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Technical Paper

Practical Approach for Vehicle HVAC Noise Reduction and Comfort Improvement

Comfortable cabin environment from temperature, noise and vibration point of view is one of the most desirable aspects of any vehicle operating in hot or cold environment. Noise generated from HVAC system is one of the most irritating phenomena resulting in customer dissatisfaction and complaints. It becomes absolutely necessary to have low HVAC noise levels when the target market has hot weather all round the year. Balance between control of temperature in desired way with least possible noise and vibration is the key for HVAC performance optimization within constrains posed by design and cost. This paper describes the approach for NVH refinement of front HVAC system proposed for a vehicle with limited off-road capability for which packaging constraints and late changes related to airflow and HVAC unit design for meeting comfort and crash requirements resulted in deterioration of noise and vibrations while operation.
Journal Article

Corrosion Simulation Tests: Analysis and Improvement of Corrosion Resistance for Automotive Components

Corrosion testing and simulation has played a critical role in the development of corrosion resistant automobiles. Much has been learned over a period of time with respect to the automotive corrosion protection and its assessment. A range of coatings and platings are being used in the automotive sector. In this field of application, designs are very complex and focus is on enhanced vehicle level corrosion protection, given the high corrosion warranty costs. The objective of the present study was to develop a electrochemical test method to rapidly and quantitatively screen the corrosion performance of automotive coating systems. The present study compares electrochemical results obtained using a linear polarization resistance (LPR) to results obtained via the standard ASTM B117 salt spray test. Salt spray tests were done on a separate series of these coating systems according to ASTM B117, and the results were ranked from 10 (excellent performance) to 1 (very poor performance).
Technical Paper

Development of Methodology for Steering Effort Improvement for Mechanical Steering in Commercial Vehicles

Low steering effort in mechanical steering system is very essential, besides meeting the regulatory norms, to have driving comfort and easy maneuverability on turns. All the components in steering and suspension system plays important role in the resultant steering effort of the vehicle. Of all the factors affecting steering effort, following are identified as high influencing parameters: 1 Steering geometry. 2 Steering system compliance. 3 Friction in steering system linkages like assembly steering column, assembly steering gear box etc. 4 Tyre static friction torque. Present paper describes the detailed analysis of the influence of each parameter on steering system. The above parameters were studied in isolation as well as in combination, to ascertain their effect on steering effort. In a mechanical steering system, the parameters listed above contribute to 35% on steering effort where-in frictional forces itself contributes to 25%.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management in Engine Compartment for Efficient Working of the Intercooler on a Rear Engine Vehicle

This paper is related to a vehicle with rear engine which is turbo charged and inter cooled. Due to packaging constraints the intercooler was placed in front of turbocharger and was exposed to hot air radiated out from the turbo charger. This was in turn reducing the efficiency of the intercooler. In such scenario, it is essential to shield the turbo charger from the intercooler for proper hot air management. Also rear engine vehicles don't have the benefit of ram air affect. This necessitates increasing the air entering in to the core of the intercooler. Both the above mentioned issues associated with such a vehicle was resolved by ensuring that the hot air from turbo-charge is guided away from the intercooler as well as the air flow to Intercooler is increased. Guiding or throwing out the hot air away from Intercooler was done by introducing a heat shield or a baffle between the two.
Technical Paper

Tangentially Mounted Inserts: A Good Avenue for Recycle

Recycle, Reuse, Repair have become a mantra today for cost reduction. More importantly it reduces the demand of natural resources and helps protect environment. There are many ways in which cutting tools can be recycled. Some examples are used up extra long drill [1] and used up crankshaft grinding wheel [2]. Used up indexable inserts can also be reused by grinding a groove to remove the blunt/dull portion [3], selecting an application where the unused portion of a large cutting edge can be put to reuse [4], reuse by grinding a corner radius to remove the blunt/dull portion [5]. This article explains the concept of reuse of used up tangentially mounted plain inserts and shows that such mounting is best suited for the recycling of indexable inserts and can substantially reduce the tool cost. This recycle can reduce the consumption by almost 50% or more depending on the nature of dullness of insert during the initial use. Conserving natural resources is therefore a good possibility.
Technical Paper

Prescriptive Modeling, Simulation and Performance Analysis of Mild Hybrid Vehicle and Component Optimization

