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Technical Paper

A Hypersonic Cruiser Concept for the 21st Century

1998-09-28
985525
This paper describes a hypersonic cruiser concept for the 21st century. It is based on studies conducted by The Boeing Company and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA - Langley) to assess the capability of a hypersonic vehicle concept to conduct cruise and/or space launch missions. It details a Mach 10 cruise vehicle from NASA's Dual-Fuel Airbreathing Hypersonic Vehicle Design study (1995/96), and a Mach 10 cruise/space access vehicle, which resulted from follow-on work. Vehicle performance is presented showing that the Mach 10 cruise vehicle can operate over a significant mission radius, and that the Mach 10 cruise/space access configuration can accomplish desired space launch and cruise missions. A rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) variant is also introduced showing favorable cruise and space launch capability. NASA's Hyper-X flight experiment, which is the next step towards achieving this vision, is also described.
Technical Paper

Friction Stir Welding-A Revolutionary New Joining Method

1998-09-15
982149
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) can achieve high quality welds in aluminum alloys that are of interest to the aerospace industry (e.g. alloys 2014, 2219, 7050 and numerous aluminum-lithium alloys). The low distortion solid-phase welds exhibit metallurgical and mechanical properties, including fatigue, which are superior to conventional fusion welds achieved by arc processes. FSW, although a relatively new welding technique, has been systematically developed and proved by The Welding Institute (TWI) under contract to an international group of sponsors, one of which is The Boeing Company. To further validate the process, The Boeing Company conducted separate development activities including detailed mechanical testing of welds made from the FSW process.
Technical Paper

Virtual Laboratory (VLAB) Concept Applied in a Life Science Laboratory

1998-07-13
981792
As pieces of the International Space Station (ISS) enter their test phase, access to information and data from the test laboratories must be made immediately available to analysts, managers, and customers. The Virtual Laboratory (VLAB) concept provides remote access to laboratory test data and other information, indirectly as archived data or directly as real-time data off the test bed. We applied VLAB to a life support system hardware test (the Trace Contaminant Control System, TCCS) in the Life Support Technology Center (LSTC). In this paper we describe the VLAB concept in the context of the TCCS hardware test.
Technical Paper

3D Re-Engineering: A Comprehensive Process for Solving Production Assembly Fit Problems

1998-06-02
981835
Dimensional Management (DM) is a methodology to predict and control the impact of variation on assembly from, fit, and function. Application of Dimensional Management tools and other modeling and simulation techniques are combined in a process called 3D Re-Engineering for application to existing production designs. Analytical techniques for predicting the impact of variation on assembly fit, and corresponding methods for controlling variation are presented, as used in a production environment for root cause corrective action on existing assembly fit problems. Assembly variation analysis is typically performed early in the product development phases, by coordinating datums, assembly sequences, assembly methods, and detail part tolerances across the product development team.
Technical Paper

Simulation Enhanced Work Instructions for Aircraft Assemblies

1998-06-02
981861
The Boeing Company is developing and implementing the tools for the 21st Century for product development with their Design Manufacturing and Producibility Simulation (DMAPS) program. DMAPS combines the best of people, hardware and software tools commercially available to develop product and process simulation applications. The DMAPS toolset enhances the process of preparing concept layouts, assembly layouts and build-to-packages. Comprised of an Integrated Product and Process Team (IPPT), DMAPS produces products faster and with higher quality. The result is a process that eliminates costly changes and rework, and provides all IPPT's the tools and training necessary to perform their tasks right the first time. Boeing applies DMAPS tools to a variety of existing and new programs to build more affordable products. Savings goals set forth by the program are shown in Figure 1.
Technical Paper

Oxygen/Nitrogen Supply and Distribution for the United States On-Orbit Segment of the International Space Station

1997-07-01
972381
The on-orbit oxygen and nitrogen supply for the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is provided in tanks mounted on the outside of the Airlock module. Gasses are supplied, for distribution to users within the USOS, via pressure regulators in the Airlock. The on-orbit storage can be replenished with gas that is scavenged from the Space Shuttle, or by direct replacement of the tanks. The supply and distribution system are described in this paper. The users of the gasses are identified. The system architecture is presented. Operational considerations are discussed.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Alerted and Visually Acquired Airborne Aircraft in a Complex Air Traffic Environment

1998-04-06
981205
This study was designed to answer what percent of “required” traffic pilots acquire visually using the current “visual acquisition system” of windows, eyes and the Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS). “Required Traffic” was defined as Air Traffic Control (ATC) calls to the research aircraft, TCAS Traffic Alerts and/or TCAS Resolution Advisories. The results of the approximately 40 hours of flight were that the majority of (“required”) traffic was NOT visually acquired (39% visually acquired; 61% not visually acquired). When traffic was identified to the pilots by more than one source, the visual acquisition rate was 58%. For validation purposes, an additional 10 hours of flight observations were made during revenue flights with a major airline. Flight test and airline observations were found to be comparable.
Technical Paper

