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Technical Paper

Reliability Analysis of an Automotive Wheel Assembly

1993-03-01
930406
The incorporation of reliability theory into a fatigue analysis algorithm is studied. This probabilistic approach gives designers the ability to quantify “real world” variations existing in the material properties, geometry, and loading of engineering components. Such information would serve to enhance the speed and accuracy of current design techniques. An automobile wheel assembly is then introduced as an example of the applications of this durability/reliability design package.
Journal Article

Using Objective Vehicle-Handling Metrics for Tire Performance Evaluation and Selection

2013-04-08
2013-01-0743
This paper outlines the development of a simulation-based process for assessing the handling performance of a given set of tires on a specific vehicle. Based on force and moment data, a Pacejka tire model was developed for each of the five sets of tires used in this study. To begin with, simple handling metrics including under-steer gradient were calculated using cornering stiffness derived from the Pacejka model. This Pacejka tire model was subsequently combined with a 3DOF non-linear vehicle model to create a simulation model in MATLAB/Simulink®. Other handling metrics were calculated based on simulation results to step and sinusoidal (General Motors Company) steering inputs. Calculated performance metrics include yaw velocity overshoot, yaw velocity response time, lateral acceleration response time and steering sensitivity. In addition to this, the phase lag in lateral acceleration and yaw rate of the vehicle to a sinusoidal steering input were also calculated.
Technical Paper

Electric Power Train Configurations with Appropriate Transmission Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-0942
Referring to the transmission development, three different classifications of the power train are useful. These are the conventional power train with combustion-engined drive of the wheels, the electric power train with electromotive drive of the wheels and the hybrid power train with both types of drive. Due to this division, the micro hybrid belongs to the conventional power train while the serial hybrid is classified with the electric power train. Subdivisions of the electric power train are the decentralized drives near the axle shafts or the wheel hub drive and the central drive with differential. The choice of the electric motor is dependent on different influences such as the package, the costs or the application area. Furthermore the execution of the transmission system does influence the electric motor. Wheel hub drives are usually executed on wheel speed level or with single ratio transmission.
Technical Paper

Yaw Stability Control and Emergency Roll Control for Vehicle Rollover Mitigation

2010-10-05
2010-01-1901
In this paper a yaw stability control algorithm along with an emergency roll control strategy have been developed. The yaw stability controller and emergency roll controller were both developed using linear two degree-of-freedom vehicle models. The yaw stability controller is based on Lyapunov stability criteria and uses vehicle lateral acceleration and yaw rate measurements to calculate the corrective yaw moment required to stabilize the vehicle yaw motion. The corrective yaw moment is then applied by means of a differential braking strategy in which one wheel is selected to be braked with appropriate brake torque applied. The emergency roll control strategy is based on a rollover coefficient related to vehicle static stability factor. The emergency roll control strategy utilizes vehicle lateral acceleration measurements to calculate the roll coefficient. If the roll coefficient exceeds some predetermined threshold value the emergency roll control strategy will deploy.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of a Semi-Active Inerter and a Semi-Active Suspension

2010-10-05
2010-01-1903
Inerters have become a hot topic in recent years, especially in vehicle, train, and building suspension systems. The performance of a passive inerter and a semi-active inerter was analyzed and compared with each other and it showed that the semi-active inerter has much better performance than the passive inerter, especially with the Hybrid control method. Eight different layouts of suspensions were analyzed with a quarter car model in this paper. The adaptation of dimensionless parameters was considered for a semi-active suspension and the semi-active inerters. The performance of the semi-active inerter suspensions with different layouts was compared with a semi-active suspension with a conventional parallel spring-damper arrangement. It shows a semi-active suspension, with more simple configuration and lower cost, has similar or better compromise between ride and handling than a semi-active inerter with the Hybrid control.
Technical Paper

Performance Characterization and Modeling of Shim Stack Assemblies in Vehicle Shock Absorbers

