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Technical Paper

Radiated Noise Reduction in a Single Cylinder Direct Injection (DI) Naturally Aspirated (NA) Engine

2011-05-17
2011-01-1503
Small goods carrier and passenger vehicles powered by Naturally Aspirated (NA) Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines are popular in Indian automobile market. However, they suffer from inherently high radiated noise and poorly perceived sound quality. This paper documents the steps taken to reduce the radiated noise level from such an engine through structural modifications of major noise radiating components identified in the sound power analysis. The work is summarized as follows; Baseline radiated noise measurements of power train and identification of major noise sources through sound intensity mapping and noise source ranking (NSR) in an Engine Noise Test Cell (ENTC) Design modifications for identified major sources in engine structure Vehicle level assessment of the radiated noise in a Vehicle Semi-Anechoic Chamber (VSAC) for all the design modifications. A reduction of 7 dB at hot idle and 4 - 8 dB in loaded speed sweep conditions was observed with the recommended modifications.
Technical Paper

Optimization of an Air Intake System to Reduce Multiple Whoosh Noises from an Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1714
The direct injection common rail technology coupled with variable geometry turbocharger on the modern diesel engine has improved the diesel engine performance (power and torque) greatly as compared to the conventional diesel engine. Diesel engine performance is greatly dependent on the abundant air availability. And it is facilitated by Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT) in modern engines. The engines with variable geometry turbocharger offer quick response to the demand in various driving conditions especially in transient driving conditions. During transient driving conditions, the air intake system experiences a rapid air flow pressure and velocity changes. The pressure differentials across air intake system during transient events allow flow direction changes in the system. This kind of phenomenon generates unusual “Multiple Whoosh” noises in the air intake system of the sport utility vehicle engine.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management in Engine Compartment for Efficient Working of the Intercooler on a Rear Engine Vehicle

2012-04-16
2012-01-1044
This paper is related to a vehicle with rear engine which is turbo charged and inter cooled. Due to packaging constraints the intercooler was placed in front of turbocharger and was exposed to hot air radiated out from the turbo charger. This was in turn reducing the efficiency of the intercooler. In such scenario, it is essential to shield the turbo charger from the intercooler for proper hot air management. Also rear engine vehicles don't have the benefit of ram air affect. This necessitates increasing the air entering in to the core of the intercooler. Both the above mentioned issues associated with such a vehicle was resolved by ensuring that the hot air from turbo-charge is guided away from the intercooler as well as the air flow to Intercooler is increased. Guiding or throwing out the hot air away from Intercooler was done by introducing a heat shield or a baffle between the two.
Technical Paper

Micro Hybrid Battery Management - A Novel System to Augment Engine Restart Reliability and Battery Life

2012-04-16
2012-01-0791
The micro hybrid system, also known as the engine stop start system, has recently gained prominence world over due to its considerable fuel saving potential and relatively low costs. In spite of being a relatively non-complex function, the stop start system works hand-in-hand with a wide range of vehicle systems and components, specially the starting system and the battery. Frequent idle stop periods during city driving conditions can result in excessive battery discharge and gradually lead to loss of engine restartability. Increased number of charging and discharging cycles tend to reduce the life of the battery significantly. Hence it is very essential that the micro hybrid vehicles have a system in place that monitors and maintains the battery status within its operating limits.
Technical Paper

Effect of Carbon Black Fraction in Natural Rubber for Automobile Rubber Components

2009-04-20
2009-01-1295
Large number of studies have been carried out and references are available on the use of synthetic rubber with non-carbon black fillers. Use of carbon black reinforced natural rubber is very common in automotive applications especially suspension top cups, cab mounts, suspension bushes, engine mounts etc Carbon black plays key role in the alteration of the rubber compound properties to suit the end product requirements for hysteresis, stiffness, hardness, compression set etc. This paper gives experimental details, results, and conclusions on and effect of carbon black in natural rubber compound. Carbon black reinforced natural rubber formulations were made and keeping all other ingredients of the formulation constant including type of carbon black and by varying only the amount of carbon black dosage. Since the rubber components call for different specifications based on the end product requirements, it is not possible to have common rubber formulation for all the end products.
Technical Paper

