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Technical Paper

Radiated Noise Reduction in a Single Cylinder Direct Injection (DI) Naturally Aspirated (NA) Engine

Small goods carrier and passenger vehicles powered by Naturally Aspirated (NA) Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines are popular in Indian automobile market. However, they suffer from inherently high radiated noise and poorly perceived sound quality. This paper documents the steps taken to reduce the radiated noise level from such an engine through structural modifications of major noise radiating components identified in the sound power analysis. The work is summarized as follows; Baseline radiated noise measurements of power train and identification of major noise sources through sound intensity mapping and noise source ranking (NSR) in an Engine Noise Test Cell (ENTC) Design modifications for identified major sources in engine structure Vehicle level assessment of the radiated noise in a Vehicle Semi-Anechoic Chamber (VSAC) for all the design modifications. A reduction of 7 dB at hot idle and 4 - 8 dB in loaded speed sweep conditions was observed with the recommended modifications.
Technical Paper

Optimization of an Air Intake System to Reduce Multiple Whoosh Noises from an Engine

The direct injection common rail technology coupled with variable geometry turbocharger on the modern diesel engine has improved the diesel engine performance (power and torque) greatly as compared to the conventional diesel engine. Diesel engine performance is greatly dependent on the abundant air availability. And it is facilitated by Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT) in modern engines. The engines with variable geometry turbocharger offer quick response to the demand in various driving conditions especially in transient driving conditions. During transient driving conditions, the air intake system experiences a rapid air flow pressure and velocity changes. The pressure differentials across air intake system during transient events allow flow direction changes in the system. This kind of phenomenon generates unusual “Multiple Whoosh” noises in the air intake system of the sport utility vehicle engine.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management in Engine Compartment for Efficient Working of the Intercooler on a Rear Engine Vehicle

This paper is related to a vehicle with rear engine which is turbo charged and inter cooled. Due to packaging constraints the intercooler was placed in front of turbocharger and was exposed to hot air radiated out from the turbo charger. This was in turn reducing the efficiency of the intercooler. In such scenario, it is essential to shield the turbo charger from the intercooler for proper hot air management. Also rear engine vehicles don't have the benefit of ram air affect. This necessitates increasing the air entering in to the core of the intercooler. Both the above mentioned issues associated with such a vehicle was resolved by ensuring that the hot air from turbo-charge is guided away from the intercooler as well as the air flow to Intercooler is increased. Guiding or throwing out the hot air away from Intercooler was done by introducing a heat shield or a baffle between the two.
Technical Paper

Tangentially Mounted Inserts: A Good Avenue for Recycle

Recycle, Reuse, Repair have become a mantra today for cost reduction. More importantly it reduces the demand of natural resources and helps protect environment. There are many ways in which cutting tools can be recycled. Some examples are used up extra long drill [1] and used up crankshaft grinding wheel [2]. Used up indexable inserts can also be reused by grinding a groove to remove the blunt/dull portion [3], selecting an application where the unused portion of a large cutting edge can be put to reuse [4], reuse by grinding a corner radius to remove the blunt/dull portion [5]. This article explains the concept of reuse of used up tangentially mounted plain inserts and shows that such mounting is best suited for the recycling of indexable inserts and can substantially reduce the tool cost. This recycle can reduce the consumption by almost 50% or more depending on the nature of dullness of insert during the initial use. Conserving natural resources is therefore a good possibility.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Intake System for Two Cylinder Naturally Aspirated In-Direct Injection Engine

This paper summarizes the approach towards the process of computational simulation of the intake system and its experimental investigation. It is an important aspect to improve breathing of the diesel engines for performance, torque smoothening and emissions. This can be achieved by optimizing intake system parameters such as plenum volume, diameters, length of ports & runners, etc., which directly correlates the volumetric efficiency, thereby the performance of the engine. Keeping the objective of improving volumetric efficiency to achieve low-end performance, the intake system design optimization has been done on a twin cylinder, four cycle, compression ignition, In-Direct Injection (IDI) engine. For the simpler intake system, the primary pipe length & diameter can be calculated by mathematical formula applying Helmholtz Resonator principle. But, for a complex intake system, simulation software is used here.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Multiple Injection Strategies to Improve BSFC Performance of a Common Rail Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Present stringent emissions norms; global fossil fuel energy scenario and competitive automotive market has driven many researches on diesel engine combustion in both academic and industry level. This work is an effort to improve the fuel economy without compromising emissions level of typical six cylinders inline CRDI diesel engine using optimized multiple injection strategy. There was some unusual nature of BSFC (Brake specific fuel consumption) observed on such typical engine. Also, Torque curve was not up to the mark for better drivability. This engine is equipped with most familiar in cylinder NOx reduction device namely EGR and multiple injections. There were few experiments conducted on same engine to optimize the BSFC using different multi injection strategies in line to marginal change of injection timing with respect to crank angle. Total exercise was done following partial Design of Experiments (DOE). EGR % has kept unaltered.
Technical Paper

High Voltage Battery (HVB) Durability Enhancement in Electric Mobility through 1D CAE

The public transport in India is gradually shifting towards electric mobility. Long range in electric mobility can be served with High Voltage Battery (HVB), but HVB can sustain for its designed life if it’s maintained within a specific operating temperature range. Appropriate battery thermal management through Battery Cooling System (BCS) is critical for vehicle range and battery durability This work focus on two aspects, BCS sizing and its coolant flow optimization in Electric bus. BCS modelling was done in 1D CAE software. The objective is to develop a model of BCS in virtual environment to replicate the physical testing. Electric bus contain numerous battery packs and a complex piping in its cooling system. BCS sizing simulation was performed to keep the battery packs in operating temperature range.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Prominent Factors Affecting Evaporator Frosting in a Mobile Air-Conditioning (MAC) System

In an automotive air conditioning system, evaporator is well designed for effective heat transfer between refrigerant and air flowing over the evaporator. This cold and dehumidified air obtained at evaporator is then supplied to passenger cabin. There are various parameters like air flow over evaporator, ambient temperature, humidity condition and condensate drain mechanism which can cause frost formation over the evaporator core. This study presents the probable causes of frost formation and their effects on the performance of evaporator and thus affecting overall performances of the automotive air conditioning system. In this study effect of variation in four major independent factors such as poor response of thermistor, undercharged refrigerant system and overcharged refrigerant system, drop in air flow by blower due to clogged air-filter, and also the effect of type of compressor has been studied.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management System and Performance Characteristics of Electric Vehicle

Thermal Management System (TMS) is equally or more important part of Battery Electric (BEV)/Hybrid Electric vehicle (HEV) than an internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. In an ICE vehicle, TMS ensures performance of power train/engine, after treatment/exhaust system and HVAC (Climate control) whereas it connected with safety and Range anxiety elimination additionally for the case of Electric Vehicle. Electric powertrain is not a new technology to the world but the technology is evolving in last few decades, to overcome the cost and make it commercially viable, charging infrastructural development and elimination of Range Anxiety. In last few years, Indian automotive industry has taken some major steps towards electrification journey for both passenger car and commercial vehicle. In BEVs, Battery Cooling or Battery thermal management System (BTMS or BCS) and Traction cooling system (TCS) are couple with nearly conventional HVAC circuit used in any ICE vehicle.