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Technical Paper

Process Automation Through-Reality Graphics, Kitting, and Automated Panel Protection

1997-09-30
972806
This paper addresses process improvements through reality graphics (RG) aided by automated panel protection (APP) and tool kitting pertaining to automated wing riveting and fastening. This system provides an integrated display of numerical controlled media, automatic tool identification, and image files, combined with automated panel protection. Reality graphics (image files) within the NC program allow the machine operator to access portions of the NC program while attaching a support graphic. This would include safety hazards, unique panel differences, program start, and tool change information. Automated panel protection (APP) analyze process key characteristics, and perishable tool kits, and it monitors the installation of fasteners using multiple cameras mounted in strategic positions, taking real-time images. The APP detects incorrect tooling and possible panel damage, with little or no impact to the operational cycle time of the automated fastening equipment.
Technical Paper

Evolution to Lean Manufacturing A Case Study of Boeing of Spokane

1997-06-03
972235
The evolution of a manufacturing organization toward “Lean” manufacturing does not necessarily come cheaply or quickly. It is the experience at Boeing that technology and different visions can dramatically impact the evolutionary process-consuming great amounts of time and resources. The Boeing of Spokane case study, where aircraft floor panels are manufactured1, is but one of several case studies that suggests moving to “Lean” manufacturing is usually done in large steps, not small ones. These initial steps can be costly unless the systems (equipment and workforce) are flexible. Workforce flexibility is dependent on the attitude in the workforce as both touch and support labor move from their comfort zone to try new approaches and job descriptions. The workforce must be properly motivated to make the change. The equipment must also be flexible in adapting to new line layouts, product mixes, and process change or large cost penalties will be incurred.
Technical Paper

Space Station THC/IMV Development Test/Analysis Correlations and Flight Predictions

1997-07-14
972565
The International Space Station (ISS) Temperature and Humidity Control/Intermodule Ventilation (THC/IMV) system for the U.S. Lab provides required cooling air for the U.S. Lab and also provides “parasitic” cooling air for Node 1 and its attached elements. This scheme provides cooled air from the Lab THC directly to Node 1 and also to elements attached to Node 1, at different stages of Space Station assembly. A development test of the U.S. Lab and Node 1/attached elements' integrated THC/IMV ducting system was performed in the summer of 1995. This test included the U.S. Lab's development level Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA), which removes sensible and latent heat from the circulated and ducted cabin air. A referenced 1996 ICES Paper contains the initial correlation results. An analytical model has been developed, which has been used to predict flow and pressure drop performance of the system for several potential and actual changes from the Development Test configuration.
Technical Paper

A Generic Process for Human Model Analysis

2000-06-06
2000-01-2167
The purpose of this paper is to provide a general process for human model analysis in the digital mock-up environment. It is also intended to provide some basic guidelines for the use and application of human models. This document is intended for anyone who will be performing human model analyses. It is assumed that the person performing the analysis has at least a minimal level of training in the use of the software involved. Note that this document is limited to anthropometric and ergonomic modeling.
Technical Paper

EVA Operations Using the Spacelab Logistics Pallet for Hardware Deliveries

2001-07-09
2001-01-2201
There are a large number of space structures, orbital replacement units (ORUs) and other components that must be transported to orbit on a regular basis for the assembly and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS). Some of this hardware will be ferried on the Spacelab Logistics Pallet (SLP), which has a long and reliable history of space flight successes. The carrier is well used, well qualified, and very adaptable for repeated use in accommodating cargoes of various sizes and shapes. This paper presents an overview of past, present and future hardware design solutions that accommodate EVA operations on the SLP. It further demonstrates how analysis techniques and design considerations have influenced the hardware development, EVA operations, and compliance with human engineering requirements for the SLP.
Technical Paper

