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Technical Paper

Design Optimization of a Mini-Truck Hydraulic Power Steering System Based on Road Load Data (RLD)

2010-04-12
2010-01-0198
Today's automotive industry demands high quality component as well as system designs within very short period of time to provide more value added features to customers on one hand and to meet stringent safety standards on the other. To reconcile economy issues, design optimization has become a key issue. In the last few decades, many OEMs took to analytical tools like Computer-Aided-Engineering (CAE) tools in order to decrease the number of prototype builds and to speed up the time of development cycle. Although such analytical tools are relatively inexpensive to use and faster to implement as compared to the costly traditional design and testing processes: however, there are many variables that CAE tools cannot adequately consider, such as manufacturing processes, assembly, material anisotropy and residual stresses. Therefore, still smart measuring and testing techniques are required to substantiate the CAE results.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization and Cost Effective Methodology for Column Mounted Single Stalk Combination Switch.

2011-04-12
2011-01-0775
As the automobile industry in India is growing fast and competitive, there is a need to design the vehicle and its parts at most cost effective. This paper gives the details of design optimization and cost effective methodology followed to develop a Single Stalk Combination Switch, without degrading the end user delight. This paper describes various design criteria affecting the combination switch design.
Technical Paper

Low Cost Hardware Design Techniques for Robust and Reliable Power-Supply Circuits for Automotive ECUs

2012-04-16
2012-01-0790
Power-supply forms a key hardware block for every automotive ECU. Apart from delivering robust and reliable logic supply voltages it is also burdened with many auxiliary tasks like transient protection, good EMI/EMC performance, Power-hold function, Analog Sensor supply voltage etc. It also needs to meet all automotive norms including short to battery/ground etc. This paper discusses low cost implementation techniques which maximize the value delivered to the vehicle application at minimal cost. Innovative techniques are described for combining sensor and logic supplies wherever applicable. Hurdles faced during such circuit optimization are clearly explained along with the solutions adopted to overcome hurdles yet meeting automotive test norms. A novel low cost concept which combines transient protection as well as power-hold function (without using the conventional relay based technique) further adds value to the end application.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Level Remote Range Improvement with Low Cost Approach

2012-04-16
2012-01-0789
Basic Function: Vehicle remote is used for vehicle lock/unlock/search/Hazard lights /approach light functions for customer convenience and vehicle security system. Conventional approach: 1 Use of separate RF (Radio Frequency) receiver -Additional Cost impact. 2 High remote RF power - Reduced remote battery life and bigger remote size required 3 High sensitivity RF receiver - High cost. Low Cost approach: It involves the followings: 1 Integration of RF receiver inside the Body Control Module (BCM). 2 Low Power Remote and Optimization of Remote PCB layout to get the maximum power. 3 External wired antenna taken out from BCM and proper routine need be ensured to get the best performance. 4 BCM mounting location to get the best remote range in all vehicle directions. This paper relates to the methodology for low cost approach for the RF communication between remote transmitter and receiver with achieving the best remote performance at vehicle level condition.
Technical Paper

Solar Assisted Vehicle Electrical System (S.A.V.E.)

2012-04-16
2012-01-1058
S.A.V.E. (SOLAR-ASSISTED VEHICLE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM) is a microcontroller-based closed loop system designed to optimize the duty cycle of alternator in conventional vehicle electrical system. This has been done by integrating a SOLAR PANEL on the rooftop of a popular hatchback. The SOLAR PANEL supplies continuous power to battery for charging thereby reducing alternator duty cycle. Consequently, in order to optimize/control alternator functioning based on demand, a microcontroller has been incorporated. S.A.V.E. consists of a microcontroller which senses the instantaneous electrical load (in terms of current & voltage drawn) from battery. The controller using the intelligent algorithm keeps on checking this real-time consumption with the threshold values & decides when to activate/deactivate alternator. Thus with this controller, a) reduction in actual CO₂ emission & consequent, and b) 6% improvement in vehicle fuel efficiency has been achieved.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Anti Scratch Additives on Polypropylene Compound

