Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 16 of 16
Technical Paper

EVA Operations Using the Spacelab Logistics Pallet for Hardware Deliveries

2001-07-09
2001-01-2201
There are a large number of space structures, orbital replacement units (ORUs) and other components that must be transported to orbit on a regular basis for the assembly and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS). Some of this hardware will be ferried on the Spacelab Logistics Pallet (SLP), which has a long and reliable history of space flight successes. The carrier is well used, well qualified, and very adaptable for repeated use in accommodating cargoes of various sizes and shapes. This paper presents an overview of past, present and future hardware design solutions that accommodate EVA operations on the SLP. It further demonstrates how analysis techniques and design considerations have influenced the hardware development, EVA operations, and compliance with human engineering requirements for the SLP.
Technical Paper

Gaugeless Tooling

1998-09-15
982147
At The Boeing Company, the advent of a Determinant Assembly (DA) program and the subsequent production of accurate fuselage subpanels created a need to be able to position subpanels accurately and repeatably during fuselage assembly. The tool engineering organization of The Boeing Company and Advanced Integration Technology, Inc. (AIT) as the prime contractor, are developing and installing automated positioning and alignment systems throughout major 747 fuselage assembly areas which enable DA techniques. The benefits of this assembly approach and this automated precision tooling are flexibility, assembly accuracy, ease of assembly and associated speed, reduced downtime for tool maintenance, and improved shop-floor ergonomics.
Technical Paper

Machine Readable Coding of 777 Wing Fastening Systems Tooling

1998-09-15
982133
This paper presents a detailed overview of the advantages and benefits of using 2-D barcodes, called Data Matrix codes, on Wing Fastening System (WFS) Tooling. This project was conducted on, but not limited to, the 777 Wing Fastening System (GEMCOR) tooling including the drills, fingers, and button dies. This paper will show how using Data Matrix codes to identify tooling will: Eliminate excessive downtime due to the operator using the incorrect tooling for a given tool setup. Reduce the cost associated with panel rework due to the use of incorrect tooling. Reduce the cost associated with excessive tool inventory or last minute ordering to keep up with production needs. Track tool life information for each specific tool. Provide operators with an easy to use tool setup reference document. And provide the factory with the ability to trace panel damage or defects back to the specific machine and exact tooling used.
Technical Paper

Development of Fatigue-Rated 7/16 Inch Diameter Flush-Head Rivets for Aluminum Wing Structure

1995-09-01
952170
A hydraulic squeeze riveting process has been developed which yields high fatigue quality for large diameter rivets in aluminum wing structure. The process for installation of 7/16 inch diameter 2017-H15 aluminum alloy flush head rivets was developed using a series of statistically designed experiments. Factors such as rivet geometry, die shape, and upset force were varied to yield optimal rivet interference. The relationship between interference and fatigue life was quantified. The development process described provides a case study for those working to optimize complex multivariate manufacturing processes.
Technical Paper

Space Station THC/IMV Development Test/Analysis Correlations and Flight Predictions

1997-07-14
972565
The International Space Station (ISS) Temperature and Humidity Control/Intermodule Ventilation (THC/IMV) system for the U.S. Lab provides required cooling air for the U.S. Lab and also provides “parasitic” cooling air for Node 1 and its attached elements. This scheme provides cooled air from the Lab THC directly to Node 1 and also to elements attached to Node 1, at different stages of Space Station assembly. A development test of the U.S. Lab and Node 1/attached elements' integrated THC/IMV ducting system was performed in the summer of 1995. This test included the U.S. Lab's development level Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA), which removes sensible and latent heat from the circulated and ducted cabin air. A referenced 1996 ICES Paper contains the initial correlation results. An analytical model has been developed, which has been used to predict flow and pressure drop performance of the system for several potential and actual changes from the Development Test configuration.
Technical Paper

Temperature Control Analysis for the U.S. Lab, Node 1, and Elements Attached to Node 1