Tangentially Mounted Inserts: A Good Avenue for Recycle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0134
Recycle, Reuse, Repair have become a mantra today for cost reduction. More importantly it reduces the demand of natural resources and helps protect environment. There are many ways in which cutting tools can be recycled. Some examples are used up extra long drill [1] and used up crankshaft grinding wheel [2]. Used up indexable inserts can also be reused by grinding a groove to remove the blunt/dull portion [3], selecting an application where the unused portion of a large cutting edge can be put to reuse [4], reuse by grinding a corner radius to remove the blunt/dull portion [5]. This article explains the concept of reuse of used up tangentially mounted plain inserts and shows that such mounting is best suited for the recycling of indexable inserts and can substantially reduce the tool cost. This recycle can reduce the consumption by almost 50% or more depending on the nature of dullness of insert during the initial use. Conserving natural resources is therefore a good possibility.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Intake System for Two Cylinder Naturally Aspirated In-Direct Injection Engine

2004-09-27
2004-32-0030
This paper summarizes the approach towards the process of computational simulation of the intake system and its experimental investigation. It is an important aspect to improve breathing of the diesel engines for performance, torque smoothening and emissions. This can be achieved by optimizing intake system parameters such as plenum volume, diameters, length of ports & runners, etc., which directly correlates the volumetric efficiency, thereby the performance of the engine. Keeping the objective of improving volumetric efficiency to achieve low-end performance, the intake system design optimization has been done on a twin cylinder, four cycle, compression ignition, In-Direct Injection (IDI) engine. For the simpler intake system, the primary pipe length & diameter can be calculated by mathematical formula applying Helmholtz Resonator principle. But, for a complex intake system, simulation software is used here.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Injection Parameters and EGR on Exhaust Emission of a 3 L Diesel Engine

2015-09-29
2015-01-2814
Simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM from engine exhaust of a diesel engine is an interesting area of research due to the implementation of stringent emission regulations all over the world. Cost involved in expensive after treatment systems such as DPF and SCR necessitate minimization of engine out pollutants. With minimum engine out emission achieved through engine hardware and combustion parameter optimization, possibility of elimination or downsizing of the after treatment system can be explored. The paper presents the effect of fuel injection parameters and EGR rate on exhaust emission of a boosted diesel engine. Effects of parameters such as rail pressure, pilot-post injections, SOI, EGR rate and EGR temperature on a 4 cylinder two valve direct injection diesel engine is studied. Present study reveals the possibility of elimination of after treatment systems at BS IV level with optimization of engine hardware and combustion parameters.
Technical Paper

Improving Fuel Economy of Commercial Vehicle by Introducing Optimized Electro-Magnetically Coupled Fan Drive

2016-09-27
2016-01-8054
Increasing fuel cost and constant pressure to maximize the fuel economy are forcing OEMs in India to look for alternate engine cooling mechanism which will minimize the power take off from the engine without affecting the system reliability. Aim of this paper is to analyze the potential benefit of incorporating Electro-magnetic fan (EMF) drive in terms of fuel economy and reduced load on the engine. These benefits were compared with the conventional viscous coupled fan drive system. In vehicle with viscous coupling, fan RPM is based on the ram air temperature at coupling face which takes heat from turbo-charged air and coolant. On the other hand, EMF drive have a separate controller and control the fan RPM based on the coolant temperature enabling itself to respond directly to changes in the heat load as compared to viscous coupling having indirect representation of Coolant/charged air temperature.
Technical Paper

