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Technical Paper

Practical Approach for Vehicle HVAC Noise Reduction and Comfort Improvement

2011-05-17
2011-01-1592
Comfortable cabin environment from temperature, noise and vibration point of view is one of the most desirable aspects of any vehicle operating in hot or cold environment. Noise generated from HVAC system is one of the most irritating phenomena resulting in customer dissatisfaction and complaints. It becomes absolutely necessary to have low HVAC noise levels when the target market has hot weather all round the year. Balance between control of temperature in desired way with least possible noise and vibration is the key for HVAC performance optimization within constrains posed by design and cost. This paper describes the approach for NVH refinement of front HVAC system proposed for a vehicle with limited off-road capability for which packaging constraints and late changes related to airflow and HVAC unit design for meeting comfort and crash requirements resulted in deterioration of noise and vibrations while operation.
Journal Article

Corrosion Simulation Tests: Analysis and Improvement of Corrosion Resistance for Automotive Components

2013-04-08
2013-01-0335
Corrosion testing and simulation has played a critical role in the development of corrosion resistant automobiles. Much has been learned over a period of time with respect to the automotive corrosion protection and its assessment. A range of coatings and platings are being used in the automotive sector. In this field of application, designs are very complex and focus is on enhanced vehicle level corrosion protection, given the high corrosion warranty costs. The objective of the present study was to develop a electrochemical test method to rapidly and quantitatively screen the corrosion performance of automotive coating systems. The present study compares electrochemical results obtained using a linear polarization resistance (LPR) to results obtained via the standard ASTM B117 salt spray test. Salt spray tests were done on a separate series of these coating systems according to ASTM B117, and the results were ranked from 10 (excellent performance) to 1 (very poor performance).
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Evaluate Wear on Automotive Leaf Spring Suspension Bushes

2010-10-05
2010-01-1906
Traditionally the bushes used for automotive suspension are tested by methods which either don't address the environmental conditions including dust or mud, which convert a 2-body wear condition to 3-body wear condition prevailing in the field or not representative of the complete load bearing area of the bushes coming in contact with the pin. To address the above issues, a novel method of testing has been designed to take care of the loading type, environmental conditions and load bearing area of the bushes to simulate the field conditions.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Off-Road Mobility and Handling by Anti-Roll Bar Deletion and Shock-Up Tuning on Military Vehicle: A Case Study

2010-10-05
2010-01-1915
A 4t off-road military application vehicle was offered to the customers for assessment. During the evaluation adverse feedback of 1) harsh ride in off-road terrain, particularly during hump-crossing and 2) issues during high mobility were reported. Vehicle configuration was front and rear rigid axle suspension with leaf spring anti-roll bar, 4×4 and all terrain tyres. Vehicle application was “on-road” [GS (General-services)], as well as “off-road” (Reconnaissance purpose). The feedback was critically analyzed on the vehicle with the simulation of field conditions. Since the vehicle was still under customer evaluation, solution for the feedback required was quick and within boundary condition (maximum possible allowable limits of modification) of no major change in the suspension design as it was affects homologation cycle. Present paper describes the detailed analysis of the influence of each parameter on system.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management in Engine Compartment for Efficient Working of the Intercooler on a Rear Engine Vehicle

2012-04-16
2012-01-1044
This paper is related to a vehicle with rear engine which is turbo charged and inter cooled. Due to packaging constraints the intercooler was placed in front of turbocharger and was exposed to hot air radiated out from the turbo charger. This was in turn reducing the efficiency of the intercooler. In such scenario, it is essential to shield the turbo charger from the intercooler for proper hot air management. Also rear engine vehicles don't have the benefit of ram air affect. This necessitates increasing the air entering in to the core of the intercooler. Both the above mentioned issues associated with such a vehicle was resolved by ensuring that the hot air from turbo-charge is guided away from the intercooler as well as the air flow to Intercooler is increased. Guiding or throwing out the hot air away from Intercooler was done by introducing a heat shield or a baffle between the two.
Technical Paper

Effect of Carbon Black Fraction in Natural Rubber for Automobile Rubber Components

2009-04-20
2009-01-1295
Large number of studies have been carried out and references are available on the use of synthetic rubber with non-carbon black fillers. Use of carbon black reinforced natural rubber is very common in automotive applications especially suspension top cups, cab mounts, suspension bushes, engine mounts etc Carbon black plays key role in the alteration of the rubber compound properties to suit the end product requirements for hysteresis, stiffness, hardness, compression set etc. This paper gives experimental details, results, and conclusions on and effect of carbon black in natural rubber compound. Carbon black reinforced natural rubber formulations were made and keeping all other ingredients of the formulation constant including type of carbon black and by varying only the amount of carbon black dosage. Since the rubber components call for different specifications based on the end product requirements, it is not possible to have common rubber formulation for all the end products.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Potential Benefit of 6 × 2 Over 6 × 4 Drive Mode to Improve the Fuel Economy on Heavy Commercial Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-1359
Reduction in the drivetrain losses of a vehicle is one of the important contributing factors to amplify the fuel economy of vehicle, particularly in heavy commercial vehicle. The conversion of 6 × 4 drive vehicle into 6 × 2 drive has a benefit of improving the fuel economy of a vehicle by reducing the drivetrain losses occurring in the second rear axle. It was cultured by calculation that in 6 × 2 drive the tractive force available at the wheels, of heavy commercial vehicle with GVW of 44 tons and above, will be much higher than the frictional force transmission capacity of tires, when the engine is producing peak torque on the driving duty cycle like going on steep gradient road. In such situations the tires will start to slip and may result in deteriorating the fuel economy and excessive tire wear. On the other side the flat road driving duty cycle in 6 × 2 drive will give better fuel economy than 6 × 4 drive.
Technical Paper

