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Technical Paper

Thermal Management in Engine Compartment for Efficient Working of the Intercooler on a Rear Engine Vehicle

2012-04-16
2012-01-1044
This paper is related to a vehicle with rear engine which is turbo charged and inter cooled. Due to packaging constraints the intercooler was placed in front of turbocharger and was exposed to hot air radiated out from the turbo charger. This was in turn reducing the efficiency of the intercooler. In such scenario, it is essential to shield the turbo charger from the intercooler for proper hot air management. Also rear engine vehicles don't have the benefit of ram air affect. This necessitates increasing the air entering in to the core of the intercooler. Both the above mentioned issues associated with such a vehicle was resolved by ensuring that the hot air from turbo-charge is guided away from the intercooler as well as the air flow to Intercooler is increased. Guiding or throwing out the hot air away from Intercooler was done by introducing a heat shield or a baffle between the two.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Intake System for Two Cylinder Naturally Aspirated In-Direct Injection Engine

2004-09-27
2004-32-0030
This paper summarizes the approach towards the process of computational simulation of the intake system and its experimental investigation. It is an important aspect to improve breathing of the diesel engines for performance, torque smoothening and emissions. This can be achieved by optimizing intake system parameters such as plenum volume, diameters, length of ports & runners, etc., which directly correlates the volumetric efficiency, thereby the performance of the engine. Keeping the objective of improving volumetric efficiency to achieve low-end performance, the intake system design optimization has been done on a twin cylinder, four cycle, compression ignition, In-Direct Injection (IDI) engine. For the simpler intake system, the primary pipe length & diameter can be calculated by mathematical formula applying Helmholtz Resonator principle. But, for a complex intake system, simulation software is used here.
Technical Paper

Rubber Tire Characterization Using Experimental and Computational Methods in Crash Applications

2015-01-14
2015-26-0170
Tire plays an important role in frontal impacts as it acts as a load path to transfer loads from barrier to side sill or rocker panels of passenger vehicles. In order to achieve better correlation and more reliable predictions of vehicle crash performance in CAE simulations, modeling techniques are continuously getting refined with detailed representation of vehicle components in full vehicle crash simulations. In this study, detailed tire modeling process is explored to represent tire dynamic stiffness more accurately in frontal impact crash simulations. Detailed representation of tire internal components such as steel belts, body plies, steel beads along with rubber tread and sidewall portion have been done. Passenger car tubeless radial tire was chosen for this study. Initially, quasi-static tensile coupon tests were carried out in both longitudinal and lateral direction of tread portion of tire.
Technical Paper

Design Methodology of New Generation Noiseless Antiroll Bar Bushes for Car Suspension

2015-01-14
2015-26-0077
In this paper, design methodology of antiroll bar bush is discussed. Typical antiroll bar bushes have slide or slip mechanism, to facilitate the relative motion between ARB and bush. Inherently, this relative motion causes wear and noise of bush. To eliminate stated failure modes, the next generation bushes have been developed, which are using torsion properties instead of slip function. These bushes are already being used in various vehicles. This paper focuses on developing the simple mathematical model, design approach and optimization of ARB bushes. Also, comparison study is presented exploring, the differences and design criteria's between conventional and new generation anti-roll bar bushes.
Technical Paper

Prescriptive Modeling, Simulation and Performance Analysis of Mild Hybrid Vehicle and Component Optimization

2015-01-14
2015-26-0010
Reckoning today's environmental rules, legislative regulation and market requirements- the automotive industry of late has witnessed an increased vigor and enthusiasm by auto makers towards electrification of vehicles across all platforms in a bid to improve fuel economy and performance. Hybridization of a vehicle often involves the use of expensive high performance motors and large battery packs. However due to the challenges associated with the packaging of bulky battery and motor systems in existing drive train, mild hybrid systems have been preferred over strong or full hybrids especially in current production models as they don't entail any major change in architecture and the reduced battery size, both of which provide for easier packaging of components.
Technical Paper

Cost Effective Techniques to Maximize Benefits of Entry Segment Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle without Engine Downsizing

2015-01-14
2015-26-0113
Hybridization with engine downsizing is a regular trend to achieve fuel economy benefits. However this leads to a development of new downsized engine which is very costly and time consuming process, also engine downsizing demands for expensive higher power electric system to meet performance targets. Various techniques like gear ratio optimization, reducing number of gears, battery size and control functionalities optimization have been evaluated for maximum fuel economy keeping system cost very low and improving vehicle performance. With optimized gear ratios and reduced number of gears for parallel hybrid, it is possible to operate the engine in the best efficiency zones without downsizing. Motor is selected based on power to weight ratio, gradient requirements, improved acceleration performance and top speed requirement of vehicle in EV mode.
Technical Paper

Prediction and Resolution of Vehicle In-Cab Noise due to Powertrain Induced Excitations

2019-01-09
2019-26-0177
Vehicle NVH is one of the critical performance quality parameter and it consists of vibration levels at tactile points and noise levels at ear locations for different vehicle running conditions. There are many sources of noise and vibration in a vehicle, and powertrain is one of the main source. Therefore, it is important to understand and resolve powertrain induced noise and vibration issues at early design stage with efficient simulation techniques. The work presented here deals with the use of systematic CAE approach for prediction and resolution of structure borne in-cab noise due to powertrain excitations. During NVH testing of SUV vehicle, boom noise is observed at low frequency. Detailed full vehicle level simulation model consisting of vibro-acoustic trimmed BIW, front and rear suspension, and driveline with powertrain modal model is built.
Technical Paper

Approach to Model Thermistor Based AC Compressor Cut-OFF/Cut-IN Phenomenon in 1D Simulation of Mobile Air Conditioning