Development of an optimized cooling system for a light duty Pickup truck

2016-09-27
2016-01-8074
With the advent of most advanced diesel engines the demand for upgraded engine cooling modules capable of handling more heat rejection in a smaller space is surging. Moreover, the variance in the operating conditions, i.e., the simultaneous cooling demands for peak load as well as partial load in different ambient conditions of the vehicle operation, broadens the scope of development of a cooling system. Also, the cooling system needs to be configured judiciously so as to cater effective cooling at peak loads and efficient cooling at partial loads. This research paper deals with a cooling system developed using modularity approach in order to have a control over tuning of subsystems for varying operating conditions and also to achieve the performance targets with a compact design adhering to packaging constraints. Kuli simulation of different designed configurations were carried out for identification of best concept.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Multiple Injection Strategies to Improve BSFC Performance of a Common Rail Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2016-02-01
2016-28-0002
Present stringent emissions norms; global fossil fuel energy scenario and competitive automotive market has driven many researches on diesel engine combustion in both academic and industry level. This work is an effort to improve the fuel economy without compromising emissions level of typical six cylinders inline CRDI diesel engine using optimized multiple injection strategy. There was some unusual nature of BSFC (Brake specific fuel consumption) observed on such typical engine. Also, Torque curve was not up to the mark for better drivability. This engine is equipped with most familiar in cylinder NOx reduction device namely EGR and multiple injections. There were few experiments conducted on same engine to optimize the BSFC using different multi injection strategies in line to marginal change of injection timing with respect to crank angle. Total exercise was done following partial Design of Experiments (DOE). EGR % has kept unaltered.
Technical Paper

Cost Effective Techniques to Maximize Benefits of Entry Segment Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle without Engine Downsizing

2015-01-14
2015-26-0113
Hybridization with engine downsizing is a regular trend to achieve fuel economy benefits. However this leads to a development of new downsized engine which is very costly and time consuming process, also engine downsizing demands for expensive higher power electric system to meet performance targets. Various techniques like gear ratio optimization, reducing number of gears, battery size and control functionalities optimization have been evaluated for maximum fuel economy keeping system cost very low and improving vehicle performance. With optimized gear ratios and reduced number of gears for parallel hybrid, it is possible to operate the engine in the best efficiency zones without downsizing. Motor is selected based on power to weight ratio, gradient requirements, improved acceleration performance and top speed requirement of vehicle in EV mode.
Technical Paper

Thermal Mapping of HPAS System Based on Steering Kinematic and Tire-Road Contact Patch Sliding Model

2019-01-09
2019-26-0225
In hydraulic power assisted steering (HPAS) system higher steering oil temperature can cause deterioration of oil reservoir, thermal failure of pump/valves and can diminish system performance. Thermal analysis is performed for HPAS system architecture development in order to maintain steering oil temperature within design limits for optimal performance & increased life of HPAS steering system. In present study mathematical model of HPAS system consisting of steering pump, flow and pressure control mechanism, rotary valve, steering circuit pipes and hoses, thermal interaction with ambient is developed. The model is able to predict steering torque-hydraulic pressure dynamics of HPAS system as per design. Developed HPAS system model is integrated with steering kinematic and uniquely developed tire-road contact patch sliding model for estimating non-linear rack force behavior at higher steering angle.
Technical Paper

High Voltage Battery (HVB) Durability Enhancement in Electric Mobility through 1D CAE

2020-08-18
2020-28-0013
The public transport in India is gradually shifting towards electric mobility. Long range in electric mobility can be served with High Voltage Battery (HVB), but HVB can sustain for its designed life if it’s maintained within a specific operating temperature range. Appropriate battery thermal management through Battery Cooling System (BCS) is critical for vehicle range and battery durability This work focus on two aspects, BCS sizing and its coolant flow optimization in Electric bus. BCS modelling was done in 1D CAE software. The objective is to develop a model of BCS in virtual environment to replicate the physical testing. Electric bus contain numerous battery packs and a complex piping in its cooling system. BCS sizing simulation was performed to keep the battery packs in operating temperature range.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Prominent Factors Affecting Evaporator Frosting in a Mobile Air-Conditioning (MAC) System

