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Journal Article

Influence of Vehicle Front End Design on Pedestrian Lower Leg Performance for SUV Class Vehicle

Accident statistics shows pedestrian accident fatalities as one of the important concerns globally. In view of this, new test protocols for pedestrian safety have been drafted in regulation as well as in consumer group. Also as per new ENCAP requirements, pedestrian safety assessment is used as one of the four assessment criteria's (Adult protection, child safety, pedestrian safety, safety assist) in deciding the overall vehicle safety. Hence today importance of pedestrian safety is perceived as never before in vehicle development program. Basically pedestrian safety evaluation involves subsystem level (head form, upper leg form and lower leg form) impact tests representing human body parts, at specific region on test vehicle with injury limits to decide the severity of impact. In general these injuries are governed by vehicle styling, vehicle stiffness, hard points clearances from vehicle exterior like bonnet, bumper etc.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian Head Form and Lower Leg Impact Sensitivity Study Through CAE Simulations

Pedestrian impact test procedures allow tolerances on test conditions of impact such as mass of the impactor, impactor position, impact speed etc. The variation in these parameters affects the injury measurements in a test. This paper focuses on sensitivity study of variations in these parameters, within specified tolerances, on head form impact and lower leg impact injury measurements. The aim of this sensitivity study is to find out the most influencing test parameter for the injuries. The exercise was carried out using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) simulations.
Technical Paper

A Study on Improvements in Side Impact Test vs CAE Structural Correlation

Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) plays an important role in the product development. Now a days major decisions like concept selection and design sign off are taken based on CAE. All the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are putting consistent efforts to improve accuracy of the CAE results. In recent years confidence on CAE prediction has been increased mainly because of good correlation of CAE predictions with the test results. Defining proper correlation criteria and using a systematic approach helps significantly in building the overall confidence level for predictions given by CAE simulations. Representation of manufacturing effects on material properties and material failure in the simulation is still a big challenge for achieving a good CAE correlation. This paper describes side impact test vs CAE correlation. The important parameters affecting the CAE correlation were discussed.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Selection of Restraints Sensing Configurations in Context of Real World Applications

Restraints systems (airbags and seat belts) have been proven to be very effective in occupant protection in crashes. Timely deployment of these devices is very essential for meeting performance requirements. Precision and reliability in restraints deployments demand selection of a robust sensing configuration that caters to the wide variations of real world. This paper highlights complexities involved in engineering of restraints sensing configurations through different case studies on vehicle programs. The paper explains the need for restraints sensing configuration optimization and well defined sensing strategies for a robust solution in real world. A methodology is discussed to achieve good discrimination between crashes of different types and severities. Virtual and physical test data collected at different stages of vehicle development is used. It is found that criteria for threshold levels in restraints sensing requires efforts to identify real world usage variations.
Technical Paper

Performance Driven Package Feasibility of Side Restraints Using KBE Tools

Integrating safety features may lead to changes in vehicle interior component designs. Considering this complexity, design guidelines have to take care of aspects which may help in package feasibility studies that consider systems performance requirements. Occupant restraints systems for protection in side crashes generally comprise of Side Airbag (SAB) and Curtain Airbag (IC). These components have to be integrated considering design and styling aspects of interior trims, seat contours and body structure for performance efficient package definition. In side crashes, occupant injury risk increases due to hard contact with intruding structure. This risk could be minimized by cushioning the occupant contact through provision of SAB and Inflatable IC. This paper explains the methodology for deciding the package definitions using Knowlwdge Based Engineering (KBE) tools.
Technical Paper

Study of Parameters Influencing the Chest Deflection of Hybrid III Dummy in Crash Tests

Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) are the backbone of any crash research lab, their performance during the crash tests being of paramount importance to assess the vehicle performance. The Hybrid III 50th percentile dummy (H350) is one of the most recognized and accepted ATD for research in this field. However several unusual results of the dummy injuries in a vehicle crash test indicate some discrepancies exists in the dummy design. This prompted researchers to investigate such things and this paper is based on a project conducted to study the chest deflection of the hybrid 350 dummy. The project deals with assessing the dummy's chest deflection response sensitivity to load location as well as ambient operating conditions. The scope involved testing of the dummy chest by loading it quasi-statically on a UTM as well as dynamically impacting it on the dummy calibration rig. The chest deflection or thorax displacement data and loading data was gathered and analyzed further.
Technical Paper

