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Technical Paper

Radiated Noise Reduction in a Single Cylinder Direct Injection (DI) Naturally Aspirated (NA) Engine

Small goods carrier and passenger vehicles powered by Naturally Aspirated (NA) Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines are popular in Indian automobile market. However, they suffer from inherently high radiated noise and poorly perceived sound quality. This paper documents the steps taken to reduce the radiated noise level from such an engine through structural modifications of major noise radiating components identified in the sound power analysis. The work is summarized as follows; Baseline radiated noise measurements of power train and identification of major noise sources through sound intensity mapping and noise source ranking (NSR) in an Engine Noise Test Cell (ENTC) Design modifications for identified major sources in engine structure Vehicle level assessment of the radiated noise in a Vehicle Semi-Anechoic Chamber (VSAC) for all the design modifications. A reduction of 7 dB at hot idle and 4 - 8 dB in loaded speed sweep conditions was observed with the recommended modifications.
Journal Article

Front Under Run Protection Device Strength Test Certification Through FE Simulations

Passive safety regulations specify minimum safety performance requirements of vehicle in terms of protecting its occupants and other road users in accident scenarios. Currently for majority cases, the compliance of vehicle design to passive safety regulations is assessed through physical testing. With increased number of products and more comprehensive passive safety requirements, the complexity of certification is getting challenged due to high cost involved in prototype parts and the market pressures for early product introduction through reduced product development timelines. One of the ways for addressing this challenge is to promote CAE based certification of vehicle designs for regulatory compliance. Since accuracy of CAE predictions have improved over a period of time, such an approach is accepted for few regulations like ECE-R 66/01, AIS069 etc which involves only loadings of the structures.
Technical Paper

Characterization of PU Foam for High Temperature Applications in Automobiles

Due to continuous demands from OEM's to reduce weight and make more compact vehicles, high heat generation from vehicle has become common phenomenon. Thermal insulation is a need of the hour to cater to such demands. The temperature rise is more critical around engine areas. OEM's use many design solutions to cater to such heat build up's. One of the design solutions includes use of thermally insulating materials e.g. Foams, insulating fabrics etc… First section of this paper deals with comparative study of polyurethane (PU) soft foam and rigid skin polyurethane foam. To define the base line, the samples were subjected to various tests to determine physical, thermal and chemical properties. Also both the types of foams were subjected to high temperature and low temperature heat ageing. From the experiments, it was observed that soft PU foam provides better re-bounce property than rigid skin PU foam.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Cabin Comfort in Air Conditioned Buses Using CFD

The objective of the work presented in this paper is to provide an overall CFD evaluation and optimization study of cabin climate control of air-conditioned (AC) city buses. Providing passengers with a comfortable experience is one of the focal point of any bus manufacturer. However, detailed evaluation through testing alone is difficult and not possible during vehicle development. With increasing travel needs and continuous focus on improving passenger experience, CFD supplemented by testing plays an important role in assessing the cabin comfort. The focus of the study is to evaluate the effect of size, shape and number of free-flow and overhead vents on flow distribution inside the cabin. Numerical simulations were carried out using a commercially available CFD code, Fluent®. Realizable k - ε RANS turbulence model was used to model turbulence. Airflow results from numerical simulation were compared with the testing results to evaluate the reliability.
Technical Paper

Comparative Studies of Adhesive Joints in Automotive

Use of adhesives in automotive require in-depth material, design, manufacturing & engineering knowledge. It is also necessary to understand functional requirements. For perfect and flawless adhesive joinery, the exact quantity of adhesive, its material composition, thickness of adhesive layer, substrate preparation methods for adhesive bonding, handling and curing time of the adhesive have to be studied & optimized. This paper attempts to describe different aspects of adhesive bonding in automotive industry to include: Selection of adhesives based on application and design of the components, surface preparation of adherend, designing of adhesive joint, curing conditions of adhesives, testing and validation of adhesive joints. Emphasis was given to study & verify the performance of different adhesive joints to meet end product requirements. Samples were prepared with a variety of adhesive and adherend combinations.
Technical Paper

