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Technical Paper

Operating Procedures Associated with Noise Generated by the Supersonic Transport

1965-02-01
650214
The noise characteristics of The Boeing Company variable sweep supersonic transport are described. It is predicted that the noise levels of this airplane will be lower than those of current intercontinental subsonic jets. However, the noise generated by the supersonic transport could be substantially modified by the way the aircraft will be operated. The flexibility in operation afforded by the Boeing supersonic transport for achieving low noise levels, both airport and in the community, is reviewed. No major noise problems are anticipated because of SST operations at present airfields.
Technical Paper

A Reduced-Order Enclosure Radiation Modeling Technique for Aircraft Actuators

2010-11-02
2010-01-1741
Modern aircraft are aerodynamically designed at the edge of flight stability and therefore require high-response-rate flight control surfaces to maintain flight safety. In addition, to minimize weight and eliminate aircraft thermal cooling requirements, the actuator systems have increased power-density and utilize high-temperature components. This coupled with the wide operating temperature regimes experienced over a mission profile may result in detrimental performance of the actuator systems. Understanding the performance capabilities and power draw requirements as a function of temperature is essential in properly sizing and optimizing an aircraft platform. Under the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL's) Integrated Vehicle and Energy Technology (INVENT) Program, detailed models of high performance electromechanical actuators (HPEAS) were developed and include temperature dependent effects in the electrical and mechanical actuator components.
Technical Paper

Automated Model Evaluation and Verification of Aircraft Components

2010-11-02
2010-01-1806
The trend of moving towards model-based design and analysis of new and upgraded aircraft platforms requires integrated component and subsystem models. To support integrated system trades and design studies, these models must satisfy modeling and performance guidelines regarding interfaces, implementation, verification, and validation. As part of the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Integrated Vehicle and Energy Technology (INVENT) Program, standardized modeling and performance guidelines have been established and documented in the Modeling Requirement and Implementation Plan (MRIP). Although these guidelines address interfaces and suggested implementation approaches, system integration challenges remain with respect to computational stability and predicted performance over the entire operating region for a given component. This paper discusses standardized model evaluation tools aimed to address these challenges at a component/subsystem level prior to system integration.
Journal Article

Estimating Return on Investment for SAVI (a Model-Based Virtual Integration Process)

2011-10-18
2011-01-2576
The System Architecture Virtual Integration (SAVI) program is a collaboration of industry, government, and academic organizations within the Aerospace Vehicle System Institute (AVSI) with the goal of structuring a new integration process that relies on a “single-truth” architectural framework. The SAVI approach of “Integrate, then Build” provides a modern distributed development environment which arrests the propagation of requirements errors through the development life cycle. It does so by capturing design assumptions and shared properties of the system design in an authoritative, annotated architectural model. This reference model provides a common, analyzable framework for confirming that system requirements remain complete, consistent, and correct at all levels of system decomposition. Core concepts of SAVI include extensive use of model-based system engineering tools and use of a “single-truth” reference architectural model.
Technical Paper

Calculations of Ice Shapes on Oscillating Airfoils

2011-06-13
2011-38-0015
The desire to operate rotorcraft in icing conditions has renewed the interest in developing high-fidelity analysis methods to predict ice accumulation and the ensuing rotor performance degradation. A subset of providing solutions for rotorcraft icing problems is predicting two-dimensional ice accumulation on rotor airfoils. While much has been done to predict ice for fixed-wing airfoil sections, the rotorcraft problem has two additional challenges: first, rotor airfoils tend to experience flows in higher Mach number regimes, often creating glaze ice which is harder to predict; second, rotor airfoils oscillate in pitch to produce balance across the rotor disk. A methodology and validation test cases are presented to solve the rotor airfoil problem as an important step to solving the larger rotorcraft icing problem. The process couples Navier-Stokes CFD analysis with the ice accretion analysis code, LEWICE3D.
Technical Paper

The 747-400 Dreamlifter - Overview & Mission

2007-09-17
2007-01-3888
The development of new commercial airliners is a very risky proposition. To get it right, airframe manufacturers must balance new technologies and manufacturing methods with global participation and business considerations. The 787 is Boeing's popular new wide body aircraft incorporating state of the art composites design and manufacturing methods. But new technology alone is not enough. A new logistics system was needed to integrate global partners in order to fully benefit from new technologies. The Boeing 747-400 Dreamlifter is a special purpose 747-400 modified to transport Boeing 787 airplane components through various stages of manufacturing.
Technical Paper