2019-01-09
2019-26-0287
This paper documents the approach followed to simulate the physical phenomenon of thermistor based AC compressor Cut-OFF/Cut-IN (AC compressor cycling) in 1-Dimensional Computer Aided Engineering (1D CAE) to enable Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) performance prediction at different ambient conditions. Thermistor based AC compressor cycling logic is incorporated in MAC systems to prevent ice formation at evaporator core and liquid refrigerant flow to AC compressor. Currently, during MAC system performance simulation over a transient drive cycle, the 1D models are able to predict cabin cooldown performance for severe ambient conditions (>40°C, high solar load) with >95% accuracy, as in these cases AC compressor cycling due to thermistor doesn’t occur at higher ambient.
Technical Paper

Thermal Mapping of HPAS System Based on Steering Kinematic and Tire-Road Contact Patch Sliding Model

2019-01-09
2019-26-0225
In hydraulic power assisted steering (HPAS) system higher steering oil temperature can cause deterioration of oil reservoir, thermal failure of pump/valves and can diminish system performance. Thermal analysis is performed for HPAS system architecture development in order to maintain steering oil temperature within design limits for optimal performance & increased life of HPAS steering system. In present study mathematical model of HPAS system consisting of steering pump, flow and pressure control mechanism, rotary valve, steering circuit pipes and hoses, thermal interaction with ambient is developed. The model is able to predict steering torque-hydraulic pressure dynamics of HPAS system as per design. Developed HPAS system model is integrated with steering kinematic and uniquely developed tire-road contact patch sliding model for estimating non-linear rack force behavior at higher steering angle.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Shift Quality in a Multi Speed Gearbox of an Electric Vehicle through Synchronizer Location Optimization

2017-03-28
2017-01-1596
Electrical and Series Hybrid Vehicles are generally provided with single speed reduction gearbox. To improve performance and drive range, a two-speed gearbox with coordinated control of traction motor and gearshift actuator is proposed. For a two-speed gearbox, gearshift without clutch would increase the shifting effort. Active Synchronization is introduced for a smoother gearshift even without clutch. The quality of gearshift is considered as a function of applied shift force and time taken. To enhance the quality of the gearshift further, the location of the synchronizer in the transmission system is optimized. To validate the improvement in the quality of the gearshift, a mathematical model of the two-speed gearbox incorporating proposed location of synchronizer assembly along with active synchronization is developed. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results achieved is presented.
Technical Paper

High Voltage Battery (HVB) Durability Enhancement in Electric Mobility through 1D CAE

2020-08-18
2020-28-0013
The public transport in India is gradually shifting towards electric mobility. Long range in electric mobility can be served with High Voltage Battery (HVB), but HVB can sustain for its designed life if it’s maintained within a specific operating temperature range. Appropriate battery thermal management through Battery Cooling System (BCS) is critical for vehicle range and battery durability This work focus on two aspects, BCS sizing and its coolant flow optimization in Electric bus. BCS modelling was done in 1D CAE software. The objective is to develop a model of BCS in virtual environment to replicate the physical testing. Electric bus contain numerous battery packs and a complex piping in its cooling system. BCS sizing simulation was performed to keep the battery packs in operating temperature range.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Prominent Factors Affecting Evaporator Frosting in a Mobile Air-Conditioning (MAC) System

2020-08-18
2020-28-0014
In an automotive air conditioning system, evaporator is well designed for effective heat transfer between refrigerant and air flowing over the evaporator. This cold and dehumidified air obtained at evaporator is then supplied to passenger cabin. There are various parameters like air flow over evaporator, ambient temperature, humidity condition and condensate drain mechanism which can cause frost formation over the evaporator core. This study presents the probable causes of frost formation and their effects on the performance of evaporator and thus affecting overall performances of the automotive air conditioning system. In this study effect of variation in four major independent factors such as poor response of thermistor, undercharged refrigerant system and overcharged refrigerant system, drop in air flow by blower due to clogged air-filter, and also the effect of type of compressor has been studied.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management System and Performance Characteristics of Electric Vehicle

2020-08-18
2020-28-0022
Thermal Management System (TMS) is equally or more important part of Battery Electric (BEV)/Hybrid Electric vehicle (HEV) than an internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. In an ICE vehicle, TMS ensures performance of power train/engine, after treatment/exhaust system and HVAC (Climate control) whereas it connected with safety and Range anxiety elimination additionally for the case of Electric Vehicle. Electric powertrain is not a new technology to the world but the technology is evolving in last few decades, to overcome the cost and make it commercially viable, charging infrastructural development and elimination of Range Anxiety. In last few years, Indian automotive industry has taken some major steps towards electrification journey for both passenger car and commercial vehicle. In BEVs, Battery Cooling or Battery thermal management System (BTMS or BCS) and Traction cooling system (TCS) are couple with nearly conventional HVAC circuit used in any ICE vehicle.
Technical Paper

Transient Hot Shut Down, CFD Simulation Technique for Underhood Thermal Management

2020-08-18
2020-28-0032
During initial vehicle development stages thermal robustness is of prime importance. Vehicles are required to be validated for different drive cycles based on users driving patterns and also geographical road load database. Numerical simulations play key role in identifying critical thermal issues for different systems well in advance before physical validation. Hot shut down is one such case where thermal soak phenomenon plays vital role from thermal robustness point of view and there is a need to address this phenomenon using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), which in turn will reduce the development time / testing efforts considerably. This condition is of utmost importance especially when vehicle is moving at higher gradients (uphill sections). In these critical conditions, hot engine compartment starves for cooling airflow despite the fact that fan is operating at maximum speed. The sudden stoppage of vehicle after this high thermal load is known as hot shut down.
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