FE Prediction of Thermal Performance and Stresses in a Disc Brake System

The brake system is one of the most critical systems in the automotive vehicle. Its design is a challenging task since stringent performance and packaging requirements are to be fully met - optimizing the brake performance and weight of the brake system. The brake disc is an important component in the braking system which is expected to withstand and dissipate the heat generated during the braking event. Validation of brake disc design through CAE/FEA is presented in this paper. The procedure for prediction of thermal performance was developed in-house, tuned and verified by correlating with Test data available for existing-design and then applied to the new-design brake disc. The correlation achieved for the existing-design brake disc (both solid and ventilated), procedure for prediction of thermo-mechanical performance (heat transfer coefficient estimation, temperature distribution etc.) are also included.
Technical Paper

Interior Trims Design Considerations for Roof Mounted Curtain Airbag

Curtain airbag design offers protection in side crash and it plays a critical role in safety of the vehicle. Curtain airbag provides protection to the occupant in many impact events like frontal offset, side barrier, and side pole and rollover condition. For a vehicle to be safe for any side impact condition, the curtain airbag should deploy and take its final shape before any injury happens to the occupant. During deployment, it is important that the airbag chooses a path of minimum resistance and does not get entangled in interior trims. In reality, the trims always do obstruct the path of airbag deployment in some way. Hence, special care has to be taken care for designing areas surrounding curtain like providing hinges, deflector components etc. to avoid being caught. There are about ten different factors on this deployment is dependent upon. This paper discusses these factors and the effect of the factors on the trims and airbag development.
Technical Paper

Crash Pulse Characterization for Restraints System Performance Optimization

The vehicle crash signature (here on referred as crash pulse) significantly affects occupant restraints system performance in frontal crash events. Restraints system optimization is usually undertaken in later phase of product development. This leads to sub-optimal configurations and performance, as no opportunity exists to tune vehicle structure and occupant package layouts. In concept phase of development, crash pulse characterization helps to map occupant package environment with available structure crush space and stiffness. The crash pulse slope, peaks, average values at discrete time intervals, can be tuned considering library of restraints parameters. This would help to derive an optimal occupant kinematics and occupant-restraints interaction in crash event. A case study has been explained in this paper to highlight the methodology.
Technical Paper

Reduce Cost of Product Design using Unit FE Simulation

The unit analysis methodology can be used for designing component or product in a product development process. This method may be used for designing the crush can, bumper beam, crush can long member, B-frame or A-pillar in frontal impact analysis. Unit assembly model technique can be effectively used in many CAE load cases to evaluate CAE simulations such as pedestrian impact analysis (ECE R78 / ENCAP), interior trim related head impact simulations (FMVSS201U), under run protection simulation for commercial vehicles (Front Underrun Protection Device ECE R93, Rear Underrun Protection Device ECE R58, Side Underrun Protection Device ECE R73), airbag deployment optimization etc. These CAE analyses correlate better with actual test. This paper gives idea about how the cost of product design can be reduced by using unit analysis. To reduce time of vehicle development such as cost of prototype, testing cost, optimization cost unit analysis is more economical.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Windshield Defrost Characteristics Impact on Occupant Thermal Comfort

During cabin warm-up, effective air distribution by vehicle climate control systems plays a vital role. For adequate visibility to the driver, major portion of the air is required to be delivered through the defrost center ducts to clear the windshield. HVAC unit deliver hot air with help of cabin heater and PTC heater. When hot air interacts with cold windshield it causes thermal losses, and windshield act as sink. This process may causes in delay of cabin warming during consecutive cabin warming process. Thus it becomes essential to predict the effect of different windscreen defrost characteristics. In this paper, sensitivity analysis is carried for different windscreen defrosts characteristics like ambient conditions, modes of operation; change in material properties along with occupant thermal comfort is predicted. An integrated 1D/3D CFD approach is proposed to evaluate these conditions.
Technical Paper