Universal Splice Machine

2007-09-17
2007-01-3782
There is an increasing demand in the aerospace industry for automated machinery that is portable, flexible and light. This paper will focus on a joint project between BROETJE-Automation and Boeing called the Universal Splice Machine (USM). The USM is a portable, flexible and lightweight automated drilling and fastening machine for longitudinal splices. The USM is the first machine of its kind that has the ability not only to drill holes without the need to deburr, (burrless drilling) but also to insert fasteners. The Multi Function End Effector (MFEE) runs on a rail system that is mounted directly on the fuselage using a vacuum cup system. Clamp up is achieved through the use of an advanced electromagnet. A control cart follows along next to the fuselage and includes an Automated Fastener Feeding System. This paper will show how this new advancement has the capabilities to fill gaps in aircraft production that automation has never reached before.
Technical Paper

Keep the User in Mind: Operational Considerations for Securing Airborne Networks

2007-09-17
2007-01-3785
Security is a serious concern for all Internet users, and all the more so if the implications of security failure can potentially affect safety of flight or the public's perception of air travel. However, when designing networked aircraft and onboard systems, technical security features are only one aspect of the implementation that must be addressed. Given the unique operational, support, and regulatory environment of commercial air transports, careful consideration must also be given to both design and operational requirements in order to develop an aircraft that can be safely operated and maintained within the constraints of the existing infrastructure and personnel available. This paper addresses the unique Operational Considerations for Securing Airborne Networks in commercial air transport aircraft.
Technical Paper

Development of Portable and Flexible Track Positioning System for Aircraft Manufacturing Processes

2007-09-17
2007-01-3781
The Boeing Company has recently developed a portable positioning system based upon its patented flexible vacuum track technology, in support of its commitment to lean manufacturing techniques. The positioning system, referred to as Mini Flex Track, was initially developed as an inexpensive drilling system that minimizes machine setup time, does not require extensive operator training due to its simple user interface, is general purpose enough to be used in varying airplane applications, and meets strict accuracy requirements for aircraft manufacturing. The system consists of a variable length vacuum track that conforms to a range of contours, a two-axis numerically-controlled positioning carriage that controls machine motion, an additional rail perpendicular to the vacuum rail that provides transverse motion, and an end effector that can perform various tasks.
Technical Paper

Microbial Characterization of Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Hardware Surfaces after Five Years of Operation in the International Space Station

2006-07-17
2006-01-2157
A flex hose assembly containing aqueous coolant from the International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) consisting of a 2 foot section of Teflon hose and quick disconnects (QDs) and a Special Performance Checkout Unit (SPCU) heat exchanger containing separate channels of IATCS coolant and iodinated water used to cool spacesuits and Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) were returned for destructive analyses on Shuttle return to flight mission STS-114. The original aqueous IATCS coolant used in Node 1, the Laboratory Module, and the Airlock consisted of water, borate (pH buffer), phosphate (corrosion control), and silver sulfate (microbiological control) at a pH of 9.5 ± 0.5.
Technical Paper

International Space Station (ISS) Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) On-Orbit Performance

2006-07-17
2006-01-2092
This paper summarizes the first 5 plus years of on-orbit operation for the Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA). The MCA is an essential part of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The MCA is a mass spectrometer instrument in the US Destiny Laboratory Module of the International Space Station. The MCA provides critical monitoring of six major atmospheric constituents (nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and water vapor (H2O)) sampled continuously and automatically in all United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) modules via the Sample Distribution System (SDS). Sample lines have been routed throughout the U.S. modules with valves to facilitate software-automated sequential sampling of the atmosphere in the various modules.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Water Usage Analysis

2006-07-17
2006-01-2094
The International Space Station (ISS) supplies and recycles water. Until the water system loop is closed with 100 percent recycling, monitoring water usage on-orbit is critical. The water supply on-orbit is monitored to stay above the skip cycle. If the rate is higher than predicted, then the water supply may become too low to support the crew. Both U.S. and Russian water experts use the water usage rate to determine the quantity of water to be re-supplied on each vehicle. The paper provides an overview of the ISS water system. It discusses the newly revised water balance. The paper describes the methodology used to calculate water usage rates. The analysis provides the water usage rates for each Expedition crew. The analysis compares these results to the consumable reports and the Russian water expert reports. The paper provides a discussion of the results of the various usage rates. It provides the most accurate methods for assessing water usage.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Nitrogen System Performance

2006-07-17
2006-01-2091
The Nitrogen System aboard the International Space Station (Station) continues to maintain Station total pressure and support several ongoing scientific and medical tasks. This paper addresses elevated leakage in the Nitrogen System, behavior during events such as nitrogen usage in other parts of the Station, and describes behavioral changes of the nitrogen Regulator/Relief Valve (regulator) since the activation of the Nitrogen System in 2001.
Technical Paper

