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Technical Paper

Simulation Enhanced Work Instructions for Aircraft Assemblies

1998-06-02
981861
The Boeing Company is developing and implementing the tools for the 21st Century for product development with their Design Manufacturing and Producibility Simulation (DMAPS) program. DMAPS combines the best of people, hardware and software tools commercially available to develop product and process simulation applications. The DMAPS toolset enhances the process of preparing concept layouts, assembly layouts and build-to-packages. Comprised of an Integrated Product and Process Team (IPPT), DMAPS produces products faster and with higher quality. The result is a process that eliminates costly changes and rework, and provides all IPPT's the tools and training necessary to perform their tasks right the first time. Boeing applies DMAPS tools to a variety of existing and new programs to build more affordable products. Savings goals set forth by the program are shown in Figure 1.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Alerted and Visually Acquired Airborne Aircraft in a Complex Air Traffic Environment

1998-04-06
981205
This study was designed to answer what percent of “required” traffic pilots acquire visually using the current “visual acquisition system” of windows, eyes and the Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS). “Required Traffic” was defined as Air Traffic Control (ATC) calls to the research aircraft, TCAS Traffic Alerts and/or TCAS Resolution Advisories. The results of the approximately 40 hours of flight were that the majority of (“required”) traffic was NOT visually acquired (39% visually acquired; 61% not visually acquired). When traffic was identified to the pilots by more than one source, the visual acquisition rate was 58%. For validation purposes, an additional 10 hours of flight observations were made during revenue flights with a major airline. Flight test and airline observations were found to be comparable.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Evaluation of VFR Heliport Operations in an Obstacle-Rich Environment

1997-10-13
975532
A study was conducted to investigate the impacts of obstacles on pilot performance, workload, and perceptions of safety in a visual flight rule (VFR) obstacle-rich environment (ORE). The study was conducted using a piloted simulation of a single-rotor, multi-engine helicopter operating in a highly detailed urban visual scene database. The database contained multiple obstacle types, with variable obstacle heights and densities. Nine pilots completed the approaches and departures into and out of a heliport located in the center of the generic urban environment. Two flight routes offered unique presentations of terrain and obstacle types. Obstacle height/density and time of day/lighting parameters were systematically manipulated. A multi-dimensional data collection methodology employing the simultaneous collection of direct aircraft state, pilot performance data, pilot physiological data and pilot subjective responses was employed.
Technical Paper

THE EVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT STATUS OF THE AUGMENTOR WING CONCEPT

1970-02-01
700812
A review is made of previously reported status of the augmentor wing concept, including test work of de Havilland Aircraft of Canada and the NASA Ames Research Center. More recent NASA data which formed the basis for proceeding with a flight research vehicle program on the Buffalo CV-7A are discussed. This background is used to show potential application to a turbofan-powered production airplane concept whose highly integrated propulsion and aerodynamics show promise for a very quiet STOL. Proposed future augmentor wing development programs are also briefly discussed.
Technical Paper

Operating Procedures Associated with Noise Generated by the Supersonic Transport

1965-02-01
650214
The noise characteristics of The Boeing Company variable sweep supersonic transport are described. It is predicted that the noise levels of this airplane will be lower than those of current intercontinental subsonic jets. However, the noise generated by the supersonic transport could be substantially modified by the way the aircraft will be operated. The flexibility in operation afforded by the Boeing supersonic transport for achieving low noise levels, both airport and in the community, is reviewed. No major noise problems are anticipated because of SST operations at present airfields.
Technical Paper

Flight Crew Training - A Total Concept

1971-02-01
710474
To serve the requirements of the operational environment of modern jet aircraft, the flight crew training program should be kept as simple as possible and be consistent with the total information system for aircraft operation of which it is a part. Systematic tools are described which assist the course developer in optimizing the implementation of Specific Behavioral Objectives, allocating learning elements to the most cost effective learning environment, and organizing those learning elements associated with the classroom environment. Included is a discussion on the management systems applied, the development of a Learning Task Analysis, and a systems approach to course organization.
Technical Paper

Automated Model Evaluation and Verification of Aircraft Components

2010-11-02
2010-01-1806
The trend of moving towards model-based design and analysis of new and upgraded aircraft platforms requires integrated component and subsystem models. To support integrated system trades and design studies, these models must satisfy modeling and performance guidelines regarding interfaces, implementation, verification, and validation. As part of the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Integrated Vehicle and Energy Technology (INVENT) Program, standardized modeling and performance guidelines have been established and documented in the Modeling Requirement and Implementation Plan (MRIP). Although these guidelines address interfaces and suggested implementation approaches, system integration challenges remain with respect to computational stability and predicted performance over the entire operating region for a given component. This paper discusses standardized model evaluation tools aimed to address these challenges at a component/subsystem level prior to system integration.
Technical Paper

