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Technical Paper

Practical Approach for Vehicle HVAC Noise Reduction and Comfort Improvement

2011-05-17
2011-01-1592
Comfortable cabin environment from temperature, noise and vibration point of view is one of the most desirable aspects of any vehicle operating in hot or cold environment. Noise generated from HVAC system is one of the most irritating phenomena resulting in customer dissatisfaction and complaints. It becomes absolutely necessary to have low HVAC noise levels when the target market has hot weather all round the year. Balance between control of temperature in desired way with least possible noise and vibration is the key for HVAC performance optimization within constrains posed by design and cost. This paper describes the approach for NVH refinement of front HVAC system proposed for a vehicle with limited off-road capability for which packaging constraints and late changes related to airflow and HVAC unit design for meeting comfort and crash requirements resulted in deterioration of noise and vibrations while operation.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management in Engine Compartment for Efficient Working of the Intercooler on a Rear Engine Vehicle

2012-04-16
2012-01-1044
This paper is related to a vehicle with rear engine which is turbo charged and inter cooled. Due to packaging constraints the intercooler was placed in front of turbocharger and was exposed to hot air radiated out from the turbo charger. This was in turn reducing the efficiency of the intercooler. In such scenario, it is essential to shield the turbo charger from the intercooler for proper hot air management. Also rear engine vehicles don't have the benefit of ram air affect. This necessitates increasing the air entering in to the core of the intercooler. Both the above mentioned issues associated with such a vehicle was resolved by ensuring that the hot air from turbo-charge is guided away from the intercooler as well as the air flow to Intercooler is increased. Guiding or throwing out the hot air away from Intercooler was done by introducing a heat shield or a baffle between the two.
Technical Paper

Approach to Model Thermistor Based AC Compressor Cut-OFF/Cut-IN Phenomenon in 1D Simulation of Mobile Air Conditioning

2019-01-09
2019-26-0287
This paper documents the approach followed to simulate the physical phenomenon of thermistor based AC compressor Cut-OFF/Cut-IN (AC compressor cycling) in 1-Dimensional Computer Aided Engineering (1D CAE) to enable Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) performance prediction at different ambient conditions. Thermistor based AC compressor cycling logic is incorporated in MAC systems to prevent ice formation at evaporator core and liquid refrigerant flow to AC compressor. Currently, during MAC system performance simulation over a transient drive cycle, the 1D models are able to predict cabin cooldown performance for severe ambient conditions (>40°C, high solar load) with >95% accuracy, as in these cases AC compressor cycling due to thermistor doesn’t occur at higher ambient.
Technical Paper

Cabin and Battery Cooling Performance Trade-off in an Electric Vehicle

2020-08-18
2020-28-0004
Electric vehicles (EVs) carries two main anxieties in users which are its range and battery life, hence these are important parameters to be taken care of during electric vehicle development. Range of EV depends on many parameters such as vehicle weight, heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system, battery cooling system (BCS), traction cooling system (TCS) and other electrical loads, which consumes power from a High Voltage (HV) battery. Severe hot ambient in India requires a big size HVAC system, on the other hand, the battery pack needs refrigerated cooling system to keep its temperature in control. Hence, the major parasitic consumers in an EV are HVAC and BCS. In order to enhance the overall efficiency, a trade-off between these two systems is crucial, as both the systems are served with common compressor and condenser in dual loop refrigerant circuit.
Technical Paper

High Voltage Battery (HVB) Durability Enhancement in Electric Mobility through 1D CAE

2020-08-18
2020-28-0013
The public transport in India is gradually shifting towards electric mobility. Long range in electric mobility can be served with High Voltage Battery (HVB), but HVB can sustain for its designed life if it’s maintained within a specific operating temperature range. Appropriate battery thermal management through Battery Cooling System (BCS) is critical for vehicle range and battery durability This work focus on two aspects, BCS sizing and its coolant flow optimization in Electric bus. BCS modelling was done in 1D CAE software. The objective is to develop a model of BCS in virtual environment to replicate the physical testing. Electric bus contain numerous battery packs and a complex piping in its cooling system. BCS sizing simulation was performed to keep the battery packs in operating temperature range.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Prominent Factors Affecting Evaporator Frosting in a Mobile Air-Conditioning (MAC) System

2020-08-18
2020-28-0014
In an automotive air conditioning system, evaporator is well designed for effective heat transfer between refrigerant and air flowing over the evaporator. This cold and dehumidified air obtained at evaporator is then supplied to passenger cabin. There are various parameters like air flow over evaporator, ambient temperature, humidity condition and condensate drain mechanism which can cause frost formation over the evaporator core. This study presents the probable causes of frost formation and their effects on the performance of evaporator and thus affecting overall performances of the automotive air conditioning system. In this study effect of variation in four major independent factors such as poor response of thermistor, undercharged refrigerant system and overcharged refrigerant system, drop in air flow by blower due to clogged air-filter, and also the effect of type of compressor has been studied.
Technical Paper