Specification Reform of Avionics Thermal Design Criteria – An F-15 Case Study

2001-07-09
2001-01-2156
Traditional thermal design criteria for avionics equipment are reviewed. Several studies have recently been conducted on the F-15 to assess accuracy of these design criteria. An overview of the study approach and results are presented. Specific topics investigated include: emergency cooling air provisions, cold start-up, hot start-up, normal and transient bay temperatures, and altitude design. The results indicate that many existing design criteria are overly conservative. The study findings suggest that reform of the existing thermal specification process is needed. Many of these reforms are applicable to the general aerospace industry and may result in significant acquisition cost savings as a result of the trend toward usage of commercial electronic parts. The reforms suggested include a new performance based thermal specification approach that increases emphasis on aircraft usage and frequency of occurrence. New transient design criteria are also recommended.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Use of Small, Flexible, Machine Tools to Support the Lean Manufacturing Environment

2001-09-10
2001-01-2566
Drilling fastener holes in large assemblies is traditionally accomplished through the use of large machine tools in order to obtain the accuracies required for the assembled part. Given recent advances of machine design and machine controller compensation, the accuracy of the motion platform can be corrected if the machine is repeatable. This coupled with the use of a vision system or touch probe to compensate for assembly variations, permit the use of smaller, more portable drilling systems. These smaller, more portable machine tools allow for lean manufacturing techniques to be incorporated into build processes, utilize less floor space, and in many cases are less costly than larger, permanent machine tools. This paper examines the feasibility of utilizing a small 5-axis, portable, drilling system for drilling the side panel skins on the F/A-18 E/F forward fuselage.
Technical Paper

Payload Attach System for the ISS - Development and Verification for EVA Operations

1999-07-12
1999-01-2037
The process of developing a Payload Attach System (PAS) which will support a wide range of experimental and commercial payloads on the International Space Station (ISS) has experienced an interesting evolution during its design, development, test and evaluation (DDT&E) phase. This evolution has been caused in large measure by requirements intended to insure compatibility of the PAS with the extravehicular activity (EVA) crewmember during nominal and contingency operations in and around the PAS sites. As the design of the ISS transitioned from its Freedom predecessor, the effort to keep costs down by preserving as much of the original Freedom design as possible led to design decisions that challenged engineering thinking.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Noise, Its Source and Reduction

1971-02-01
710308
Since the advent of the turbojet engine, there has been much research by aircraft and engine manufacturers into the source of aircraft noise and its reduction. A review of this research is presented delineating the transition from turbojet engines to turbofan engines to the high by-pass ratio engines being introduced today, and the progress that has been made. Application of the current state-of-the-art to existing airplanes through engine replacement, nacelle retrofit, and flight procedures are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Potentials for Advanced Civil Transport Aircraft

1973-02-01
730958
In this lecture, a review of Boeing commercial transport models is presented in chronological order from the B-1 flying boat of 1919 to the 747. The problems of air transport systems including convenience, reliability, safety, comfort, performance, and financial and environmental costs are discussed. The probability of more severe future problems is considered, and suggestions are offered as to technology and system improvements which may need to be pursued if civil air transport systems are to continue to provide fast, convenient transportation with a high level of public acceptance.
Technical Paper

Nozzle Development for the Upper Surface - Blown Jet Flap on the YC-14 Airplane

1974-02-01
740469
A discussion of wing-nozzle configuration development for the application of upper surface blowing to a STOL airplane is presented. The technical challenge is to achieve an integrated system which provides the desired performance for the low speed design conditions and also results in efficient operation during cruise. The resulting configuration is a complete integration of the propulsion system and airplane aerodynamics to achieve efficient operation at all regimes. This paper examines the major design parameters to be considered, describes a number of the configurations tested, and presents static and wind tunnel test results for these configurations. Concluding remarks are made relative to USB nozzle development.
Technical Paper