2013-04-08
2013-01-1391
Automotive Industry is constantly upgrading the value offered on their products at optimized cost. Scratch and mar resistance of interiors and exterior parts, is an important attribute which is linked to perceived quality and value offered to customers. Polypropylene material is optimum material of choice for these parts due to its unique advantages. However, filled polypropylene material has poor scratch and mar resistance. Many techniques for scratch resistance improvement are available such as additions of slip agents, co additives, special fillers, siloxanes, etc. However, some of them may offer some disadvantages like stickiness or tackiness on the surfaces. The choice depends on its effectiveness & cost. This paper deals with design of experiments to evaluate effectiveness of 4 types of additives and their optimum % to give scratch resistance improvement without having detrimental impact on other critical properties.
Technical Paper

A Novel Technique to Establish Various Important Characteristic to Analyze Complete Hydraulic Power Steering System using Model Based Design Approach

2017-01-10
2017-26-0259
Steering system deliver a precise directional control to the vehicle chassis and ensure the safe driving at all maneuvers. Hydraulic power assisted system (HPAS) helps drivers to steer by boosting steering assistance of the steering wheel while retaining the road feel. HPAS performance is associated with the design characteristics of rotary valve, steering, suspension, kinematics, brake, tire, vehicle speed and load transfer. Thus a detailed power steering system model is absolutely necessary to evaluate and optimize the performance characteristics. However, many components of HPAS system are proprietary in nature so it is very challenging to get component characteristic of each sub-system for the complete power steering system model. Hence, it is very important to establish a technique to extract all such influencing characteristics with available test facility.
Technical Paper

Transient 1D Mathematical Model for Drum Brake System to Predict the Temperature Variation with Realistic Boundary Conditions

2017-01-10
2017-26-0299
Brake system is the most important system in the vehicle considering the overall vehicle safety and speed control. Brake applications are repetitive during a city traffic and hilly terrain on downhill gradient. Frequent braking gives rise to an overheating of the brake drum and its components. Braking operations at high temperature gives rise to problems like reduced deceleration due to loss of brake pad friction characteristics, pad softening and sticking to drum, pad distortion and wear etc. All these factors collectively result in deterioration of the braking performance and reduction of brake pad durability with time. Till date most of the thermal analysis performed for brake drum heating are through physical testing using brake system prototypes and by means of CFD tools. These methods are time consuming and expensive. There is a need for an alternative method to reduce physical trials and prototype building and reduce dependency on CFD analysis.
Technical Paper

Global COR iDOE Methodology: An Efficient Way to Calibrate Medium & Heavy Commercial Vehicle Engine Emission and Fuel Consumption Calibration

2017-01-10
2017-26-0032
Modern day diesel engines use systems like Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), Variable Geometric Turbo Charger (VGT), inlet throttle for air regulation, multiple injection strategies, high pressure rail systems for fuel regulation to optimize the combustion for meeting the strict emission and fuel consumption demands. Torque based ECU structures which are commonly used for diesel engines require a large amount of calibration work. Conventional manual methods for emission and fuel consumption optimization (Full factorial or Line search method) results in increased test bed usage and it is almost impossible to use these methods as the number of parameters to optimize are very high. The conventional DoE tests have been limited by the necessity of calibration engineer’s expertise and manual prescreening of test points to be within thermal & mechanical limits of engine systems. This subsequently leads to excessive screening of variables; which is time consuming.
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Development, Component Optimization and Integration for a Metropolitan Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2017-01-10
2017-26-0084
The authors of this technical paper conceptualize and illustrate a powertrain architecture for a hybrid electric vehicle coupled with a unique strategy to reduce a real life problem of driving in snail paced traffic. This architecture utilizes a relatively low powered hybrid electric prime mover that is generally used in mild hybrid vehicles, in an arrangement similar to a parallel hybrid system. Here, the electric machine is mounted on the input shaft of the gearbox and the clutch is actuated automatically through an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) system. Therefore, it is possible to completely disengage the engine from the driveline and drive the vehicle independently through an appropriately sized electric prime mover. The high gear ratio between the drivetrain and the electric prime mover at lower gears can be leveraged to provide low velocity electric creep mode during which the vehicle can function as a pure Electric Vehicle (EV) while engine remains off.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Automotive Control Pedals Ergonomics through Mathematical Modelling Based on Human Anthropometry

2017-01-10
2017-26-0252
Vehicle Ergonomics is one of the most vital factor to be considered in vehicle design and development, as the customer wants a comfortable and performance oriented vehicle. An uncomfortable driving posture can lead to painful driving experiences for longer hauls. The control pedals viz. Accelerator, Brake and clutch pedal (ABC Pedals), are the most frequently used parts in the vehicle, their proper positioning with respect to human anthropology is of prime importance, from driver comfort viewpoint. The methodology currently used for optimizing ergonomics with respect to the positioning of pedals in a vehicle included; measuring anthropometric angles manually with the help of H-Point Machine, subjective jury analysis and through software like RAMSIS, JACK, etc. Manual measurement doesn’t give the flexibility of iterations for optimization. The subjective analysis is based on insinuations thereby, cannot be standardized.
Technical Paper