Commercial Aircraft Applications for Laser Sintered Polyamides

2009-11-10
2009-01-3266
The Selective laser sintering (SLS) process offers unique capabilities for production of complex, thin-walled geometries with internal features, integral attachments and flanges. The benefits of SLS have been realized on a variety of Boeing military platforms for a number of years. However, applications on commercial aircraft have been limited by material flammability requirements. To address this gap, Boeing, in cooperation with Advanced Laser Materials, developed a flame retardant polyamide material that is now commercially available (ALM FR-106). This paper introduces the general advantages of laser sintering as applied to the manufacturing of flight hardware and a description of the development of the flame retardant material in use.
Technical Paper

Development and Implementation of Sol-Gel Coatings for Aerospace Applications

2009-11-10
2009-01-3208
A family of water-based sol-gel coatings has been developed as an environmentally-friendly alternative to traditional aerospace finishing materials and processes. The sol-gel hybrid network is based on a reactive mixture of an organo-functionalized silane with a stabilized zirconium complex. Thin films of the material self-assemble on metal surfaces, resulting in a gradient coating that provides durable adhesion for paints, adhesives, and sealants. Use of the novel coating as a surface pretreatment for the exterior of commercial aircraft has enabled environmental, health, and safety benefits due to elimination of hexavalent chromium, and flight test and early fleet survey data support the laboratory observations that the sol gel coating reduces the occurrence of “rivet rash” adhesion failures. Modifications of the basic inorganic/organic hybrid network have yielded multifunctional coatings with promise for applications such as corrosion control and oxidation protection.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Commercial Airplanes Service Request Process Flows

2009-11-10
2009-01-3199
The repairing of commercial aircraft is a complex task. Service engineers at Boeing's Commercial Aviation Services group specialize in providing crucial repair information and technical support for its many customers. This paper details factors that influence Boeing's response time to service requests and how to improve it. Information pertaining to over 5000 service requests from 2008 and 2009 was collected. From analysis of this data set, important findings were discovered. One major finding is that between 6 and 8 percent of service requests are late because time/date stamps used in reports were created in a different time zone.
Technical Paper

Laser Tracker Assisted Aircraft Machining and Assembly

2008-09-16
2008-01-2313
The patented (US 7,277,811 B1) Position Bar provides precise measurement, machining and drilling data for large Engineering and Tooling structure. The Position Bar also supports end item verification seamlessly in the same machining control code. Position Bar measurements are fast, accurate, and repeatable. The true centerline of the machine tool's spindle bearings are being measured to within .002 in a 20 foot cubic volume (20×20×20). True “I”, “J”, & “K” machine tool spindle positions are also precisely measured. Any Gantry or Post Mill Tool can be converted to a Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) with this laser tracker controlled Position Bar. Determinant Assembly (D.A.) holes, for fuselage and wing structures are drilled and then measured to within .006 in X, Y, & Z, over a 40 foot distance. Average laser tracker measurement time, per hole, is 2 seconds.
Technical Paper

Calculations of Ice Shapes on Oscillating Airfoils

2011-06-13
2011-38-0015
The desire to operate rotorcraft in icing conditions has renewed the interest in developing high-fidelity analysis methods to predict ice accumulation and the ensuing rotor performance degradation. A subset of providing solutions for rotorcraft icing problems is predicting two-dimensional ice accumulation on rotor airfoils. While much has been done to predict ice for fixed-wing airfoil sections, the rotorcraft problem has two additional challenges: first, rotor airfoils tend to experience flows in higher Mach number regimes, often creating glaze ice which is harder to predict; second, rotor airfoils oscillate in pitch to produce balance across the rotor disk. A methodology and validation test cases are presented to solve the rotor airfoil problem as an important step to solving the larger rotorcraft icing problem. The process couples Navier-Stokes CFD analysis with the ice accretion analysis code, LEWICE3D.
Technical Paper

The Automated NC Mini-Driller

1999-10-06
1999-01-3436
The introduction of a new derivative to an existing aircraft model poses many decisions regarding old versus new. In the case of the introduction of the extended range 767 (the 767-400ER), an entirely new wing design prompted the examination of the then current assembly processes and tooling. The hesitation to build new drill templates for use in the traditional method of second stage wing spar assembly inspired Tool Engineering Management to request the investigation of a low cost automated drilling apparatus. As a result, the Boeing Automated Tools Group and Advanced Integration Technology, Inc. (AIT) developed and implemented mobile numerically controlled mini-drilling machines for post-ASAT I assembly-drilling operations.
Technical Paper

“Fuel Flow Method2” for Estimating Aircraft Emissions

2006-08-30
2006-01-1987
In recent years there has been increasing interest in quantifying the emissions from aircraft in order to generate inventories of emissions for climate models, technology and scenario studies, and inventories of emissions for airline fleets typically presented in environmental reports. The preferred method for calculating aircraft engine emissions of NOx, HC, and CO is the proprietary “P3T3” method. This method relies on proprietary airplane and engine performance models along with proprietary engine emissions characterizations. In response and in order to provide a transparent method for calculating aircraft engine emissions non proprietary fuel flow based methods 1,2,3 have been developed. This paper presents derivation, updates, and clarifications of the fuel flow method methodology known as “Fuel Flow Method 2”.
Technical Paper

