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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Cabin Comfort in Air Conditioned Buses Using CFD

The objective of the work presented in this paper is to provide an overall CFD evaluation and optimization study of cabin climate control of air-conditioned (AC) city buses. Providing passengers with a comfortable experience is one of the focal point of any bus manufacturer. However, detailed evaluation through testing alone is difficult and not possible during vehicle development. With increasing travel needs and continuous focus on improving passenger experience, CFD supplemented by testing plays an important role in assessing the cabin comfort. The focus of the study is to evaluate the effect of size, shape and number of free-flow and overhead vents on flow distribution inside the cabin. Numerical simulations were carried out using a commercially available CFD code, Fluent®. Realizable k - ε RANS turbulence model was used to model turbulence. Airflow results from numerical simulation were compared with the testing results to evaluate the reliability.
Technical Paper

CAE Simulation of Door Sag/Set Using Subsystem Level Approach

The performance of door assembly is very significant for the vehicle design and door sag/set is one of the important attribute for design of door assembly. This paper provides an overview of conventional approach for door sag/set study based on door-hinge-BIW assembly (system level approach) and its limitation over new approach based on subassembly (subsystem level approach). The door sag/set simulation at system level is the most common approach adopted across auto industry. This approach evaluates only structural adequacy of door assembly system for sag load. To find key contributor for door sagging is always been time consuming task with conventional approach thus there is a delay in providing design enablers to meet the design target. New approach of door sag/set at “subsystem level” evaluates the structural stiffness contribution of individual subsystem. It support for setting up the target at subsystem level, which integrate and regulate the system level performance.
Technical Paper

FE Prediction of Thermal Performance and Stresses in a Disc Brake System

The brake system is one of the most critical systems in the automotive vehicle. Its design is a challenging task since stringent performance and packaging requirements are to be fully met - optimizing the brake performance and weight of the brake system. The brake disc is an important component in the braking system which is expected to withstand and dissipate the heat generated during the braking event. Validation of brake disc design through CAE/FEA is presented in this paper. The procedure for prediction of thermal performance was developed in-house, tuned and verified by correlating with Test data available for existing-design and then applied to the new-design brake disc. The correlation achieved for the existing-design brake disc (both solid and ventilated), procedure for prediction of thermo-mechanical performance (heat transfer coefficient estimation, temperature distribution etc.) are also included.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Model to Evaluate and Optimize the Dynamic Performance of Pneumatic Brake System

Pneumatic brake system is widely used in heavy truck, medium and heavy buses for its great superiority and braking performance over other brake systems. Pneumatic brake system consists of various valves such as Dual Brake Valve (DBV), Quick release Valve (QRV), Relay Valve (RV), Brake chambers. Dynamics of each valve is playing a crucial role in overall dynamic performance of the braking system. However, it is very difficult to find the contribution of each valve and pipe diameters in overall braking performance. Hence, it is very difficult to arrive a best combination for targeted braking performance as it is not possible to evaluate all combination on the actual vehicle. Hence, it is very important to have a mathematical model to optimize and evaluate the overall braking performance in early design phase. The present study is focusing on the mathematical model of a pneumatic brake circuit.
Technical Paper

Reduce Cost of Product Design using Unit FE Simulation

The unit analysis methodology can be used for designing component or product in a product development process. This method may be used for designing the crush can, bumper beam, crush can long member, B-frame or A-pillar in frontal impact analysis. Unit assembly model technique can be effectively used in many CAE load cases to evaluate CAE simulations such as pedestrian impact analysis (ECE R78 / ENCAP), interior trim related head impact simulations (FMVSS201U), under run protection simulation for commercial vehicles (Front Underrun Protection Device ECE R93, Rear Underrun Protection Device ECE R58, Side Underrun Protection Device ECE R73), airbag deployment optimization etc. These CAE analyses correlate better with actual test. This paper gives idea about how the cost of product design can be reduced by using unit analysis. To reduce time of vehicle development such as cost of prototype, testing cost, optimization cost unit analysis is more economical.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Windshield Defrost Characteristics Impact on Occupant Thermal Comfort

During cabin warm-up, effective air distribution by vehicle climate control systems plays a vital role. For adequate visibility to the driver, major portion of the air is required to be delivered through the defrost center ducts to clear the windshield. HVAC unit deliver hot air with help of cabin heater and PTC heater. When hot air interacts with cold windshield it causes thermal losses, and windshield act as sink. This process may causes in delay of cabin warming during consecutive cabin warming process. Thus it becomes essential to predict the effect of different windscreen defrost characteristics. In this paper, sensitivity analysis is carried for different windscreen defrosts characteristics like ambient conditions, modes of operation; change in material properties along with occupant thermal comfort is predicted. An integrated 1D/3D CFD approach is proposed to evaluate these conditions.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Sheet Metal Bracket by Use of Thermoplastics

Reducing overall weight of the vehicle is one of the main areas of research in automotive industries. Current trend, CO2 reduction, is a major incentive for this process. For this, engineers are finding out various ways to reduce weight to strength ratio of the different components. The immediate pay-off of such developments is lower fuel consumption, which is followed by lower CO2 emissions. For this engineers opt for, use of low-density and high-strength materials, along with optimization of the geometry of the components. One of the solutions is to convert metal parts to plastics which have desired properties. The main focus of this paper is to convert the sheet metal brackets to plastic brackets which will ultimately reduce weight and production cost associated with automobile. In this paper, an optimum process, using Topology optimization and Mold Flow Analysis, is developed to convert sheet metal bracket to plastic bracket.
Technical Paper