Structural Pressures Developed During Fill of Complex Systems

1998-07-13
981735
Excessive impact pressures can develop when an evacuated system is filled with liquid. Such a process is usually highly chaotic, especially when the system geometry is complex. Available computational methods by themselves cannot provide the necessary answers. The International Space Station (ISS) heat exchanger has a complex flow system, and a synthesis of computational and experimental methods was necessary to design the system. The FLOW-NET two-phase flow program was used to determine the range of loss coefficients and the liquid-vapor interface mass and energy transfer that would fit the measured impact pressures. These loss coefficients could then be used to compute the impact pressures for a design configuration similar to the one tested at a range of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Integrated Air Interchange System Performance for Early Internatonal Space Station Assembly Missions

1998-07-13
981588
A multi-element fixed control volume integrated air interchange system performance computer model has been developed and upgraded for the evaluation/assessment of atmospheric characteristics inside the crew compartments of the mated Orbiter and International Space Station (ISS). In order to ensure a safe, comfortable, and habitable environment for all the astronauts during the Orbiter/ISS docked period, this model was utilized to conduct the analysis for supporting the early ISS assembly missions. Two ISS assembly missions #2A and #4A were selected and analyzed.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Temperature and Humidity Control Subassembly Hardware, Control and Performance Description

1998-07-13
981618
The temperature and humidity of the air within the habitable areas of the International Space Station are controlled by a set of hardware and software collectively referred to as the Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) subassembly. This subassembly 1) controls the temperature of the cabin air based on a crew selected temperature, 2) maintains humidity within defined limits, and 3) generates a ventilation air flow which circulates through the cabin. This paper provides descriptions of the components of the THC subassembly, their performance ranges, and the control approach of the hardware. In addition, the solutions of the design challenges of maintaining a maximum case radiated noise level of NC 45, controlling the cabin air temperature to within ±2°F of a setpoint temperature, and providing a means of controlling microbial growth on the heat exchanger surfaces are described.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Evaluation of VFR Heliport Operations in an Obstacle-Rich Environment

1997-10-13
975532
A study was conducted to investigate the impacts of obstacles on pilot performance, workload, and perceptions of safety in a visual flight rule (VFR) obstacle-rich environment (ORE). The study was conducted using a piloted simulation of a single-rotor, multi-engine helicopter operating in a highly detailed urban visual scene database. The database contained multiple obstacle types, with variable obstacle heights and densities. Nine pilots completed the approaches and departures into and out of a heliport located in the center of the generic urban environment. Two flight routes offered unique presentations of terrain and obstacle types. Obstacle height/density and time of day/lighting parameters were systematically manipulated. A multi-dimensional data collection methodology employing the simultaneous collection of direct aircraft state, pilot performance data, pilot physiological data and pilot subjective responses was employed.
Technical Paper

Advanced Data Format (ADF): A Portable Hierarchical Database

1998-09-28
985565
Advanced Data Format (ADF) is a portable hierarchical database software library developed by The Boeing Company under contract with NASA [1] and with assistance from industry partners. ADF was designed and built to directly support the CFD General Notation System (CGNS1) project. The CGNS project defines conventions and supplies software to facilitate the exchange of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data between sites and between applications, and it allows stable archiving of CFD data. CGNS is implemented on the ADF foundation and is focused on the needs of the CFD community. This paper details the design, implementation, use, and future direction of ADF.
Technical Paper

A Requirements-Based CNS/ATM Architecture

1998-09-28
985552
This paper identifies an approach to the definition of a National Airspace System (NAS) architecture which will support the future development of the U.S. air transportation system, consistent with long-range needs of the various users of the NAS. The approach outlined identifies the development of an FAA preliminary design methodology, with supporting tools and processes to provide the basis for NAS modernization. This approach begins with the quantification of the primary long-range objectives of the NAS, which the system architecture must support over its design life. These objectives are the basis of the mission analysis and requirements development, which, in turn, are used for technology tradeoff studies and the baselining of an architecture for evaluation.
Technical Paper

The Boeing 777-300/PW4098 Flying Test-Bed Program

1998-09-28
985550
The 98,000 lb. thrust Pratt & Whitney PW4098 high-bypass turbofan engine recently completed a flying test-bed program on the Boeing 777-300 airplane. The purpose of the one-month program was to validate engine operability and to gather data that can be used for upcoming engine certification to the standards of Federal Aviation Regulations part 33. Testing included engine transient operation, steady-state performance, in-flight starting, component cooling, and inlet compatibility. When engine certification is complete, an airplane certification program will be conducted for the 777-300/PW4098, a combination of the world's largest twin engine airplane and the world's largest turbofan engine yet to fly.
Technical Paper

