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Journal Article

Influence of Vehicle Front End Design on Pedestrian Lower Leg Performance for SUV Class Vehicle

Accident statistics shows pedestrian accident fatalities as one of the important concerns globally. In view of this, new test protocols for pedestrian safety have been drafted in regulation as well as in consumer group. Also as per new ENCAP requirements, pedestrian safety assessment is used as one of the four assessment criteria's (Adult protection, child safety, pedestrian safety, safety assist) in deciding the overall vehicle safety. Hence today importance of pedestrian safety is perceived as never before in vehicle development program. Basically pedestrian safety evaluation involves subsystem level (head form, upper leg form and lower leg form) impact tests representing human body parts, at specific region on test vehicle with injury limits to decide the severity of impact. In general these injuries are governed by vehicle styling, vehicle stiffness, hard points clearances from vehicle exterior like bonnet, bumper etc.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian Head Form and Lower Leg Impact Sensitivity Study Through CAE Simulations

Pedestrian impact test procedures allow tolerances on test conditions of impact such as mass of the impactor, impactor position, impact speed etc. The variation in these parameters affects the injury measurements in a test. This paper focuses on sensitivity study of variations in these parameters, within specified tolerances, on head form impact and lower leg impact injury measurements. The aim of this sensitivity study is to find out the most influencing test parameter for the injuries. The exercise was carried out using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) simulations.
Technical Paper

A Study on Improvements in Side Impact Test vs CAE Structural Correlation

Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) plays an important role in the product development. Now a days major decisions like concept selection and design sign off are taken based on CAE. All the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are putting consistent efforts to improve accuracy of the CAE results. In recent years confidence on CAE prediction has been increased mainly because of good correlation of CAE predictions with the test results. Defining proper correlation criteria and using a systematic approach helps significantly in building the overall confidence level for predictions given by CAE simulations. Representation of manufacturing effects on material properties and material failure in the simulation is still a big challenge for achieving a good CAE correlation. This paper describes side impact test vs CAE correlation. The important parameters affecting the CAE correlation were discussed.
Technical Paper

Study of Parameters Influencing the Chest Deflection of Hybrid III Dummy in Crash Tests

Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) are the backbone of any crash research lab, their performance during the crash tests being of paramount importance to assess the vehicle performance. The Hybrid III 50th percentile dummy (H350) is one of the most recognized and accepted ATD for research in this field. However several unusual results of the dummy injuries in a vehicle crash test indicate some discrepancies exists in the dummy design. This prompted researchers to investigate such things and this paper is based on a project conducted to study the chest deflection of the hybrid 350 dummy. The project deals with assessing the dummy's chest deflection response sensitivity to load location as well as ambient operating conditions. The scope involved testing of the dummy chest by loading it quasi-statically on a UTM as well as dynamically impacting it on the dummy calibration rig. The chest deflection or thorax displacement data and loading data was gathered and analyzed further.
Technical Paper

FE Prediction of Thermal Performance and Stresses in a Disc Brake System

The brake system is one of the most critical systems in the automotive vehicle. Its design is a challenging task since stringent performance and packaging requirements are to be fully met - optimizing the brake performance and weight of the brake system. The brake disc is an important component in the braking system which is expected to withstand and dissipate the heat generated during the braking event. Validation of brake disc design through CAE/FEA is presented in this paper. The procedure for prediction of thermal performance was developed in-house, tuned and verified by correlating with Test data available for existing-design and then applied to the new-design brake disc. The correlation achieved for the existing-design brake disc (both solid and ventilated), procedure for prediction of thermo-mechanical performance (heat transfer coefficient estimation, temperature distribution etc.) are also included.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Windshield Defrost Characteristics Impact on Occupant Thermal Comfort

During cabin warm-up, effective air distribution by vehicle climate control systems plays a vital role. For adequate visibility to the driver, major portion of the air is required to be delivered through the defrost center ducts to clear the windshield. HVAC unit deliver hot air with help of cabin heater and PTC heater. When hot air interacts with cold windshield it causes thermal losses, and windshield act as sink. This process may causes in delay of cabin warming during consecutive cabin warming process. Thus it becomes essential to predict the effect of different windscreen defrost characteristics. In this paper, sensitivity analysis is carried for different windscreen defrosts characteristics like ambient conditions, modes of operation; change in material properties along with occupant thermal comfort is predicted. An integrated 1D/3D CFD approach is proposed to evaluate these conditions.
Technical Paper

Thermal Performance Prediction of Jet Lubricated Transmission System using Computational Methods

The jet lubrication method is extensively used in the constant mesh high performance transmission system operating at range of speeds though it affects mechanical efficiency through spin power loss. The lubrication jet has a key role to maintain the meshing gears at non-fatal thermal equilibrium by effectively dissipating the heat generated to the surrounding. Heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is the indicator of the thermal behavior of the system, which provides great insight of efficient lubrication system that needs to be employed for prescribed type of transmission. In this study, a segment of the transmission unit which constitutes a gear pair is used for the simulation. Parametric study is carried out by considering the critical parameters affecting the thermal performance such as lubrication jet flow rate and rotational motions of the gears with speeds and temperatures.
Technical Paper

Design of Experiments Enabled CFD Approach for Optimizing Cooling Fan Performance

Increasing demands on engine power to meet increased load carrying capacity and adherence to emission norms have necessitated the need to improve thermal management system of the vehicle. The efficiency of the vehicle cooling system strongly depends on the fan and fan-shroud design and, designing an optimum fan and fan-shroud has been a challenge for the designer. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques are being increasingly used to perform virtual tests to predict and optimize the performance of fan and fan-shroud assembly. However, these CFD based optimization are mostly based on a single performance parameter. In addition, the sequential choice of input parameters in such optimization exercise leads to a large number of CFD simulations that are required to optimize the performance over the complete range of design and operating envelope. As a result, the optimization is carried out over a limited range of design and operating envelope only.