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Technical Paper

Gaugeless Tooling

1998-09-15
982147
At The Boeing Company, the advent of a Determinant Assembly (DA) program and the subsequent production of accurate fuselage subpanels created a need to be able to position subpanels accurately and repeatably during fuselage assembly. The tool engineering organization of The Boeing Company and Advanced Integration Technology, Inc. (AIT) as the prime contractor, are developing and installing automated positioning and alignment systems throughout major 747 fuselage assembly areas which enable DA techniques. The benefits of this assembly approach and this automated precision tooling are flexibility, assembly accuracy, ease of assembly and associated speed, reduced downtime for tool maintenance, and improved shop-floor ergonomics.
Technical Paper

Machine Readable Coding of 777 Wing Fastening Systems Tooling

1998-09-15
982133
This paper presents a detailed overview of the advantages and benefits of using 2-D barcodes, called Data Matrix codes, on Wing Fastening System (WFS) Tooling. This project was conducted on, but not limited to, the 777 Wing Fastening System (GEMCOR) tooling including the drills, fingers, and button dies. This paper will show how using Data Matrix codes to identify tooling will: Eliminate excessive downtime due to the operator using the incorrect tooling for a given tool setup. Reduce the cost associated with panel rework due to the use of incorrect tooling. Reduce the cost associated with excessive tool inventory or last minute ordering to keep up with production needs. Track tool life information for each specific tool. Provide operators with an easy to use tool setup reference document. And provide the factory with the ability to trace panel damage or defects back to the specific machine and exact tooling used.
Technical Paper

Development of Cold Working Process for 4340M Steel

1995-09-01
952167
A new process has been developed to cold work fastener holes on commercial aircraft flap tracks fabricated of 4340M steel. The process consists of pressing a high strength solid mandrel through a previously prepared hole in a defined manner. This process exhibits high tool life, low overall cost and eliminates the necessity for a final ream operation.
Technical Paper

Process Automation Through-Reality Graphics, Kitting, and Automated Panel Protection

1997-09-30
972806
This paper addresses process improvements through reality graphics (RG) aided by automated panel protection (APP) and tool kitting pertaining to automated wing riveting and fastening. This system provides an integrated display of numerical controlled media, automatic tool identification, and image files, combined with automated panel protection. Reality graphics (image files) within the NC program allow the machine operator to access portions of the NC program while attaching a support graphic. This would include safety hazards, unique panel differences, program start, and tool change information. Automated panel protection (APP) analyze process key characteristics, and perishable tool kits, and it monitors the installation of fasteners using multiple cameras mounted in strategic positions, taking real-time images. The APP detects incorrect tooling and possible panel damage, with little or no impact to the operational cycle time of the automated fastening equipment.
Technical Paper

Variable Geometry in a Supersonic Transport Aircraft

1967-02-01
670878
The variable-geometry features of the United States supersonic transport are described. Particular attention is given to the hardware development of those variable-geometry features unique to the supersonic transport. The design, development, and current status of a direct lift control sys tern, the supersonic internal-external compression inlet, and the full-scale wing pivot are described.
Technical Paper

High Altitude Performance of High Bypass Ratio Engines - an Airframe Manufacturer's Point of View

1969-02-01
690652
The traditional method of determining the net thrust of an engine in cruise is explained. It is shown to result in a satisfactory net thrust uncertainty for jet and low bypass ratio engines but to be unsuitable for high bypass ratio engines. A redefinition of net thrust results in a new thrust determination method, called continuity method, which yields acceptable levels of net thrust uncertainty. The new method no longer requires supporting tests in a simulated altitude facility. The question is raised whether in future programs the demonstration of guaranteed cruise performance of an engine should not be carried out in flight tests rather than in an altitude test facility.
Technical Paper

The Design of The U. S. SST for Low Community Noise

1970-02-01
700808
The need for achievement of low community noise levels has had a major influence on the configuration selected for the United States Supersonic Transport (Boeing 2707-300). The selection and development of design features which affect community noise are presented. The configuration has a relatively large span delta wing of moderate sweep and wing loading, with full span leading and trailing edge flaps. An all moving horizontal tail with geared flap is used for trim and control. The use of an unusually far aft center of gravity range is achieved through a fulltime stability augmentation system. All of these design features contribute to low drag at high lift, resulting in high takeoff performance and low levels of thrust required during flight over the community during both takeoff and landing. The resulting airplane has the versatility to use operational techniques which further reduce noise.
Technical Paper

Noise Implications for VTOL Development

1970-02-01
700286
Noise from the aircraft may prevent the establishment of VTOL ports near population centers-the locations which can provide a significant contribution to mass transportation. To determine how annoying these aircraft may be, a total community annoyance measure (TCAM) has been developed. The TCAM can indicate flight trajectories which minimize the annoyance of the aircraft and the type of aircraft which are acoustically acceptable for operations from a V/STOL port. Low disc loading rotors seem best for operation near terminals while low tip speed propellers are best for cruise.
Technical Paper

Electric 30,000 RPM Shave Spindle for C Frame Riveter and High Performance Compact Aerospace Drill

2000-09-19
2000-01-3017
Two spindles are discussed in this paper. The first spindle was installed on nine C-frame riveters on the 737/757 wing line at the Boeing Renton facility. Due to discontinuing the use of Freon coolant and cutting fluid, the C-frame riveters had difficulty shaving 2034 ice box rivets with the existing 6000 RPM hydraulic spindles. The solution was to install electric 30,000 RPM shave spindles inside the existing 76.2 mm (3 in.) diameter hydraulic cylinder envelope. The new spindle is capable of 4 Nm (35 in. lbs.) of torque at full speed and 110 kgf (250 lbs.) of thrust. Another design of interest is the Electroimpact Model 09 spindle which is used for 20,000 RPM drilling and shaving on wing riveting systems. The Model 09 spindle is a complete servo-servo drilling system all mounted on a common baseplate. The entire spindle and feed assembly is only 6.5″ wide.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Use of Small, Flexible, Machine Tools to Support the Lean Manufacturing Environment

2001-09-10
2001-01-2566
Drilling fastener holes in large assemblies is traditionally accomplished through the use of large machine tools in order to obtain the accuracies required for the assembled part. Given recent advances of machine design and machine controller compensation, the accuracy of the motion platform can be corrected if the machine is repeatable. This coupled with the use of a vision system or touch probe to compensate for assembly variations, permit the use of smaller, more portable drilling systems. These smaller, more portable machine tools allow for lean manufacturing techniques to be incorporated into build processes, utilize less floor space, and in many cases are less costly than larger, permanent machine tools. This paper examines the feasibility of utilizing a small 5-axis, portable, drilling system for drilling the side panel skins on the F/A-18 E/F forward fuselage.
Technical Paper

F/A-18 E/F Outer Wing Lean Production System

2001-09-10
2001-01-2608
The Boeing F/A-18 E/F Program Wing Team, Lean Organization and Phantom Works have partnered to develop a “state of the art” lean production system for the Outer Wing that represents an evolutionary change in aircraft design and assembly methodology. This project is focused on improving quality, cycle and cost performance through the implementation of lean principles, technology integration and process improvements. This paper will discuss the approach taken to reach the end state objectives and the technologies and processes being developed to support it. Items to be discussed include lean principles and practices, new tooling concepts, improved part assembly techniques, advanced drilling systems, process flow enhancements and part handling/part delivery systems.
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