Adhesive Failure Prediction in Crash Simulations

Structural adhesive is a good alternative to provide required strength at joinery of similar and dissimilar materials. Adhesive joinery plays a critical role to maintain structural integrity during vehicle crash scenario. Robust adhesive failure definitions are critical for accurate predictions of structural performance in crash Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) simulations. In this paper, structural adhesive material characterization challenges like comprehensive In-house testing and CAE correlation aspects are discussed. Considering the crash loading complexity, test plan is devised for identification of strength and failure characteristics at 0°, 45°, 75°, 90°, and Peel loading conditions. Coupon level test samples were prepared with high temperature curing of structural adhesive along with metal panels. Test fixtures were prepared to carryout testing using Instron VHS machine under quasi-static and dynamic loading.
Technical Paper

Influence of Honeycomb Cellular Meso-structure on Frontal Crash Analysis for Passenger Vehicle

Frontal collisions account for majority of car accidents. Various measures have been taken by the automotive OEMs’ with regards to passive safety. Honeycomb meso-structural inserts in the front bumper have been suggested to enhance the energy absorption of the front structure which is favorable for passive safety. This paper presents the changes in energy absorption capacity of hexagonal honeycomb structures with varying cellular geometries; under frontal impact simulations. Honeycomb cellular metamaterial structure offers many distinct advantages over homogenous materials since their effective material properties depend on both, their constituent material properties and their cell geometric configurations. The effective static mechanical properties such as; the modulus of elasticity, modulus of rigidity and Poisson’s ratio of the honeycomb cellular meso-structures are controlled by variations in their cellular geometry.
Technical Paper

Thermal Performance Prediction of Jet Lubricated Transmission System using Computational Methods

The jet lubrication method is extensively used in the constant mesh high performance transmission system operating at range of speeds though it affects mechanical efficiency through spin power loss. The lubrication jet has a key role to maintain the meshing gears at non-fatal thermal equilibrium by effectively dissipating the heat generated to the surrounding. Heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is the indicator of the thermal behavior of the system, which provides great insight of efficient lubrication system that needs to be employed for prescribed type of transmission. In this study, a segment of the transmission unit which constitutes a gear pair is used for the simulation. Parametric study is carried out by considering the critical parameters affecting the thermal performance such as lubrication jet flow rate and rotational motions of the gears with speeds and temperatures.
Technical Paper

Design of Experiments Enabled CFD Approach for Optimizing Cooling Fan Performance

Increasing demands on engine power to meet increased load carrying capacity and adherence to emission norms have necessitated the need to improve thermal management system of the vehicle. The efficiency of the vehicle cooling system strongly depends on the fan and fan-shroud design and, designing an optimum fan and fan-shroud has been a challenge for the designer. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques are being increasingly used to perform virtual tests to predict and optimize the performance of fan and fan-shroud assembly. However, these CFD based optimization are mostly based on a single performance parameter. In addition, the sequential choice of input parameters in such optimization exercise leads to a large number of CFD simulations that are required to optimize the performance over the complete range of design and operating envelope. As a result, the optimization is carried out over a limited range of design and operating envelope only.
Technical Paper

Headliner Trim Design Methodology Development with Finite Element Simulation and Optimization Considering Multi Domain Performance

Passenger cars in the top segment have seen fast growth over the last few decades with an increasing focus on luxury, convenience, safety and the quality of driver experience. The headliner is a decorative and functional trim system covering the underside of the roof panel. It enhances the aesthetics and elegance of the car interiors. In premium vehicles, the headliner system has to suffice interior quietness and integrity apart from the performance and regulatory requirements. The Design Validation Plan requirements cover its contribution to the vehicle interior noise control, occupant safety, and perception of build quality. Contributions can be very significant and primarily be determined by design and material parameters. Also, headliner interactions with an adjacent body in white structure are crucial from performance point of view. Various foam options are available with different functions such as structural, acoustic, and energy-absorption.