spin out, and skidding require adequate tire force response models.
Technical Paper

Tire Modeling Requirements for Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

1995-02-01
950312
The physical forces applied to vehicle inertial dynamics derive primarily from the tires. These forces have a profound effect on handling. Tire force modeling therefore provides a critical foundation for overall vehicle dynamics simulation. This paper will describe the role tire characteristics play in handling, and will discuss modeling requirements for appropriately simulating these effects. Tire input and output variables will be considered in terms of their relationship to vehicle handling. General computational requirements will be discussed. An example tire model will be described that allows for efficient computational procedures and provides responses over the full range of vehicle maneuvering conditions.
Technical Paper

Low Cost Driving Simulation for Research, Training and Screening Applications

1995-02-01
950171
Interactive driving simulation is attractive for a variety of applications, including screening, training and licensing, due to considerations of safety, control and repeatability. However, widespread dissemination of these applications will require modest cost simulator systems. Low cost simulation is possible given the application of PC level technology, which is capable of providing reasonable fidelity in visual, auditory and control feel cuing. This paper describes a PC based simulation with high fidelity vehicle dynamics, which provides an easily programmable visual data base and performance measurement system, and good fidelity auditory and steering torque feel cuing. This simulation has been used in a variety of applications including screening truck drivers for the effects of fatigue, research on real time monitoring for driver drowsiness and measurement of the interference effect of in-vehicle IVHS tasks on driving performance.
Technical Paper

A Low Cost PC Based Driving Simulator for Prototyping and Hardware-In-The-Loop Applications

1998-02-23
980222
This paper describes a low cost, PC based driving simulation that includes a complete vehicle dynamics model (VDM), photo realistic visual display, torque feedback for steering feel and realistic sound generation. The VDM runs in real-time on Intel based PCs. The model, referred to as VDANL (Vehicle Dynamics Analysis, Non-Linear) has been developed and validated for a range of vehicles over the last decade and has been previously used for computer simulation analysis. The model's lateral and longitudinal dynamics have 17 degrees of freedom for a single unit vehicle and 33 degrees of freedom for an articulated vehicle. The model also includes a complete drive train including engine, transmission and front and rear drive differentials, and complete, power assisted braking and steering systems. A comprehensive tire model (STIREMOD) generates lateral and longitudinal forces and aligning torque based on normal load, camber angle and horizontal (lateral and longitudinal) slip.
Technical Paper

A Computer Simulation Analysis of Safety Critical Maneuvers for Assessing Ground Vehicle Dynamic Stability

1993-03-01
930760
Ground vehicle dynamic stability, including spinout and rollover, is highly dependent on maneuvering conditions and the nonlinear force response characteristics of tires. Depending on vehicle configuration, unstable behavior requires high, sustained lateral acceleration, and some maneuver induced excitation of the roll and yaw mode dynamics. Dynamic instability in some vehicles can be induced by a steering reversal maneuver that involves sustained limit performance lateral acceleration. Using a validated vehicle dynamics simulation, analysis is presented to illustrate what constitutes a critical stability sensitive maneuver. Two example test cases are used to show that a critical stability sensitive maneuver must be more severe than a single lane change. Even reaching tire saturation limits during an aggressive single lane change does not give the sustained lateral acceleration required to provoke instability conditions.
Technical Paper

A Simulator Solution for the Parachute Canopy Control and Guidance Training Problem

1992-04-01
920984
Maneuverable round and ramair parachutes are flown by professional forestry firefighters, search and rescue personnel, and military combat teams when deployment by fixed or rotary aircraft is inappropriate. Parachute flight training requires the development of perceptual skills in canopy control, guidance, and energy management. These parachutists must learn to accurately sense motion visual cues, and predict and manage their trajectory. Parachute guidance and control can only be acquired through repeated practice. Canopy control training has been traditionally limited to a classroom lecture topic. There was no opportunity for the immediate student/instructor dialogue available during the extensive dual flight training used for conventional aircraft, where instruction can occur during the numerous practice landings available via rapid touch-and-go techniques.
Technical Paper

Validation of Ground Vehicle Computer Simulations Developed forDynamics Stability Analysis

