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Technical Paper

Meteoroid Design Criteria

1965-02-01
650786
The effects of meteoroid protection weight requirements on space exploration costs are examined. A basis is developed for selecting upper and lower bounds to the acceptable risk. The quality of present knowledge of the meteoroid environment and of hypervelocity impact penetration is reviewed. This information is synthesized and criteria are developed that are suitable for selecting methods of designing simple and composite barrier systems. Techniques are established for controlling damage to spacecraft components. Short and long term goals are recommended to improve present design capability.
Technical Paper

Evolution to Lean Manufacturing A Case Study of Boeing of Spokane

1997-06-03
972235
The evolution of a manufacturing organization toward “Lean” manufacturing does not necessarily come cheaply or quickly. It is the experience at Boeing that technology and different visions can dramatically impact the evolutionary process-consuming great amounts of time and resources. The Boeing of Spokane case study, where aircraft floor panels are manufactured1, is but one of several case studies that suggests moving to “Lean” manufacturing is usually done in large steps, not small ones. These initial steps can be costly unless the systems (equipment and workforce) are flexible. Workforce flexibility is dependent on the attitude in the workforce as both touch and support labor move from their comfort zone to try new approaches and job descriptions. The workforce must be properly motivated to make the change. The equipment must also be flexible in adapting to new line layouts, product mixes, and process change or large cost penalties will be incurred.
Technical Paper

A Generic Process for Human Model Analysis

2000-06-06
2000-01-2167
The purpose of this paper is to provide a general process for human model analysis in the digital mock-up environment. It is also intended to provide some basic guidelines for the use and application of human models. This document is intended for anyone who will be performing human model analyses. It is assumed that the person performing the analysis has at least a minimal level of training in the use of the software involved. Note that this document is limited to anthropometric and ergonomic modeling.
Technical Paper

EVA Operations Using the Spacelab Logistics Pallet for Hardware Deliveries

2001-07-09
2001-01-2201
There are a large number of space structures, orbital replacement units (ORUs) and other components that must be transported to orbit on a regular basis for the assembly and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS). Some of this hardware will be ferried on the Spacelab Logistics Pallet (SLP), which has a long and reliable history of space flight successes. The carrier is well used, well qualified, and very adaptable for repeated use in accommodating cargoes of various sizes and shapes. This paper presents an overview of past, present and future hardware design solutions that accommodate EVA operations on the SLP. It further demonstrates how analysis techniques and design considerations have influenced the hardware development, EVA operations, and compliance with human engineering requirements for the SLP.
Technical Paper

Specification Reform of Avionics Thermal Design Criteria – An F-15 Case Study

2001-07-09
2001-01-2156
Traditional thermal design criteria for avionics equipment are reviewed. Several studies have recently been conducted on the F-15 to assess accuracy of these design criteria. An overview of the study approach and results are presented. Specific topics investigated include: emergency cooling air provisions, cold start-up, hot start-up, normal and transient bay temperatures, and altitude design. The results indicate that many existing design criteria are overly conservative. The study findings suggest that reform of the existing thermal specification process is needed. Many of these reforms are applicable to the general aerospace industry and may result in significant acquisition cost savings as a result of the trend toward usage of commercial electronic parts. The reforms suggested include a new performance based thermal specification approach that increases emphasis on aircraft usage and frequency of occurrence. New transient design criteria are also recommended.
Technical Paper

Payload Attach System for the ISS - Development and Verification for EVA Operations

1999-07-12
1999-01-2037
The process of developing a Payload Attach System (PAS) which will support a wide range of experimental and commercial payloads on the International Space Station (ISS) has experienced an interesting evolution during its design, development, test and evaluation (DDT&E) phase. This evolution has been caused in large measure by requirements intended to insure compatibility of the PAS with the extravehicular activity (EVA) crewmember during nominal and contingency operations in and around the PAS sites. As the design of the ISS transitioned from its Freedom predecessor, the effort to keep costs down by preserving as much of the original Freedom design as possible led to design decisions that challenged engineering thinking.
Technical Paper