Shock Tube Simulation in LS-DYNA for Material Failure Characterization

Shock tube is used to simulate blast loading conditions on materials for studying the failure behavior of different materials under blast pressures on smaller scale. This paper describes CAE method developed for simulating shock tube experiment in LS-DYNA3D environment. The objective of shock tube simulation is to characterize material failure parameters so as to predict risk of material failure in full vehicle blast simulations while developing vehicle for blast protection applications. The paper describes modeling of shock wave and its interaction with test specimen in shock tube environment. Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) techniques are applied to simulate shock tube experiment in LS-DYNA3D and simulation predictions are compared with experimental test data. CAE correlation studies were carried out with respect to incident and reflected pressures in shock tube, deformation and plastic strains on test specimen, shock wave velocity etc.
Technical Paper

Development of Exhaust Silencer for Improved Sound Quality and Optimum Back Pressure

For an automotive exhaust system, noise level and back pressure are the most important parameters for passenger comfort and engine performance respectively. The sound quality perception of the existing silencer design was unacceptable, although the back pressure measured was below the target limit. To improve the existing design, few concepts were prepared by changing the internal elements of silencer only. The design constraints were the silencer shell dimensions, volume of silencer, inlet pipe and outlet tailpipe positions, which had to be kept same as that of the existing base design. The sound quality signal replaying and synthesizing was performed to define the desired sound quality. The numerical simulation involves 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with appropriate boundary condition having less numerical diffusions to predict the back pressure. The various silencer concepts developed with this preliminary analysis, was then experimentally verified with the numerical data.
Journal Article

Practical Approach to Develop Low Cost, Energy Efficient Cabin Heating for Extreme Cold Operating Environment

In cold climatic regions (25°C below zero) thermal comfort inside vehicle cabin plays a vital role for safety of driver and crew members. This comfortable and safe environment can be achieved either by utilizing available heat of engine coolant in conjunction with optimized in cab air circulation or by deploying more costly options such as auxiliary heaters, e.g., Fuel Fired, Positive Temperature Coefficient heaters. The typical vehicle cabin heating system effectiveness depends on optimized warm/hot air discharge through instrument panel and foot vents, air directivity to occupant's chest and foot zones and overall air flow distribution inside the vehicle cabin. On engine side it depends on engine coolant warm up and flow rate, coolant pipe routing, coolant leakage through engine thermostat and heater core construction and capacity.
Journal Article

A Case Study of Reaction Time Reduction of Vehicle Brake System

There has to be a good co-relation/ relationship between the pedal effort applied, pedal travel, deceleration level achieved and stopping distance for “good brake feel”. Brake feel also depend upon the time lag between the force applied on brake pedal and the response of braking system. Hence “brake feel” can be improved by reducing the response time of the brake system. Many vehicles are having “poor brake feel” complaints, pertaining to the above mentioned reasons. This paper relates to an improved brake system for automobile in which reduction in reaction time was done by artificially increasing differential pressure head across vacuum booster diaphragm. Brake booster is given an input of compressed air to the valve body during actuation, thereby increasing the differential pressure across the diaphragm. The compressed air is bled from turbocharger-intercooler of the vehicle which is stored in a reservoir, with one way valve, while cruising.
Technical Paper

Combustion Mechanical Breakdown: A Comparison of the Multiple Regression Method versus the Coherence Method for a HSDI Diesel Powertrain

In the automotive industry there are now several methodologies available to estimate the Combustion Mechanical Breakdown (CMB) of engine radiated noise. This paper compares the results of two different CMB analysis methodologies (multiple regression vs. coherence) performed on a HSDI diesel powertrain installed in an Engine Noise Test Cell (ENTC) and highlights the specific differences in the way each method defines combustion and mechanical noise.
Technical Paper

Application of a Pre-Turbocharger Catalyst (PTC) on an Indian Multi Utility Diesel Vehicle for Meeting BS IV

Diesel engines tend to operate on lower exhaust temperatures, compared to their gasoline counterparts. Exhaust emission control becomes a significant issue at these lower temperatures, as any catalytic converter needs certain light off temperature to commence functioning. The trend so far has been to move the catalytic converters closer to the exhaust manifold, in order to get the benefit of higher temperatures - but most of the applications are limited to the location available after the turbo chargers. This is due the fact that very minute and efficient catalyst is required, if it has to be placed before the turbo charger. This catalyst also needs to be extremely durable to take care of high exotherms which occur within the catalysts and also to prevent any possible damage to the turbo chargers.
Technical Paper

Deployment of CFD for Optimization of the Air Flow Distribution Over the Windscreen and Prediction of Defrost Performance