Thermal Performance Prediction of Jet Lubricated Transmission System using Computational Methods

The jet lubrication method is extensively used in the constant mesh high performance transmission system operating at range of speeds though it affects mechanical efficiency through spin power loss. The lubrication jet has a key role to maintain the meshing gears at non-fatal thermal equilibrium by effectively dissipating the heat generated to the surrounding. Heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is the indicator of the thermal behavior of the system, which provides great insight of efficient lubrication system that needs to be employed for prescribed type of transmission. In this study, a segment of the transmission unit which constitutes a gear pair is used for the simulation. Parametric study is carried out by considering the critical parameters affecting the thermal performance such as lubrication jet flow rate and rotational motions of the gears with speeds and temperatures.
Technical Paper

Design of Experiments Enabled CFD Approach for Optimizing Cooling Fan Performance

Increasing demands on engine power to meet increased load carrying capacity and adherence to emission norms have necessitated the need to improve thermal management system of the vehicle. The efficiency of the vehicle cooling system strongly depends on the fan and fan-shroud design and, designing an optimum fan and fan-shroud has been a challenge for the designer. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques are being increasingly used to perform virtual tests to predict and optimize the performance of fan and fan-shroud assembly. However, these CFD based optimization are mostly based on a single performance parameter. In addition, the sequential choice of input parameters in such optimization exercise leads to a large number of CFD simulations that are required to optimize the performance over the complete range of design and operating envelope. As a result, the optimization is carried out over a limited range of design and operating envelope only.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Steering Column Layout and UJ Phase Angle to Enhance Vehicle Dynamics Performance

Vehicle dynamics is one of the most important vehicle attributes. It is classified into three domains, the longitudinal, vertical, and lateral dynamics. This paper focuses on optimizing the lateral vehicle dynamics which is driven by the straight ahead controllability and cornering controllability of the vehicle. One of the important parameters that dictates these sub-attributes is the steering ratio. Therefore, designing the right steering ratio is critical to meet the vehicle “specific” targets. Significant amount of work has been done by many researchers on variable steering ratio by implementing variable gear ratio (VGR) rack, active steering, and steer-by-wire systems. This paper discusses the methodology and considerations to optimize the steering ratio for a constant gear ratio rack by optimizing the steering column layout, viz., orientation and the phase angle in universal joints.
Technical Paper

Body in White Weight Optimization Using Equivalent Static Loads

Structural optimization has evolved vastly based on the development of computational based analysis – CAE. Structural optimization is usually a linear static response optimization because nonlinear response structural optimization is very expensive to perform. But in the real world, most of the automobile load cases are non-linear in nature. Equivalent static load structural optimization is a structural optimization method where Equivalent Static Loads (ESLs) are utilized as external loads for linear static response optimization. ESL is defined as the static load that generates the similar displacement by an analysis which is not linear static. This paper explains the development of a weight optimized BIW structure from an already existing model satisfying the NVH and Crash requirements. Basic structural crash loads are converted into ESLs with appropriate constraints.
Technical Paper

Design & Development of Metal Matrix Based Mounting Bracket for Commercial Vehicle Application

Automakers are being subjected to increasingly strict fuel economy requirements which led OEMs to focus more on Light weighting and Energy efficiency areas. Considering the aforesaid challenges, efforts have been taken in Light weighting of mounting bracket for Engine application. This paper deals with conversion of Engine accessory bracket from Aluminum material to Metal Matrix composite (MMC). In Design phase, existing bracket has been studied for its structural requirements and further Bracket is designed to meet MMC process requirement and CAE carried out for topology optimization and Structural integrity. Finally observations and results were compared for Existing design and Proposed design and further optimization proposed.
Technical Paper

Enhancing Productivity in Design by Front Loading and Simultaneous Engineering Using CAD Morphing

Automotive OEMs are launching multiple products with ever reducing development time, balancing costs, quality and time to market, with clear focus on performance and weight. Platform architecture concepts, modular designs for differentiation etc. are strategies adopted by automotive OEMs towards shorter development cycles. Thus, concept generation phase of the digital product development process is expected to enable generation and evaluation of multiple concept architectures, carry out performance studies and largely focus on optimization, upfront. This Front loading of engineering and call for simultaneous engineering requires support in terms of quick and good CAD modeling with maturity. This paper proposes a process that focuses on generation and evaluation of multiple concepts, besides enabling optimization of concept before the detailed design phase kicks in.
Technical Paper

Headliner Trim Design Methodology Development with Finite Element Simulation and Optimization Considering Multi Domain Performance

Passenger cars in the top segment have seen fast growth over the last few decades with an increasing focus on luxury, convenience, safety and the quality of driver experience. The headliner is a decorative and functional trim system covering the underside of the roof panel. It enhances the aesthetics and elegance of the car interiors. In premium vehicles, the headliner system has to suffice interior quietness and integrity apart from the performance and regulatory requirements. The Design Validation Plan requirements cover its contribution to the vehicle interior noise control, occupant safety, and perception of build quality. Contributions can be very significant and primarily be determined by design and material parameters. Also, headliner interactions with an adjacent body in white structure are crucial from performance point of view. Various foam options are available with different functions such as structural, acoustic, and energy-absorption.