Noise Implications for VTOL Development

1970-02-01
700286
Noise from the aircraft may prevent the establishment of VTOL ports near population centers-the locations which can provide a significant contribution to mass transportation. To determine how annoying these aircraft may be, a total community annoyance measure (TCAM) has been developed. The TCAM can indicate flight trajectories which minimize the annoyance of the aircraft and the type of aircraft which are acoustically acceptable for operations from a V/STOL port. Low disc loading rotors seem best for operation near terminals while low tip speed propellers are best for cruise.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Noise, Its Source and Reduction

1971-02-01
710308
Since the advent of the turbojet engine, there has been much research by aircraft and engine manufacturers into the source of aircraft noise and its reduction. A review of this research is presented delineating the transition from turbojet engines to turbofan engines to the high by-pass ratio engines being introduced today, and the progress that has been made. Application of the current state-of-the-art to existing airplanes through engine replacement, nacelle retrofit, and flight procedures are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Potentials for Advanced Civil Transport Aircraft

1973-02-01
730958
In this lecture, a review of Boeing commercial transport models is presented in chronological order from the B-1 flying boat of 1919 to the 747. The problems of air transport systems including convenience, reliability, safety, comfort, performance, and financial and environmental costs are discussed. The probability of more severe future problems is considered, and suggestions are offered as to technology and system improvements which may need to be pursued if civil air transport systems are to continue to provide fast, convenient transportation with a high level of public acceptance.
Technical Paper

Advanced Graphite Composites in the 757/767

1980-09-01
801212
The new 757/767 transports will be the first Boeing Commercial aircraft to commit advanced graphite composite material to initial production. Composite materials, mainly fiberglass in an epoxy matrix, have been used in Boeing military and commercial aircraft in ever increasing amounts for the past twenty (plus) years. Recently, the state-of-the-art of Advanced Composites (graphite and graphite/Kevlar hybrids in an epoxy matrix) progressed to the level that it could be committed to full-scale production. This production commitment resulted in a multi-year, multi-million dollar development program. This was to assure technical and production readiness, and product reliability to meet the stringent performance and safety standards of modern commercial transport.
Technical Paper

Composite Structure for Orbiting Space Stations

1964-01-01
640291
An overview of composite structure required for manned orbiting space stations is presented. Following a brief introduction of typical configurations and major subsystems, the major structural areas requiring composite structure and their particular functions and requirements are discussed. A summary weight breakdown is presented to assess the dependence of launch weight on these areas. To illustrate, the primary wall composite structure is presented in detail. The design interplay of boost, pressure, meteoroid, radiation, and thermal control requirements are presented. Resultant composite structure for each remaining major structural area is presented in summary form with a brief description of typical design compromises required.
Technical Paper

ETOPS and Service Ready Standards and Processes

1992-10-01
921919
A review of the current extended-range twin-engine operations (ETOPS) and the modifications to the standards and processes that led to its successful operational record has contributed to the feasibility of developing an airplane and preparing an operator for ETOPS at entry into service. The airplane and engine manufacturers and component suppliers have continued to expand on these modified standards and processes in their design, build, test and support programs to meet regulatory authority ETOPS requirements and to facilitate the development of regulatory authority criteria for substantiating ETOPS capability prior to entry into service. Airlines, in conjunction with the manufacturers, have also developed improved processes that meet regulatory authority requirements for preparing an operator to integrate a new airplane into its existing ETOPS programs at entry into service.
Technical Paper

Machine Readable Coding of 777 Wing Fastening Systems Tooling

1998-09-15
982133
This paper presents a detailed overview of the advantages and benefits of using 2-D barcodes, called Data Matrix codes, on Wing Fastening System (WFS) Tooling. This project was conducted on, but not limited to, the 777 Wing Fastening System (GEMCOR) tooling including the drills, fingers, and button dies. This paper will show how using Data Matrix codes to identify tooling will: Eliminate excessive downtime due to the operator using the incorrect tooling for a given tool setup. Reduce the cost associated with panel rework due to the use of incorrect tooling. Reduce the cost associated with excessive tool inventory or last minute ordering to keep up with production needs. Track tool life information for each specific tool. Provide operators with an easy to use tool setup reference document. And provide the factory with the ability to trace panel damage or defects back to the specific machine and exact tooling used.
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