Variable Geometry in a Supersonic Transport Aircraft

1967-02-01
670878
The variable-geometry features of the United States supersonic transport are described. Particular attention is given to the hardware development of those variable-geometry features unique to the supersonic transport. The design, development, and current status of a direct lift control sys tern, the supersonic internal-external compression inlet, and the full-scale wing pivot are described.
Technical Paper

Design Trade-Offs that Determine Fastener Selection

1967-02-01
670886
Fastener selection entails two functions, a staff function to select a group of fasteners for consideration and a design function to select the most suitable fastener for a specific function. This paper itemizes in detail the considerations that enter into each function in selecting fasteners for commercial and military aircraft, military unmanned vehicles, and space vehicles. Characteristics of specific bolts and fasteners are also tabulated.
Technical Paper

Composite Structure for Orbiting Space Stations

1964-01-01
640291
An overview of composite structure required for manned orbiting space stations is presented. Following a brief introduction of typical configurations and major subsystems, the major structural areas requiring composite structure and their particular functions and requirements are discussed. A summary weight breakdown is presented to assess the dependence of launch weight on these areas. To illustrate, the primary wall composite structure is presented in detail. The design interplay of boost, pressure, meteoroid, radiation, and thermal control requirements are presented. Resultant composite structure for each remaining major structural area is presented in summary form with a brief description of typical design compromises required.
Technical Paper

ETOPS and Service Ready Standards and Processes

1992-10-01
921919
A review of the current extended-range twin-engine operations (ETOPS) and the modifications to the standards and processes that led to its successful operational record has contributed to the feasibility of developing an airplane and preparing an operator for ETOPS at entry into service. The airplane and engine manufacturers and component suppliers have continued to expand on these modified standards and processes in their design, build, test and support programs to meet regulatory authority ETOPS requirements and to facilitate the development of regulatory authority criteria for substantiating ETOPS capability prior to entry into service. Airlines, in conjunction with the manufacturers, have also developed improved processes that meet regulatory authority requirements for preparing an operator to integrate a new airplane into its existing ETOPS programs at entry into service.
Technical Paper

Development of Cold Working Process for 4340M Steel

1995-09-01
952167
A new process has been developed to cold work fastener holes on commercial aircraft flap tracks fabricated of 4340M steel. The process consists of pressing a high strength solid mandrel through a previously prepared hole in a defined manner. This process exhibits high tool life, low overall cost and eliminates the necessity for a final ream operation.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Complex Hydraulic Valves Using EASY5 Software

1997-09-08
972766
Many mechanical systems employing fluid power use one or more valves to control fluid flow. Often these valves can be quite complex, with many inlets and exits, reversing flow, flow and pressure control, and other unique features. It is desirable to model these valves and the associated fluid and control logic circuits with software during the design phase, and explore the effect of design changes on system performance using simulation and other analyses without having to build and modify expensive prototypes. A number of commercially available software packages offer various methods for “graphically modeling” dynamic systems, and some, offer the user pre-defined libraries of hydraulic components that greatly speed the modeling process. However, the variations on valve design are unlimited, and it is often necessary to model a hydraulic valve that has not been previously defined. This paper describes an approach allowing essentially any valve configuration to be modeled.
Technical Paper

Machine Readable Coding of 777 Wing Fastening Systems Tooling

1998-09-15
982133
This paper presents a detailed overview of the advantages and benefits of using 2-D barcodes, called Data Matrix codes, on Wing Fastening System (WFS) Tooling. This project was conducted on, but not limited to, the 777 Wing Fastening System (GEMCOR) tooling including the drills, fingers, and button dies. This paper will show how using Data Matrix codes to identify tooling will: Eliminate excessive downtime due to the operator using the incorrect tooling for a given tool setup. Reduce the cost associated with panel rework due to the use of incorrect tooling. Reduce the cost associated with excessive tool inventory or last minute ordering to keep up with production needs. Track tool life information for each specific tool. Provide operators with an easy to use tool setup reference document. And provide the factory with the ability to trace panel damage or defects back to the specific machine and exact tooling used.
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