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Technical Paper

Optimization of Off-Road Mobility and Handling by Anti-Roll Bar Deletion and Shock-Up Tuning on Military Vehicle: A Case Study

2010-10-05
2010-01-1915
A 4t off-road military application vehicle was offered to the customers for assessment. During the evaluation adverse feedback of 1) harsh ride in off-road terrain, particularly during hump-crossing and 2) issues during high mobility were reported. Vehicle configuration was front and rear rigid axle suspension with leaf spring anti-roll bar, 4×4 and all terrain tyres. Vehicle application was “on-road” [GS (General-services)], as well as “off-road” (Reconnaissance purpose). The feedback was critically analyzed on the vehicle with the simulation of field conditions. Since the vehicle was still under customer evaluation, solution for the feedback required was quick and within boundary condition (maximum possible allowable limits of modification) of no major change in the suspension design as it was affects homologation cycle. Present paper describes the detailed analysis of the influence of each parameter on system.
Technical Paper

Development of Methodology for Steering Effort Improvement for Mechanical Steering in Commercial Vehicles

2010-10-05
2010-01-1887
Low steering effort in mechanical steering system is very essential, besides meeting the regulatory norms, to have driving comfort and easy maneuverability on turns. All the components in steering and suspension system plays important role in the resultant steering effort of the vehicle. Of all the factors affecting steering effort, following are identified as high influencing parameters: 1 Steering geometry. 2 Steering system compliance. 3 Friction in steering system linkages like assembly steering column, assembly steering gear box etc. 4 Tyre static friction torque. Present paper describes the detailed analysis of the influence of each parameter on steering system. The above parameters were studied in isolation as well as in combination, to ascertain their effect on steering effort. In a mechanical steering system, the parameters listed above contribute to 35% on steering effort where-in frictional forces itself contributes to 25%.
Technical Paper

Hydropneumatic Suspension Design for Light Military Tracked Vehicle

2012-09-24
2012-01-1911
In this paper hydropneumatic suspension system design methodology for light military tracked vehicle is discussed in detail. A guide to locate the major impact factor & its effect on the system level design is demonstrated. Spring & damping characteristics of hydropneumatic suspension have significant bearing on the tracked vehicle mobility characteristics. A methodology has been derived to optimize the kinematics of the suspension system by optimizing the load transferring leverage ratio resulting in enhanced system life. The paper also discusses the analytical method used for prediction of spring & damping characteristics and the factors affecting them.
Technical Paper

Design for Cabin Tilting System Employing Single Torsion Bar Using Taguchi Optimization Method

2012-09-24
2012-01-2032
Designing a cabin tilting system for Light Commercial Vehicles using a single torsion bar becomes challenging considering the operator safety and stringent design weight targets. Performance of a good tilting system entirely depends on cabin mass and location of centre of gravity with respect to (w.r.t) to tilting pivot point. Cabin Mass and COG location are very difficult to estimate while designing a new cabin as it is dependent on the maturation of all other cabin aggregates and also the accessories added by the customer. Incorporation design parameter changes like increasing cab tilting angle and increasing torsion bar length, in the later stages of product development, becomes expensive. The objective of this paper is to come up with an optimum design of a single torsion bar tilting employing “Taguchi optimization” for deciding the optimum levels of control factors, which ensures desired performance (i.e tilting effort vs.
Technical Paper

Cost Effective Techniques to Maximize Benefits of Entry Segment Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle without Engine Downsizing

2015-01-14
2015-26-0113
Hybridization with engine downsizing is a regular trend to achieve fuel economy benefits. However this leads to a development of new downsized engine which is very costly and time consuming process, also engine downsizing demands for expensive higher power electric system to meet performance targets. Various techniques like gear ratio optimization, reducing number of gears, battery size and control functionalities optimization have been evaluated for maximum fuel economy keeping system cost very low and improving vehicle performance. With optimized gear ratios and reduced number of gears for parallel hybrid, it is possible to operate the engine in the best efficiency zones without downsizing. Motor is selected based on power to weight ratio, gradient requirements, improved acceleration performance and top speed requirement of vehicle in EV mode.
Technical Paper

Prescriptive Modeling, Simulation and Performance Analysis of Mild Hybrid Vehicle and Component Optimization