Keep the User in Mind: Operational Considerations for Securing Airborne Networks

2007-09-17
2007-01-3785
Security is a serious concern for all Internet users, and all the more so if the implications of security failure can potentially affect safety of flight or the public's perception of air travel. However, when designing networked aircraft and onboard systems, technical security features are only one aspect of the implementation that must be addressed. Given the unique operational, support, and regulatory environment of commercial air transports, careful consideration must also be given to both design and operational requirements in order to develop an aircraft that can be safely operated and maintained within the constraints of the existing infrastructure and personnel available. This paper addresses the unique Operational Considerations for Securing Airborne Networks in commercial air transport aircraft.
Technical Paper

Development of Portable and Flexible Track Positioning System for Aircraft Manufacturing Processes

2007-09-17
2007-01-3781
The Boeing Company has recently developed a portable positioning system based upon its patented flexible vacuum track technology, in support of its commitment to lean manufacturing techniques. The positioning system, referred to as Mini Flex Track, was initially developed as an inexpensive drilling system that minimizes machine setup time, does not require extensive operator training due to its simple user interface, is general purpose enough to be used in varying airplane applications, and meets strict accuracy requirements for aircraft manufacturing. The system consists of a variable length vacuum track that conforms to a range of contours, a two-axis numerically-controlled positioning carriage that controls machine motion, an additional rail perpendicular to the vacuum rail that provides transverse motion, and an end effector that can perform various tasks.
Technical Paper

Universal Splice Machine

2007-09-17
2007-01-3782
There is an increasing demand in the aerospace industry for automated machinery that is portable, flexible and light. This paper will focus on a joint project between BROETJE-Automation and Boeing called the Universal Splice Machine (USM). The USM is a portable, flexible and lightweight automated drilling and fastening machine for longitudinal splices. The USM is the first machine of its kind that has the ability not only to drill holes without the need to deburr, (burrless drilling) but also to insert fasteners. The Multi Function End Effector (MFEE) runs on a rail system that is mounted directly on the fuselage using a vacuum cup system. Clamp up is achieved through the use of an advanced electromagnet. A control cart follows along next to the fuselage and includes an Automated Fastener Feeding System. This paper will show how this new advancement has the capabilities to fill gaps in aircraft production that automation has never reached before.
Technical Paper

The 747-400 Dreamlifter - Overview & Mission

2007-09-17
2007-01-3888
The development of new commercial airliners is a very risky proposition. To get it right, airframe manufacturers must balance new technologies and manufacturing methods with global participation and business considerations. The 787 is Boeing's popular new wide body aircraft incorporating state of the art composites design and manufacturing methods. But new technology alone is not enough. A new logistics system was needed to integrate global partners in order to fully benefit from new technologies. The Boeing 747-400 Dreamlifter is a special purpose 747-400 modified to transport Boeing 787 airplane components through various stages of manufacturing.
Technical Paper

Air Quality Simulation and Assessment (Aqsa) Model

2003-07-07
2003-01-2438
An air quality simulation and assessment (AQSA) model was developed to simulate/evaluate the integrated system performance and obtain air quality characteristics and air contaminants inside the habitable compartments. This model applies both fixed control volume and quasi-steady-state approach for a multi-volume system to assess system performance, operating constraints, and capabilities. The model also integrates a state-of-the-art probabilistic analysis tool, UNIPASS, to compute failure probability due to the uncertainties of variables. In addition, this integrated model also predicts the most likely outcomes for analyzing risks and uncertainties as well as for quantitative toxicological evaluation. This model has been successfully and independently corrected/verified by NASA/JSC to be a very effective, reliable, and accurate tool, while providing savings in both the cost and time of the analysis.
Technical Paper

Portable Fastener Delivery and Installation System

2003-09-08
2003-01-2953
The Portable Fastener Delivery System or PFDS, has been developed at the Boeing St. Louis facility to streamline the manual fastener installation process. The PFDS delivers various fasteners, on demand, through a delivery tube to an installation tool used by the operator to install the fasteners in an aircraft assembly. This paper describes the PFDS in its current configuration, along with the associated Huck® International (now Alcoa Fastening Systems) installation tooling, as it is being implemented on the F/A-18E/F Nosebarrel Skinning application. As a “portable” system, the PFDS cart can be rolled to any location on the shop floor it might be needed. The system uses a removable storage cassette to cache many sizes and types of fasteners in the moderate quantities that might be required for a particular assembly task. The operator begins the installation sequence by calling for the particular fastener grip length needed using a wireless control pendant.
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