Rubber Tire Characterization Using Experimental and Computational Methods in Crash Applications

2015-01-14
2015-26-0170
Tire plays an important role in frontal impacts as it acts as a load path to transfer loads from barrier to side sill or rocker panels of passenger vehicles. In order to achieve better correlation and more reliable predictions of vehicle crash performance in CAE simulations, modeling techniques are continuously getting refined with detailed representation of vehicle components in full vehicle crash simulations. In this study, detailed tire modeling process is explored to represent tire dynamic stiffness more accurately in frontal impact crash simulations. Detailed representation of tire internal components such as steel belts, body plies, steel beads along with rubber tread and sidewall portion have been done. Passenger car tubeless radial tire was chosen for this study. Initially, quasi-static tensile coupon tests were carried out in both longitudinal and lateral direction of tread portion of tire.
Technical Paper

Design Methodology of New Generation Noiseless Antiroll Bar Bushes for Car Suspension

2015-01-14
2015-26-0077
In this paper, design methodology of antiroll bar bush is discussed. Typical antiroll bar bushes have slide or slip mechanism, to facilitate the relative motion between ARB and bush. Inherently, this relative motion causes wear and noise of bush. To eliminate stated failure modes, the next generation bushes have been developed, which are using torsion properties instead of slip function. These bushes are already being used in various vehicles. This paper focuses on developing the simple mathematical model, design approach and optimization of ARB bushes. Also, comparison study is presented exploring, the differences and design criteria's between conventional and new generation anti-roll bar bushes.
Technical Paper

Identification of Gear Shift Quality as a Key Attribute in Commercial Vehicle Development

2017-11-27
2017-01-7011
Indian automotive market has grown extremely competitive in the recent past. In order to meet the ever growing expectations of the customers, automobile manufacturers are compelled to offer their products under superior quality with supreme comfort. Customers wish of high levels of tactile comfort in the cabin compartment and effortless operation of peripherals will result in negligible fatigue and a pleasant drive, needs to be duly fulfilled. One has to focus more on Gear shift lever and Steering wheel, which are being the most sensitive tactile points in an automobile. The gear shift lever knob is frequently used and significantly influences the perception of the shift comfort for a driver during actual vehicle application.
Technical Paper

High Voltage Battery (HVB) Durability Enhancement in Electric Mobility through 1D CAE

2020-08-18
2020-28-0013
The public transport in India is gradually shifting towards electric mobility. Long range in electric mobility can be served with High Voltage Battery (HVB), but HVB can sustain for its designed life if it’s maintained within a specific operating temperature range. Appropriate battery thermal management through Battery Cooling System (BCS) is critical for vehicle range and battery durability This work focus on two aspects, BCS sizing and its coolant flow optimization in Electric bus. BCS modelling was done in 1D CAE software. The objective is to develop a model of BCS in virtual environment to replicate the physical testing. Electric bus contain numerous battery packs and a complex piping in its cooling system. BCS sizing simulation was performed to keep the battery packs in operating temperature range.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Prominent Factors Affecting Evaporator Frosting in a Mobile Air-Conditioning (MAC) System

2020-08-18
2020-28-0014
In an automotive air conditioning system, evaporator is well designed for effective heat transfer between refrigerant and air flowing over the evaporator. This cold and dehumidified air obtained at evaporator is then supplied to passenger cabin. There are various parameters like air flow over evaporator, ambient temperature, humidity condition and condensate drain mechanism which can cause frost formation over the evaporator core. This study presents the probable causes of frost formation and their effects on the performance of evaporator and thus affecting overall performances of the automotive air conditioning system. In this study effect of variation in four major independent factors such as poor response of thermistor, undercharged refrigerant system and overcharged refrigerant system, drop in air flow by blower due to clogged air-filter, and also the effect of type of compressor has been studied.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management System and Performance Characteristics of Electric Vehicle

2020-08-18
2020-28-0022
Thermal Management System (TMS) is equally or more important part of Battery Electric (BEV)/Hybrid Electric vehicle (HEV) than an internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. In an ICE vehicle, TMS ensures performance of power train/engine, after treatment/exhaust system and HVAC (Climate control) whereas it connected with safety and Range anxiety elimination additionally for the case of Electric Vehicle. Electric powertrain is not a new technology to the world but the technology is evolving in last few decades, to overcome the cost and make it commercially viable, charging infrastructural development and elimination of Range Anxiety. In last few years, Indian automotive industry has taken some major steps towards electrification journey for both passenger car and commercial vehicle. In BEVs, Battery Cooling or Battery thermal management System (BTMS or BCS) and Traction cooling system (TCS) are couple with nearly conventional HVAC circuit used in any ICE vehicle.
Technical Paper

Methodology to Quantify the Undesirable Effects of the Localized Inefficiency of Heat Pick-Up in Suction Line on an Automotive Air Conditioning System

2020-08-18
2020-28-0036
The automotive application places very special demands on the air conditioning system. As is the case with any other process, system efficiency is very important and the automotive air-conditioning application is no exception. While the characteristics of all the major components in the air conditioning system like compressor, condenser, evaporator and blower contribute to overall system efficiency, localized inefficiencies do play a part and so must be kept to a minimum, especially in this day and age when extra emphasis is being laid on sustainability. One such phenomenon that contributes to the system inefficiency is heat pick-up in suction line. Since the temperature at the evaporator-outlet is quite lower than ambient and also its surroundings (steering system pipes and hoses, engine, air intake pipes and so on), the refrigerant picks up heat as it moves along the suction line up to the compressor inlet. This heat pick-up is detrimental to the overall system performance.
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