In recent times, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation tools have been deployed by automotive OEMs for investigating Climate Control applications. In automotive vehicles, one such critical application is designing defroster nozzles with least flow resistance to carry hot air from HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning) unit and dispersing it onto the windscreen and side glasses to clear mist and ice. Clearance of windscreen and side window glass has a high importance for safe driving as mist and ice formation affects driver's visibility and comfort while driving in humid and snowy conditions respectively. In the present study, a half cabin model of the vehicle is prepared using commercial software package ICEM CFD as grid generation tool and CFD analysis is carried out using commercial software package FLUENT 6.3 to optimize the air flow distribution over the windscreen and then to predict defrost performance prior to full scale climatic wind tunnel tests.
Technical Paper

Challenges to Meet New Noise Regulations and New Noise Limits for M and N Category Vehicles

New noise regulations, with reduced noise limits, have been proposed by UN-ECE. A new method which aims at representing urban driving of the vehicles more closely on roads is proposed and is considerably different from the existing one (IS 3028:1998). It is more complex; we also found that some of the low powered vehicles can not be tested as per this method. The paper proposes ways of improvement in the test method. The new noise reduction policy options will have a considerable impact on compliance of many categories of vehicles. Technological challenges, before the manufacturers, to meet all performance needs of the vehicle along with the cost of development will be critical to meet the new noise limits in the proposed time frame.
Technical Paper

Approach for Dynamic Analysis of Automotive Exhaust System

The automotive industry is heading in the direction of signing off the exhaust system durability based on computer simulation rather than rig simulation and physical vehicle testing. This is due to the cost, time and availability of prototype vehicles and test track. Use of Finite Element Method (FEM) enables to assure the structural integrity of the exhaust system and also contribute to better understanding of the system behavior in the various operating conditions and evaluation of structural strength. This paper deals with dynamic analysis of a modular automotive exhaust system where it is directly mounted on power train pack. Selection of dynamic loads, processing of the test data, and effect of assembly loads along with material property variation due to temperature are explained. It also includes validation of the CAE model, prediction of probable failure locations and improving the design based on analysis outcome.
Technical Paper

Suspension Testing using Wheel Forces on a 3 DOF Road Load Simulator

The use of Wheel Force Transducers (WFTs) to acquire data for laboratory simulation is becoming standard industry practice. However, in test rigs where we have only the suspension module and not the complete vehicle, does the reproduction of the orthogonal forces and moments at the wheel centre guarantee an accurate replication of the fatigue damage in the suspension components? The objective of this paper is to review the simulation methodology for a highly non-linear suspension in a 3 DOF (degree-of-freedom) suspension test rig in which the simulation was carried out using only the three orthogonal loads and vertical displacement. The damage at critical locations in the suspension is compared with that on the road and an assessment of the simulation using the WFT is made based on a comparison of the damage on the road vs. the rig.
Technical Paper

Development of Accelerated Life Test Schedule for Rig Testing of Live Axles Based on Road Load Data and Its Correlation with Field

Drive components of live axle undergoes different loading conditions during field usage depending upon terrain conditions, vehicle loading and traffic conditions etc. During vehicle running, drive components of axle experiences variable torque levels, which results in the fatigue damage of the components. Testing of these drive components of axle on test rig for endurance life is an imperative part of axle development, owing to limitations of vehicle testing because of time and cost involved. Similarly, correlating field failures with rig testing is equally critical. In such situation, if a test cycle is derived correlating the field usage, rig testing can be effectively used for accelerated life testing and reliability prediction of these components. An approach is presented in the paper wherein test cycle is derived based on the data collected on vehicle in the field under service road and loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Methodology Development to Accurately Predict Aerodynamic Drag and Lift for Passenger Vehicles Using CFD.

Important vehicle performance parameters such as, fuel economy and high speed stability are directly influenced by its aerodynamic drag and lift. Wind tunnel testing to asses these parameters requires heavy investment especially when test wind tunnel is not available in the country where vehicle development center is present. Hence to save cost and to compress development time, it is essential to asses and optimize parameters of a vehicle in very early stages of development. Using numerical flow simulations optimization runs can be carried out digitally. Industry demands prediction of aerodynamic drag and lift coefficients (CD,CL) within an accuracy of a few counts, consuming minimal HPC resources and in a short turnaround time. Different OEMs deploy different testing methods and different softwares for numerical simulations.