1992-02-01
920054
This paper describes validation work carried out for two vehicle dynamics computer simulation programs. One program, referred to as VDANL (Vehicle Dynamics Analysis NonLinear), is intended to simulate passenger cars, vans and light trucks. The second program simulates All Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) and is referred to as NLATV (NonLinear ATV). The programs have been checked out and validated for a variety of maneuvering conditions and a broad range of vehicles. The programs run on IBM-PC/MS DOS compatible computers, and numerical methods have been used to give numerically stable solutions with reasonable computational speed over a broad range of maneuvering situations.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Adverse Visibility on Driver Steering Performance in an Automobile Simulator

1977-02-01
770239
The driver's ability to control the lateral position of an automobile is dependent on his perception of the command path (roadway) to be followed. This perception is affected by both the configuration of road markings and other features, and the visibility of these elements. As visibility decreases, the driver's preview of the commanded path is reduced. Theory indicates that driver performance should degrade with reduced preview and configurational parameters which characterize the intermittent nature of delineation (e.g., dashed lines). This paper describes a simulation experiment in which driver behavior and driver/vehicle system performance were measured over a range of visibility and configuration parameter variations. Driver dynamic response and noise (remnant) were reliably affected by variations in visibility and configuration. These effects were also reflected in system performance measures such as lane deviations.
Technical Paper

Driver/Vehicle Modeling and Simulation

2002-05-07
2002-01-1568
This paper describes the driver/vehicle modeling aspects of a computer simulation that can respond to highway engineering descriptions of roadways. The driver model interacts with a complete vehicle dynamics model that has been described previously. The roadway path is described in terms of horizontal and vertical curvature and cross slopes of lanes, shoulders, side slopes and ditches. Terrain queries are made by the vehicle dynamics to locate tires on the roadway cross-section, and to define vehicle path and road curvature at some distance down the road. The driver model controls steering to maintain lateral lane position. Speed is maintained at a speed limit on tangents, and decreased as needed to maintain safe lateral acceleration. Because the bandwidth of longitudinal (speed) control is much lower than lateral/directional (steering) control, the driver model looks further ahead for speed control than for steering.
Technical Paper

Tire Modeling for Off-Road Vehicle Simulation

2004-05-04
2004-01-2058
A tire/terrain interaction model is presented to support the dynamic simulation of off-road ground vehicle. The model adopts a semi-empirical approach that is based on curve fits of soil data combined with soil mechanics theories to capture soil compaction, soil shear deformation, and soil passive failure that associate with off-road driving. The resulting model allows the computation of the tire forces caused by terrain deformation in longitudinal and lateral direction. This model has been compared with experimental data and shown reasonable prediction of the tire/terrain interaction.
Technical Paper

A Biodynamic Model for the Assessment of Human Operator Performance under Vibration Environment

2005-06-14
2005-01-2742
A combined biodynamic and vehicle model is used to assess the vibration and performance of a human operator performing driving and other tasks. The other tasks include reaching, pointing and tracking by the driver and/or passenger. This analysis requires the coordinated use of separate and mature software programs for anthropometrics, vehicle dynamics, biodynamics, and systems analysis. The total package is called AVB-DYN, an acronym for Anthropometrics, Vehicle and Bio-DYNamics. The biodynamic component of AVB-DYN is described, and then compared with an experiment that studied human operator in-vehicle reaching performance using the U.S. Army TACOM Ride Motion Simulator.
Journal Article

Development of a Vehicle Model/Simulation Evaluation Tool

2008-04-14
2008-01-0778
As part of the evaluation of vehicle simulation models, a vehicle dynamics engineer typically desires to compare simulation results to test data from actual vehicles and/or results from known, or higher fidelity simulations. Depending on the type of model, several types of tests and/or maneuvers may need to be compared. For military vehicles, there is the additional requirement to run specific types of maneuvers for vehicle model evaluations to ensure that the vehicle complies with procurement requirements. A thorough evaluation will run two different categories of tests/maneuvers. The first category consists of laboratory type tests that include weight distribution, kinematics and compliance, steering ratio, and other static measures. The second category consists of dynamic maneuvers that include handling, drive train, braking, ride, and obstacle types. In this paper, a process for proper evaluation of vehicle simulation models is presented.
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