2020-08-18
2020-28-0014
In an automotive air conditioning system, evaporator is well designed for effective heat transfer between refrigerant and air flowing over the evaporator. This cold and dehumidified air obtained at evaporator is then supplied to passenger cabin. There are various parameters like air flow over evaporator, ambient temperature, humidity condition and condensate drain mechanism which can cause frost formation over the evaporator core. This study presents the probable causes of frost formation and their effects on the performance of evaporator and thus affecting overall performances of the automotive air conditioning system. In this study effect of variation in four major independent factors such as poor response of thermistor, undercharged refrigerant system and overcharged refrigerant system, drop in air flow by blower due to clogged air-filter, and also the effect of type of compressor has been studied.
Technical Paper

Challenges during Deployment of Cabin Air Quality Enhancers in Current Mobility Solutions

2020-08-18
2020-28-0016
In the past five years, Indian cities have been consistently appearing in the list of top 15 world’s most polluted cities. Every day, a common man in India spends more than 2 hours on the road due to numerous reasons, thus exposed to inhale highly polluted air. Further, the passenger car users is exposed to ~ 6 times more polluted air as compared to ambient air reason being the air is recirculated through the air conditioning system. Prolonged exposure to such polluted/ recirculated air shows increasing trend in respiratory illnesses, breathing discomfort and fatigue. This paper discusses the key challenges involved in incorporating cabin air filter as cabin air quality enhancer in current mobility solutions.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management System and Performance Characteristics of Electric Vehicle

2020-08-18
2020-28-0022
Thermal Management System (TMS) is equally or more important part of Battery Electric (BEV)/Hybrid Electric vehicle (HEV) than an internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. In an ICE vehicle, TMS ensures performance of power train/engine, after treatment/exhaust system and HVAC (Climate control) whereas it connected with safety and Range anxiety elimination additionally for the case of Electric Vehicle. Electric powertrain is not a new technology to the world but the technology is evolving in last few decades, to overcome the cost and make it commercially viable, charging infrastructural development and elimination of Range Anxiety. In last few years, Indian automotive industry has taken some major steps towards electrification journey for both passenger car and commercial vehicle. In BEVs, Battery Cooling or Battery thermal management System (BTMS or BCS) and Traction cooling system (TCS) are couple with nearly conventional HVAC circuit used in any ICE vehicle.
Technical Paper

Application of Phase Change Materials (PCM) for Reducing Cabin Heat Load

2020-08-18
2020-28-0037
In regions like Indian Subcontinent, Gulf or Saharan & Sub-Saharan Africa, where the sunshine is abundant almost all year round, air-conditioning is an important aspect of vehicles (passenger cars, buses etc.). Higher heat means higher cooling demand which in turn means bigger AC system. Like other auxiliaries, AC compressor is a parasitic load on the engine. The best way to beat heat and reduce cabin heat load is to stop heat build-up itself. The present paper explores one such means of reducing cabin heat build-up by leveraging latent heat properties of phase change materials and thus improving the air condition performance. With the help of a case study this paper aims at detailing comprehensive effect of phase change material (PCM) and its application on the heat build-up inside the cabin of a vehicle, the air conditioning cooling performance, the time required to achieve comfort temperature, work of compression performed by AC compressor and COP.
Technical Paper

Methodology to Quantify the Undesirable Effects of the Localized Inefficiency of Heat Pick-Up in Suction Line on an Automotive Air Conditioning System

2020-08-18
2020-28-0036
The automotive application places very special demands on the air conditioning system. As is the case with any other process, system efficiency is very important and the automotive air-conditioning application is no exception. While the characteristics of all the major components in the air conditioning system like compressor, condenser, evaporator and blower contribute to overall system efficiency, localized inefficiencies do play a part and so must be kept to a minimum, especially in this day and age when extra emphasis is being laid on sustainability. One such phenomenon that contributes to the system inefficiency is heat pick-up in suction line. Since the temperature at the evaporator-outlet is quite lower than ambient and also its surroundings (steering system pipes and hoses, engine, air intake pipes and so on), the refrigerant picks up heat as it moves along the suction line up to the compressor inlet. This heat pick-up is detrimental to the overall system performance.
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