Reckoning today's environmental rules, legislative regulation and market requirements- the automotive industry of late has witnessed an increased vigor and enthusiasm by auto makers towards electrification of vehicles across all platforms in a bid to improve fuel economy and performance. Hybridization of a vehicle often involves the use of expensive high performance motors and large battery packs. However due to the challenges associated with the packaging of bulky battery and motor systems in existing drive train, mild hybrid systems have been preferred over strong or full hybrids especially in current production models as they don't entail any major change in architecture and the reduced battery size, both of which provide for easier packaging of components.
Technical Paper

Development of an optimized cooling system for a light duty Pickup truck

With the advent of most advanced diesel engines the demand for upgraded engine cooling modules capable of handling more heat rejection in a smaller space is surging. Moreover, the variance in the operating conditions, i.e., the simultaneous cooling demands for peak load as well as partial load in different ambient conditions of the vehicle operation, broadens the scope of development of a cooling system. Also, the cooling system needs to be configured judiciously so as to cater effective cooling at peak loads and efficient cooling at partial loads. This research paper deals with a cooling system developed using modularity approach in order to have a control over tuning of subsystems for varying operating conditions and also to achieve the performance targets with a compact design adhering to packaging constraints. Kuli simulation of different designed configurations were carried out for identification of best concept.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Shift Quality in a Multi Speed Gearbox of an Electric Vehicle through Synchronizer Location Optimization

Electrical and Series Hybrid Vehicles are generally provided with single speed reduction gearbox. To improve performance and drive range, a two-speed gearbox with coordinated control of traction motor and gearshift actuator is proposed. For a two-speed gearbox, gearshift without clutch would increase the shifting effort. Active Synchronization is introduced for a smoother gearshift even without clutch. The quality of gearshift is considered as a function of applied shift force and time taken. To enhance the quality of the gearshift further, the location of the synchronizer in the transmission system is optimized. To validate the improvement in the quality of the gearshift, a mathematical model of the two-speed gearbox incorporating proposed location of synchronizer assembly along with active synchronization is developed. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results achieved is presented.
Technical Paper

High Voltage Battery (HVB) Durability Enhancement in Electric Mobility through 1D CAE

The public transport in India is gradually shifting towards electric mobility. Long range in electric mobility can be served with High Voltage Battery (HVB), but HVB can sustain for its designed life if it’s maintained within a specific operating temperature range. Appropriate battery thermal management through Battery Cooling System (BCS) is critical for vehicle range and battery durability This work focus on two aspects, BCS sizing and its coolant flow optimization in Electric bus. BCS modelling was done in 1D CAE software. The objective is to develop a model of BCS in virtual environment to replicate the physical testing. Electric bus contain numerous battery packs and a complex piping in its cooling system. BCS sizing simulation was performed to keep the battery packs in operating temperature range.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Prominent Factors Affecting Evaporator Frosting in a Mobile Air-Conditioning (MAC) System

In an automotive air conditioning system, evaporator is well designed for effective heat transfer between refrigerant and air flowing over the evaporator. This cold and dehumidified air obtained at evaporator is then supplied to passenger cabin. There are various parameters like air flow over evaporator, ambient temperature, humidity condition and condensate drain mechanism which can cause frost formation over the evaporator core. This study presents the probable causes of frost formation and their effects on the performance of evaporator and thus affecting overall performances of the automotive air conditioning system. In this study effect of variation in four major independent factors such as poor response of thermistor, undercharged refrigerant system and overcharged refrigerant system, drop in air flow by blower due to clogged air-filter, and also the effect of type of compressor has been studied.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management System and Performance Characteristics of Electric Vehicle

Thermal Management System (TMS) is equally or more important part of Battery Electric (BEV)/Hybrid Electric vehicle (HEV) than an internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. In an ICE vehicle, TMS ensures performance of power train/engine, after treatment/exhaust system and HVAC (Climate control) whereas it connected with safety and Range anxiety elimination additionally for the case of Electric Vehicle. Electric powertrain is not a new technology to the world but the technology is evolving in last few decades, to overcome the cost and make it commercially viable, charging infrastructural development and elimination of Range Anxiety. In last few years, Indian automotive industry has taken some major steps towards electrification journey for both passenger car and commercial vehicle. In BEVs, Battery Cooling or Battery thermal management System (BTMS or BCS) and Traction cooling system (TCS) are couple with nearly conventional HVAC circuit used in any ICE vehicle.