2010-10-05
2010-01-1904
A detailed study of the effects of shim stack assemblies on performance of hydraulic mono-tube vehicle shock absorbers is presented. Currently, shim stacks are modeled as blow-off valves in hydraulic models of shock absorbers. Using this simplification, important material and geometrical properties of shim stacks cannot be studied and their effects cannot be understood on overall damper performance. In this paper, shim stack deflection is investigated and a mathematical model is presented for shim stack deflection. This model is then incorporated into the mathematical model of a hydraulic damper and various properties of shim stack and their effects on damper characteristics are studied. Energy and variational methods were used to develop the mathematical model of the shim stack. The mathematical model also takes into account the sliding effects of the shims on each other when the shim stack is deflected.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Control of Displacement Transmissibility and Force Transmissibility for a Two DOF Model Based on Quarter Car Concept using a Mixed Mode Magnetorheological Fluid Mount

2010-10-05
2010-01-1911
The chassis are subject to both road profile and engine or pump/motor vibration when a vehicle is moving on the road. The suspension is developed to reduce the effect of the road conditions to the chassis. The vibration from engine or pump/motor of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV) will be also transmitted to the chassis and needs to be isolated. A mixed mode magnetorheological (MR) fluid mount is presented to isolate force vibration for a two degree of freedom (DOF) model based on quarter car concept. The MR fluid mount is designed to work in flow mode and squeeze mode separately and simultaneously. The skyhook control for the MR fluid mount is also been designed and simulated. Both displacement transmissibility and force transmissibility for each mode and for combined modes have been obtained. These simulation results present a basis for designing a more effective controller to control both the displacement transmissibility and force transmissibility.
Technical Paper

On the Relation between Rotor Asymmetry and Brake Squeal

2010-10-10
2010-01-1692
The squealing of disk and drum brakes is still a major problem to design engineers. It has been observed by Fieldhouse and others that the introduction of asymmetries into the brake rotor can lead to a reduction of brake noise. However this insight has not yet solved the squeal problem. One reason for this is that it is not a priori obvious which kind of asymmetries of the rotor are preferable and which ones are not. This lack of knowledge most likely originates from the fact that most models explaining disk brake squeal rely on a symmetric rotor. In this paper, models for disk brake squeal are presented which are suitable to study asymmetric brake rotors. The excitation mechanism for squeal is explained by the formulation of a stability problem. It is shown that multiple eigenfrequencies of the rotor make it extremely sensitive to self-excited vibrations, i.e. squeal.
Technical Paper

A Frequency Analysis of Semiactive Control Methods for Vehicle Application

2004-05-04
2004-01-2098
The performance of five different skyhook control methods is studied experimentally, using a quarter-car rig. The control methods that are analyzed include: skyhook control, groundhook control, hybrid control, displacement skyhook, and relative displacement skyhook. Upon evaluating the performance of each method in frequency domain for various control conditions, they are compared with each other as well as with passive damping. The results indicate that no one control method outperforms other control methods at both the sprung and unsprung mass natural frequencies. Each method can perform better than the other control methods in some respect. Hybrid control, however, comes close to providing the best compromise between different dynamic demands on a primary suspension. The results indicate that hybrid control can offer benefits to both the sprung and unsprung mass with control gain settings that provide equal contributions from skyhook control and groundhook control.
Technical Paper

Can Semiactive Dampers with Skyhook Control Improve Roll Stability of Passenger Vehicles?

2004-05-04
2004-01-2099
Skyhook control has been used extensively for semiactive dampers for a variety of applications, most widely for passenger vehicle suspensions. This paper provides an experimental evaluation of how well skyhook control works for improving roll stability of a passenger vehicle. After discussing the formulation for various semiactive control methods that have been suggested in the past for vehicle suspensions, the paper includes the implementation of a semiactive system with magneto-rheological (MR) dampers on a sport utility vehicle. The vehicle is used for a series of road tests that includes lane change maneuvers, with different types of suspensions. The suspensions that are tested include the stock suspension, the uncontrolled MR dampers, skyhook control, and a new semiactive control method called “SIA skyhook.” The SIA Skyhook augments the conventional skyhook control with steering input, in order to account for the suspension requirements during a lateral maneuver.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Laboratory Testing of Truck Cab Suspensions