Challenges during Deployment of Cabin Air Quality Enhancers in Current Mobility Solutions

2020-08-18
2020-28-0016
In the past five years, Indian cities have been consistently appearing in the list of top 15 world’s most polluted cities. Every day, a common man in India spends more than 2 hours on the road due to numerous reasons, thus exposed to inhale highly polluted air. Further, the passenger car users is exposed to ~ 6 times more polluted air as compared to ambient air reason being the air is recirculated through the air conditioning system. Prolonged exposure to such polluted/ recirculated air shows increasing trend in respiratory illnesses, breathing discomfort and fatigue. This paper discusses the key challenges involved in incorporating cabin air filter as cabin air quality enhancer in current mobility solutions.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management System and Performance Characteristics of Electric Vehicle

2020-08-18
2020-28-0022
Thermal Management System (TMS) is equally or more important part of Battery Electric (BEV)/Hybrid Electric vehicle (HEV) than an internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. In an ICE vehicle, TMS ensures performance of power train/engine, after treatment/exhaust system and HVAC (Climate control) whereas it connected with safety and Range anxiety elimination additionally for the case of Electric Vehicle. Electric powertrain is not a new technology to the world but the technology is evolving in last few decades, to overcome the cost and make it commercially viable, charging infrastructural development and elimination of Range Anxiety. In last few years, Indian automotive industry has taken some major steps towards electrification journey for both passenger car and commercial vehicle. In BEVs, Battery Cooling or Battery thermal management System (BTMS or BCS) and Traction cooling system (TCS) are couple with nearly conventional HVAC circuit used in any ICE vehicle.
Technical Paper

Climate Control Strategy for Electric Vehicles

2020-08-18
2020-28-0023
In current days electric vehicles (EVs) are being promoted on significant scale through various government initiative as a zero-emission means of transport. However the major hurdle for wider customer acceptance of EVs are being comparatively expensive, lack of charging station infrastructure and ambient based limited driving range. It is known that Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system is major contributor in overall power consumption of electric vehicles. The HVAC system architecture and working logics in EVs are different from the one in fuel based vehicle.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of HVAC System Level Noise in Mobile Air-Conditioning (MAC) System

2020-08-18
2020-28-0035
With the advent of new technologies and rigorous research and development work going on vehicle engines, cars are becoming quieter and more refined than ever before. This has led to the observance of subjective noises being audible to passenger compartment which were earlier masked behind engine noise. The vehicle HVAC system has several moving parts and transient flow of refrigerant which can cause certain types of irritant noise. Thus having a refinement in of air-conditioning (AC) system would aid us in cutting down on this parasitic noise source. Thus noise refinement should be one of the important parameters during the design and development of the Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for a vehicle program.
Technical Paper

Application of Phase Change Materials (PCM) for Reducing Cabin Heat Load

2020-08-18
2020-28-0037
In regions like Indian Subcontinent, Gulf or Saharan & Sub-Saharan Africa, where the sunshine is abundant almost all year round, air-conditioning is an important aspect of vehicles (passenger cars, buses etc.). Higher heat means higher cooling demand which in turn means bigger AC system. Like other auxiliaries, AC compressor is a parasitic load on the engine. The best way to beat heat and reduce cabin heat load is to stop heat build-up itself. The present paper explores one such means of reducing cabin heat build-up by leveraging latent heat properties of phase change materials and thus improving the air condition performance. With the help of a case study this paper aims at detailing comprehensive effect of phase change material (PCM) and its application on the heat build-up inside the cabin of a vehicle, the air conditioning cooling performance, the time required to achieve comfort temperature, work of compression performed by AC compressor and COP.
Technical Paper

Methodology to Quantify the Undesirable Effects of the Localized Inefficiency of Heat Pick-Up in Suction Line on an Automotive Air Conditioning System

2020-08-18
2020-28-0036
The automotive application places very special demands on the air conditioning system. As is the case with any other process, system efficiency is very important and the automotive air-conditioning application is no exception. While the characteristics of all the major components in the air conditioning system like compressor, condenser, evaporator and blower contribute to overall system efficiency, localized inefficiencies do play a part and so must be kept to a minimum, especially in this day and age when extra emphasis is being laid on sustainability. One such phenomenon that contributes to the system inefficiency is heat pick-up in suction line. Since the temperature at the evaporator-outlet is quite lower than ambient and also its surroundings (steering system pipes and hoses, engine, air intake pipes and so on), the refrigerant picks up heat as it moves along the suction line up to the compressor inlet. This heat pick-up is detrimental to the overall system performance.
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