1997-07-14
972564
The International Space Station (ISS) Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) system has been designed with the intent of supplying the air cooling needs of various elements from the U.S. Lab heat exchanger assembly. Elements without independent air cooling capability are known as “parasitic” elements; these are Node 1, the Cupola, and the Mini Pressurized Logistics Module (MPLM). Analysis results are presented which show expected temperatures in the MPLM, and Node 1, as various heat loads are present in the respective elements. Analyses within this paper are coordinated with the results obtained from the Development Test of the complex USL/Node 1 integrated ducting system. This test was conducted in the summer of 1995, at the McDonnell Douglas test facility in Huntington Beach, California.
Technical Paper

Process Automation Through-Reality Graphics, Kitting, and Automated Panel Protection

1997-09-30
972806
This paper addresses process improvements through reality graphics (RG) aided by automated panel protection (APP) and tool kitting pertaining to automated wing riveting and fastening. This system provides an integrated display of numerical controlled media, automatic tool identification, and image files, combined with automated panel protection. Reality graphics (image files) within the NC program allow the machine operator to access portions of the NC program while attaching a support graphic. This would include safety hazards, unique panel differences, program start, and tool change information. Automated panel protection (APP) analyze process key characteristics, and perishable tool kits, and it monitors the installation of fasteners using multiple cameras mounted in strategic positions, taking real-time images. The APP detects incorrect tooling and possible panel damage, with little or no impact to the operational cycle time of the automated fastening equipment.
Technical Paper

Incipient Failure Detection - The Detection of Certain Contaminating Processes

1967-02-01
670633
Three separate and distinct electrolytic and one galvanic process were identified by visual inspection, metallographic, electron microprobe, and x-ray diffraction analysis in a clocked, flip-flop integrated circuit flat pack and/or the associated printed circuit test jig (two on flat pack and two on circuit board). These four processes were all found to be detectable by the use of noise measurements in microvolts per root cycle at 1000 Hz (cycles per second). The direct current applied for noise measurement to the integrated circuit devices was 100 micro-amperes, as compared to the 6-8 milliamperes required for normal operation. After initial experimentation, the devices were caused to fail in a laboratory ambient environment, followed by an acceleration of the rate of electrolytic reaction through the use of essentially 100 percent relative humidity, versus the upper specification limit of 80 to 98% relative humidity.
Technical Paper

Problems of Maintaining Equipment Containing Integrated Circuits

1967-02-01
670639
This paper discusses some of the problems of developing and maintaining equipment containing integrated circuits. The problems discussed fall into three categories: (1)Processing, (2) Fault Isolation, and (3) Human Error. Quantitative study of these problems shows the highest number were experienced during preliminary-manufacturing and testing (screening and burn-in), with a decrease during final manufacturing checkout (board assembly and final testing) and a minimum during the system operational period. The paper concludes that maintainability is still the necessity it was even with the advent of reliable integrated circuits. This is substantiated by the many failures and defects encountered during manufacturing and development phases. Manufacturing economics force the consideration of maintainability in integrated circuit design.
Technical Paper

Assembly Techniques for Space Vehicles

2000-09-19
2000-01-3028
Assembly techniques for the majority of expendable and reusable launch vehicles have not changed much over the last thirty years. Some progress has been made, specifically on new programs, however, improvements on existing expendable launch vehicle production lines can be difficult to justify; even more so for one or two reusable vehicles. This presentation will focus on techniques and systems used for manual and automated assembly of expendable and reusable launch vehicle primary structures. Today's assembly is characterized by manual operations involving fixtures and templates, and all tasks are carried out primarily with single function hand tools. Typical assembly approaches used for metallic and composite primary structures will be discussed. Potential opportunities for process improvements utilizing advanced hand tools, mechanized and/or automated equipment will be addressed.
Technical Paper

Integrated Metrology & Robotics Systems for Agile Automation

2000-09-19
2000-01-3033
Aircraft manufacturing in the 21st century sees a future much different to that seen one and two decades before. Manufacturers of both military and commercial aircraft are challenged to become Lean, Agile and Flexible. As progress is slowly made toward introducing advanced assembly systems into production, the overall cost of automation is now more closely scrutinized. After spending tens of millions of dollars on large automated systems with deep foundations, many manufacturers find themselves locked into high cost manufacturing systems that have specific, inflexible configurations. This kind of scenario has caused a shift in the attitude of airframe assemblers, to go back to basics. Lean manufacturing is seen as a way to build aircraft with very low investment in equipment and tools. Today's advanced systems developers do understand the need for more affordable assembly systems.
Technical Paper