2015-01-14
2015-26-0010
Reckoning today's environmental rules, legislative regulation and market requirements- the automotive industry of late has witnessed an increased vigor and enthusiasm by auto makers towards electrification of vehicles across all platforms in a bid to improve fuel economy and performance. Hybridization of a vehicle often involves the use of expensive high performance motors and large battery packs. However due to the challenges associated with the packaging of bulky battery and motor systems in existing drive train, mild hybrid systems have been preferred over strong or full hybrids especially in current production models as they don't entail any major change in architecture and the reduced battery size, both of which provide for easier packaging of components.
Technical Paper

Design Methodology of New Generation Noiseless Antiroll Bar Bushes for Car Suspension

2015-01-14
2015-26-0077
In this paper, design methodology of antiroll bar bush is discussed. Typical antiroll bar bushes have slide or slip mechanism, to facilitate the relative motion between ARB and bush. Inherently, this relative motion causes wear and noise of bush. To eliminate stated failure modes, the next generation bushes have been developed, which are using torsion properties instead of slip function. These bushes are already being used in various vehicles. This paper focuses on developing the simple mathematical model, design approach and optimization of ARB bushes. Also, comparison study is presented exploring, the differences and design criteria's between conventional and new generation anti-roll bar bushes.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Intake System for Two Cylinder Naturally Aspirated In-Direct Injection Engine

2004-09-27
2004-32-0030
This paper summarizes the approach towards the process of computational simulation of the intake system and its experimental investigation. It is an important aspect to improve breathing of the diesel engines for performance, torque smoothening and emissions. This can be achieved by optimizing intake system parameters such as plenum volume, diameters, length of ports & runners, etc., which directly correlates the volumetric efficiency, thereby the performance of the engine. Keeping the objective of improving volumetric efficiency to achieve low-end performance, the intake system design optimization has been done on a twin cylinder, four cycle, compression ignition, In-Direct Injection (IDI) engine. For the simpler intake system, the primary pipe length & diameter can be calculated by mathematical formula applying Helmholtz Resonator principle. But, for a complex intake system, simulation software is used here.
Technical Paper

A Mitigation Strategy for Steering Wobble Phenomenon in Passenger Vehicle

2019-01-09
2019-26-0183
Vehicles have a wide range of resonance band due to design nature & characteristics of its aggregates. First order, vehicle speed dependent, wheel disturbance due to wheel imbalances can result in excitation of different vehicle aggregates. Steering wobble refers specifically to first order road wheel excitation effects, in frequency range of 10-16 Hz, that manifest themselves as significant steering wheel torsional vibrations at highway speeds i.e. at the range of 80 km/h to 120 km/h on smooth roads. The tire, being an elastic body analogous to an array of radial springs, may exhibit variations in stiffness about its circumference; hence, it may vibrate at different frequencies due to wheel imbalance. This paper introduces dynamic steering wobble analysis methodology either using vehicle speed at Discrete (individual speeds) or by Sweep (low to high speed) method to investigate steering wobble in the virtual environment using the full vehicle MBD model.
Technical Paper

1D Tire Model Parameter Synthesis for Vehicle Handling Targets Assessment “A Strategy of Optimization and Evaluation of Tire Math’s”

2019-01-09
2019-26-0361
Handling performance of a vehicle is a key characteristic determining the response of vehicle under different operating scenarios. An insight into these vehicle-handling characteristics at early stage can be extremely useful in the design and development process. Tire characterization and tuning is important and mandatory to scrutinize each functional and individual parameter of tire. Tire force and moment data is having a significant effect in vehicle handling. Segregation of tire parameter, which is contributing vehicle-handling performance, helps to identify and perform optimization for improvisation. The main objective of this study is development and integration optimized 1D tire model into multibody dynamics model of the vehicle to observe various vehicle compliances towards its handling performance target.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Shift Quality in a Multi Speed Gearbox of an Electric Vehicle through Synchronizer Location Optimization

2017-03-28
2017-01-1596
Electrical and Series Hybrid Vehicles are generally provided with single speed reduction gearbox. To improve performance and drive range, a two-speed gearbox with coordinated control of traction motor and gearshift actuator is proposed. For a two-speed gearbox, gearshift without clutch would increase the shifting effort. Active Synchronization is introduced for a smoother gearshift even without clutch. The quality of gearshift is considered as a function of applied shift force and time taken. To enhance the quality of the gearshift further, the location of the synchronizer in the transmission system is optimized. To validate the improvement in the quality of the gearshift, a mathematical model of the two-speed gearbox incorporating proposed location of synchronizer assembly along with active synchronization is developed. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results achieved is presented.
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