International Space Station (ISS) Metabolic Oxygen Consumption for Expeditions 12

2006-07-17
2006-01-2090
The analysis presented in this paper focuses on the metabolic consumption of oxygen by the crew onboard the International Space Station (ISS) during Expedition 12. The Russian Elektron, which electrolyzes water to produce oxygen, operational and non-operational periods are used to assist in the calculation of metabolic oxygen consumption. Non-operational periods will be used to establish baseline crew consumption rates. The importance of this analysis is to provide more accurate trend of oxygen metabolic consumption rates for Expedition 12.
Technical Paper

Integrated Status of Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Functions into the International Space Station (ISS) U.S. Laboratory Element

2006-07-17
2006-01-2058
Currently the International Space Station (ISS) has limited Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) capability. This capability only consists of condensate water recovery that is resident in the Russian Segment (RS). The ISS program planned to have the United States (U.S.) Regenerative ECLSS located in the Node 3 element, however recently the program directed earlier implementation of the U.S. Regenerative ECLSS into the U.S. laboratory element. This configuration change is in the process of being implemented to allow for earlier integration of the three racks containing urine processing, water processing, and oxygen generation regenerative functions into the U.S. Laboratory. The Regenerative ECLSS functions were originally planned for operation aboard ISS after the launch and attachment of the Node 3 element in early 2010.
Technical Paper

The Personal Computer Transport Analyzer Program

2006-07-17
2006-01-2050
Since flight requirements often necessitate last-minute re-analysis, it became crucial to develop flexible and comprehensive transport phenomena analysis software that would quickly ensure all vehicle and payload requirements would be satisfied. The software would replace various mainframe-based software, such as the Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (TRASYS) and the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA). The software would need to have the flexibility to employ models that could be developed and modified as vehicle systems change. By use of event files which contain simple, intuitive commands, the characteristics of individual missions could be built as inputs to the model. By moving the Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS) system model to the PC environment, each analyst would have execution, storage, and processing management control. And of course, software portability would be greatly increased.
Technical Paper

Analysis to Characterize Fresh vs. Aged Shuttle Orbiter Lithium Hydroxide Performance

2006-07-17
2006-01-2048
A recent endeavor has been undertaken to understand the performance of Shuttle Orbiter lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canisters used during STS-114. During this mission, the crew relied on both fresh LiOH and aged LiOH stored on the International Space Station (ISS). Due to the Space Shuttle being grounded after the Columbia accident, the canisters stored on ISS had passed the certified two-year shelf life and were considered expired. The focus of the analysis was to determine the performance of expired LiOH in relation to fresh LiOH and the accuracy of previous predictions1 regarding the performance of expired LiOH. Understanding the performance of expired LiOH is crucial in enabling the extension of the useful life of LiOH canisters. Extending the shelf life has ramifications not only in the current Shuttle program, but in regard to future exploration missions fulfilling the Vision for Space Exploration as well.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2004 - 2005

2005-07-11
2005-01-2777
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2004 and February 2005. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Effect of Age on Shuttle Orbiter Lithium Hydroxide Canister Performance

2005-07-11
2005-01-2768
Recent efforts have been pursued to establish the usefulness of Space Shuttle Orbiter lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canisters beyond their certified two-year shelf life, at which time they are currently considered “expired.” A stockpile of Orbiter LiOH canisters are stowed on the International Space Station (ISS) as a backup system for maintaining ISS carbon dioxide Canisters with older (CO2) control. Canister with older pack dates must routinely be replaced with newly packed canisters off-loaded from the Orbiter Middeck. Since conservation of upmass is critical for every mission, the minimization of canister swap-out rate is paramount. LiOH samples from canisters with expired dates that had been returned from the ISS were tested for CO2 removal performance at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD). Through this test series and subsequent analysis, performance degradation was established.
Technical Paper

Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM) Cabin Air Temperature and Humidity Control Analysis

2005-07-11
2005-01-2801
The Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM) is designed to be one of the modules of the International Space Station (ISS) for performing on-orbit science experiments over an extended period of time. The common cabin air assembly (CCAA) is utilized as the hardware for air temperature and humidity control (THC) for the CAM module cabin. The CCAA unit contains a variable speed fan, heat exchanger, temperature control valve, water separator, temperature sensor, and electrical interface box. A temperature and humidity simulation model was developed to perform the THC analysis for the CCAA unit inside the CAM. This model applies both fixed control volume and a quasi-steady-state approach for computing critical information for evaluating/assessing CCAA system performance and capabilities.
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