2009-10-06
2009-01-2862
This work pertains to laboratory testing of truck cab suspensions for the purpose of improving in-cab ride quality. It describes the testing procedure of a complete truck cab suspension while still being mounted on the vehicle. It allows for testing with minimal amount of resources, limited to two mobile actuators and minimal modifications to the stock vehicle. The actuators can be attached to any axle through a set of modified brake drums and excite the drive axle in a vertical plane. The excitation signal sent to the actuators can be in phase for a heave type motion or out of phase for a roll motion. The chassis shock absorbers are replaced with rigid links to prevent the actuator input from becoming filtered by the primary suspension. This allows the input to reach the cab suspension more directly and the cab to be excited across a broader range of frequencies.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Accounting for Uneven Ride Height in Soft Suspensions with Large Lateral Separation

2009-10-06
2009-01-2920
This study pertains to motion control algorithms using statistical calculations based on relative displacement measurements, in particular where the rattle space is strictly limited by fixed end-stops and a load leveling system that allows for roll to go undetected by the sensors. One such application is the cab suspension of semi trucks that use widely-spaced springs and dampers and a load leveling system that is placed between the suspensions, near the center line of the cab. In such systems it is possible for the suspension on the two sides of the vehicle to settle at different ride heights due to uneven loading or the crown of the road. This paper will compare the use of two moving average signals (one positive and one negative) to the use of one root mean square (RMS) signal, all calculated based on the relative displacement measurement.
Journal Article

Anthropomimetic Traction Control: Quarter Car Model

2011-09-13
2011-01-2178
Human expert drivers have the unique ability to combine correlated sensory inputs with repetitive learning to build complex perceptive models of the vehicle dynamics as well as certain key aspects of the tire-ground interface. This ability offers significant advantages for navigating a vehicle through the spatial and temporal uncertainties in a given environment. Conventional traction control algorithms utilize measurements of wheel slip to help insure that the wheels do not enter into an excessive slip condition such as burnout. This approach sacrifices peak performance to ensure that the slip limits are generic enough suck that burnout is avoided on a variety of surfaces: dry pavement, wet pavement, snow, gravel, etc. In this paper, a novel approach to traction control is developed using an anthropomimetic control synthesis strategy.
Journal Article

Vehicle System Simulator: Development and Validation

2011-09-13
2011-01-2166
A graphical user interface (GUI) toolbox called Vehicle System Simulator (VSS) is developed in MATLAB to ease the use of this vehicle model and hopefully encourage its widespread application in the future. This toolbox uses the inherent MATLAB discrete-time solvers and is mainly based on Level-2 s-function design. This paper describes its built-in vehicle dynamics model based on multibody dynamics approach and nonlinear tire models, and traction/braking control systems including Cruise Control and Differential Braking systems. The built-in dynamics model is validated against CarSim 8 and the simulation results prove its accuracy. This paper illustrates the application of this new MATLAB toolbox called Vehicle System Simulator and discusses its development process, limitations, and future improvements.
Journal Article

Linear Quadratic Game Theory Approach to Optimal Preview Control of Vehicle Lateral Motion

2011-04-12
2011-01-0963
Vehicle stability is maintained by proper interactions between the driver and vehicle stability control system. While driver describes the desired target path by commanding steering angle and acceleration/deceleration rates, vehicle stability controller tends to stabilize higher dynamics of the vehicle by correcting longitudinal, lateral, and roll accelerations. In this paper, a finite-horizon optimal solution to vehicle stability control is introduced in the presence of driver's dynamical decision making structure. The proposed concept is inspired by Nash strategy for exactly known systems with more than two players, in which driver, commanding steering wheel angle, and vehicle stability controller, applying compensated yaw moment through differential braking strategy, are defined as the dynamic players of the 2-player differential linear quadratic game.
Technical Paper