Transmission Breather Evaluation

2019-01-09
2019-26-0339
Breather assembly is mounted on transmission to maintain the pressure equilibrium inside transmission. Breather allows the transmission to breathe air when the air inside transmission expands or contracts due to heating and cooling of lubricating oil during vehicle running. Breather allows the hot air to escape and cool air to enter into the transmission to prevent overheating issue. Failure of breather assembly can lead to pressure buildup inside transmission and further leading to leakage from transmission oil seals. Oil leakage through the breather assembly is governed by parameters such as opening pressure, location and orientation of breather etc. The transmission undergoes different operating conditions of input speed, load, temperature, inclination etc. Also, breather assembly is designed and positioned in such a way that there is no leakage through breather due to oil splash inside the transmission.
Technical Paper

Air Intake System Optimization for Passenger Car Engine

2019-01-09
2019-26-0044
The customer expectations in the passenger car market are predominantly in the areas of engine/vehicle performance along with NVH refinement. In addition, continuously evolving regulatory emission and crash norms with system cost considerations bring out multiple challenges on to design engineers. One of the vehicle systems that has its footprints on all of the above requirements is the engine air intake system. In this paper, using multidisciplinary approach we discuss the impact of air intake system design of a 3-cylinder gasoline engine on different attributes of customer requirements. The primary function of the air intake system is to provide filtered air to the engine. However, this paper explains how requirements like engine performance, NVH refinement, regulatory and styling, durability, servicing and system cost are affected by intake system design parameters.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Exhaust System Design Optimization for Light Weight Passenger Vehicles

2019-01-09
2019-26-0269
While designing the exhaust system of passenger car on one hand there is stringent emission regulations, packaging constraints, high NVH performance requirement. On the other hand with lightweight vehicle design there is tremendous pressure on weight reduction of exhaust system while keep the same NVH performance levels. Exhaust system consist of muffler, bellows, pipes and hangers. For muffler design both acoustic (transmission loss, pass-by noise, tail pipe noise etc.) and non-acoustic (backpressure) parameters needs to be considered. In the current paper, methodology for muffler design optimization using 1D acoustic simulation software is presented. The baseline exhaust design consist of two mufflers; main muffler and post muffler. Simulation methodology is developed to optimize main muffler design in order to eliminate post muffler requirement while achieving the same performance of baseline exhaust design.
Technical Paper

Gearshift Quality Sensitivity Analysis

2019-01-09
2019-26-0328
Gearshift quality is a perceived quality parameter. Hence, is getting much importance because of the increased awareness about comfortable and refined driving experience, especially in the case of passenger cars. When the topic of gearshift feeling is broached in manual transmission vehicles, synchronizer pack (shifter sleeve, engaging gear, strut, synchronizer and gear synchro ring assembly) have been the focus point for optimization. Synchronizer type (single, double or triple cone), lining material, datch chamfer angle of shifter sleeve/synchro ring of gear/synchronizer, all of these have been extensively studied in the past to improve the gearshift quality. With stringent timelines for vehicle development, OEMs prefer to use off-the-shelf powertrain systems developed by powertrain manufacturers. Due to this, avenues to refine gearshift feel gets reduced to a large extent and hence refinement becomes difficult.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Shift Quality in a Multi Speed Gearbox of an Electric Vehicle through Synchronizer Location Optimization

2017-03-28
2017-01-1596
Electrical and Series Hybrid Vehicles are generally provided with single speed reduction gearbox. To improve performance and drive range, a two-speed gearbox with coordinated control of traction motor and gearshift actuator is proposed. For a two-speed gearbox, gearshift without clutch would increase the shifting effort. Active Synchronization is introduced for a smoother gearshift even without clutch. The quality of gearshift is considered as a function of applied shift force and time taken. To enhance the quality of the gearshift further, the location of the synchronizer in the transmission system is optimized. To validate the improvement in the quality of the gearshift, a mathematical model of the two-speed gearbox incorporating proposed location of synchronizer assembly along with active synchronization is developed. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results achieved is presented.
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