Electric 30,000 RPM Shave Spindle for C Frame Riveter and High Performance Compact Aerospace Drill

2000-09-19
2000-01-3017
Two spindles are discussed in this paper. The first spindle was installed on nine C-frame riveters on the 737/757 wing line at the Boeing Renton facility. Due to discontinuing the use of Freon coolant and cutting fluid, the C-frame riveters had difficulty shaving 2034 ice box rivets with the existing 6000 RPM hydraulic spindles. The solution was to install electric 30,000 RPM shave spindles inside the existing 76.2 mm (3 in.) diameter hydraulic cylinder envelope. The new spindle is capable of 4 Nm (35 in. lbs.) of torque at full speed and 110 kgf (250 lbs.) of thrust. Another design of interest is the Electroimpact Model 09 spindle which is used for 20,000 RPM drilling and shaving on wing riveting systems. The Model 09 spindle is a complete servo-servo drilling system all mounted on a common baseplate. The entire spindle and feed assembly is only 6.5″ wide.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Dynamic Model of Brake Friction Using Pressure and Temperature

2001-10-28
2001-01-3150
Understanding the friction behavior of brake lining materials is fundamental to the ability to predict brake system performance. Of particular interest to the aviation community, where carbon/carbon composite heatsinks are commonly used, is the aircraft response at deceleration onset. There are two performance measures defining brake system performance at braking onset: deceleration onset rate and system response time. The latter is strictly a function of the brake system hydraulics and is not affected by brake lining friction. The former performance measure is a function of both system hydraulics and brake lining friction. Previously to the work herein, carbon heatsink friction was thought to be unpredictable at braking onset. That being the case, a predictive capability for deceleration onset rate was not previously undertaken. This meant that assessment of this performance measure waited until aircraft taxi tests were performed.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Use of Small, Flexible, Machine Tools to Support the Lean Manufacturing Environment

2001-09-10
2001-01-2566
Drilling fastener holes in large assemblies is traditionally accomplished through the use of large machine tools in order to obtain the accuracies required for the assembled part. Given recent advances of machine design and machine controller compensation, the accuracy of the motion platform can be corrected if the machine is repeatable. This coupled with the use of a vision system or touch probe to compensate for assembly variations, permit the use of smaller, more portable drilling systems. These smaller, more portable machine tools allow for lean manufacturing techniques to be incorporated into build processes, utilize less floor space, and in many cases are less costly than larger, permanent machine tools. This paper examines the feasibility of utilizing a small 5-axis, portable, drilling system for drilling the side panel skins on the F/A-18 E/F forward fuselage.
Technical Paper

F/A-18 E/F Outer Wing Lean Production System

2001-09-10
2001-01-2608
The Boeing F/A-18 E/F Program Wing Team, Lean Organization and Phantom Works have partnered to develop a “state of the art” lean production system for the Outer Wing that represents an evolutionary change in aircraft design and assembly methodology. This project is focused on improving quality, cycle and cost performance through the implementation of lean principles, technology integration and process improvements. This paper will discuss the approach taken to reach the end state objectives and the technologies and processes being developed to support it. Items to be discussed include lean principles and practices, new tooling concepts, improved part assembly techniques, advanced drilling systems, process flow enhancements and part handling/part delivery systems.
Technical Paper

Machined Component Quality Improvements Through Manufacturing Process Simulation

2001-09-10
2001-01-2607
New manufacturing technologies such as high speed machining (HSM) are being developed to produce high quality aerospace components. While our developing understanding of machining dynamics is enabling precise control of cutting tools to provide for high dimensional accuracy, residual stresses present in aluminum mill products can compromise the ability to machine dimensionally accurate components from these stock materials. The advantages of precise tool control can be lost if the metal being cut moves during machining. And, even a perfectly machined part that distorts when it is released from the machine bed will cause problems upon assembly. Thus, ensuring the quality of the mill product becomes an enabling technology for advanced manufacturing approaches such as HSM.
X