On Criteria for the Robust Design of Squeal Free Brakes

2012-09-17
2012-01-1816
The goal of constructing squeal free brakes is still difficult to achieve for design engineers. There are many measures that are beneficial to avoid or decrease brake squeal, examples are the increase in damping and the introduction of asymmetries in the brake rotor. For an efficient design process these measures have to be quantified. This is difficult due to the high complexity of the system which is caused by the contact conditions and the complicated properties of the pad material which consists of a vast amount of different components. The attempt presented in this paper is to use fundamental models of the excitation mechanism for brake squeal in order to quantify the rate of asymmetry and damping required to get far away from the squeal boundary. The relation can be helpful to generate adequate objective functions for a systematic structural optimization of brake rotors against squeal and can be used as a design guideline.
Journal Article

Complex Eigenvalue Analysis and Brake Squeal: Traps, Shortcomings and their Removal

2012-09-17
2012-01-1814
Among many NVH problems brake squeal continues to be a difficult topic for design engineers and scientists. Both the experimental and the simulation approaches so far have failed to provide robust and reliable guidelines for the design of squeal free brakes. On the experimental side the problem clearly lies in the wide range of operating conditions which the brake encounters in its lifetime, in which it should be squeal free. From lab experiments alone, it is hardly possible to judge how far the system is from squeal, which implies that an extremely wide range of conditions is mandatory. Brake squeal simulation presents different challenges. Once a model for the brake has been formulated, including the excitation mechanism(s), it should be possible to check the robustness of a given design and system parameters against squeal. Complex eigenvalue analysis has become a standard industrial tool for squeal prediction, and is routinely applied to the simulation models.
Technical Paper

Robust Optimal Control of Vehicle Lateral Motion with Driver-in-the-Loop

2012-09-24
2012-01-1903
Dynamic “Game Theory” brings together different features that are keys to many situations in control design: optimization behavior, the presence of multiple agents/players, enduring consequences of decisions and robustness with respect to variability in the environment, etc. In previous studies, it was shown that vehicle stability can be represented by a cooperative dynamic/difference game such that its two agents (players), namely, the driver and the vehicle stability controller (VSC), are working together to provide more stability to the vehicle system. While the driver provides the steering wheel control, the VSC command is obtained by the Nash game theory to ensure optimal performance as well as robustness to disturbances. The common two-degree of freedom (DOF) vehicle handling performance model is put into discrete form to develop the game equations of motion. This study focus on the uncertainty in the inputs, and more specifically, the driver's steering input.
Journal Article

Enhancement of Collision Mitigation Braking System Performance Through Real-Time Estimation of Tire-road Friction Coefficient by Means of Smart Tires

2012-09-24
2012-01-2014
In the case of modern day vehicle control systems employing a feedback control structure, a real-time estimate of the tire-road contact parameters is invaluable for enhancing the performance of the chassis control systems such as anti-lock braking systems (ABS) and electronic stability control (ESC) systems. However, at present, the commercially available tire monitoring systems are not equipped to sense and transmit high speed dynamic variables used for real-time active safety control systems. Consequently, under the circumstances of sudden changes to the road conditions, the driver's ability to maintain control of the vehicle maybe at risk. In many cases, this requires intervention from the chassis control systems onboard the vehicle. Although these systems perform well in a variety of situations, their performance can be improved if a real-time estimate of the tire-road friction coefficient is available.
Technical Paper

An Adaptive Vehicle Stability Control Algorithm Based on Tire Slip-Angle Estimation

2012-09-24
2012-01-2016
Active safety systems have become an essential part of today's vehicles including SUVs and LTVs. Although they have advanced in many aspects, there are still many areas that they can be improved. Especially being able to obtain information about tire-vehicle states (e.g. tire slip-ratio, tire slip-angle, tire forces, tire-road friction coefficient), would be significant due to the key role tires play in providing directional stability and control. This paper first presents the implementation strategy for a dynamic tire slip-angle estimation methodology using a combination of a tire based sensor and an observer system. The observer utilizes two schemes, first of which employs a Sliding Mode Observer to obtain lateral and longitudinal tire forces. The second step then utilizes the force information and outputs the tire slip-angle using a Luenberger observer and linearized tire model equations.
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