A Reduced-Order Enclosure Radiation Modeling Technique for Aircraft Actuators

2010-11-02
2010-01-1741
Modern aircraft are aerodynamically designed at the edge of flight stability and therefore require high-response-rate flight control surfaces to maintain flight safety. In addition, to minimize weight and eliminate aircraft thermal cooling requirements, the actuator systems have increased power-density and utilize high-temperature components. This coupled with the wide operating temperature regimes experienced over a mission profile may result in detrimental performance of the actuator systems. Understanding the performance capabilities and power draw requirements as a function of temperature is essential in properly sizing and optimizing an aircraft platform. Under the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL's) Integrated Vehicle and Energy Technology (INVENT) Program, detailed models of high performance electromechanical actuators (HPEAS) were developed and include temperature dependent effects in the electrical and mechanical actuator components.
Technical Paper

Automated Model Evaluation and Verification of Aircraft Components

2010-11-02
2010-01-1806
The trend of moving towards model-based design and analysis of new and upgraded aircraft platforms requires integrated component and subsystem models. To support integrated system trades and design studies, these models must satisfy modeling and performance guidelines regarding interfaces, implementation, verification, and validation. As part of the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Integrated Vehicle and Energy Technology (INVENT) Program, standardized modeling and performance guidelines have been established and documented in the Modeling Requirement and Implementation Plan (MRIP). Although these guidelines address interfaces and suggested implementation approaches, system integration challenges remain with respect to computational stability and predicted performance over the entire operating region for a given component. This paper discusses standardized model evaluation tools aimed to address these challenges at a component/subsystem level prior to system integration.
Journal Article

Estimating Return on Investment for SAVI (a Model-Based Virtual Integration Process)

2011-10-18
2011-01-2576
The System Architecture Virtual Integration (SAVI) program is a collaboration of industry, government, and academic organizations within the Aerospace Vehicle System Institute (AVSI) with the goal of structuring a new integration process that relies on a “single-truth” architectural framework. The SAVI approach of “Integrate, then Build” provides a modern distributed development environment which arrests the propagation of requirements errors through the development life cycle. It does so by capturing design assumptions and shared properties of the system design in an authoritative, annotated architectural model. This reference model provides a common, analyzable framework for confirming that system requirements remain complete, consistent, and correct at all levels of system decomposition. Core concepts of SAVI include extensive use of model-based system engineering tools and use of a “single-truth” reference architectural model.
Technical Paper

Ejection Seat Cushions Static Evaluation for Three Different Installation Rail Angles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0806
Jet fighter missions have been known to last extended period of time. The need for a comfortable and safe seat has become paramount considering that fact that uncomfortable seats can lead to numerous health issues. Several health effects like numbness, pressure sore, low back pain, and vein thrombosis have been associated with protracted sitting. The cushion, and of late the installation rail angle are the only components of the ejection seat system that can be modified to reduce these adverse effects. A comprehensive static comfort evaluation study for ejection seats was conducted. It provides comparison between a variety of operational and prototype cushions (baseline cushion, honeycomb and air-cushion) and three different installation rail angles (14°, 18°, and 22°). Three operational cockpit environment mockups with adjustable installation rail angle were built. Ten volunteer subjects, six females and four males, ages 19 to 35, participated in the seat comfort evaluation.
Technical Paper

Expanded Accommodation Technique with Application to Maintenance Environment

2011-04-12
2011-01-0521
This paper presents a PC based mathematical and rapid prototyping technique for anthropometric accommodation in a maintenance environment using the principle of simulation based design. The developed technique is capable of analyzing anthropometric data using multivariate (Principal component Analysis) approach to describe the body size variability of any given population. A number of body size representative cases are established which, when used properly within the constraints of the maintenance environments, will ensure the accommodation of a desired percentage of a population. This technique evaluates the percentage accommodation of a given population for the environment using the specific manikin cases as boundary conditions. In the case where any member of a maintenance crew cannot be accommodated, the technique has the capability of informing the designer of the environment why the member(s) is/are not accommodated.
Technical Paper

Designing Airplane Cabin Noise Treatment Packages using Statistical Energy Analysis

2007-05-15
2007-01-2316
Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is a very powerful tool in its ability to guide noise control package design in automobile, airplane and architectural systems. However transmission loss modeling in an SEA frame work has more to do with modeling of sound propagation through foam and fiber noise control materials than classical SEA power flow between groups of resonant modes. The transmission loss problem is reviewed in an SEA frame work with a focus on key paths and input parameter variations on predicted noise control package performance.
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