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Technical Paper

3D Re-Engineering: A Comprehensive Process for Solving Production Assembly Fit Problems

Dimensional Management (DM) is a methodology to predict and control the impact of variation on assembly from, fit, and function. Application of Dimensional Management tools and other modeling and simulation techniques are combined in a process called 3D Re-Engineering for application to existing production designs. Analytical techniques for predicting the impact of variation on assembly fit, and corresponding methods for controlling variation are presented, as used in a production environment for root cause corrective action on existing assembly fit problems. Assembly variation analysis is typically performed early in the product development phases, by coordinating datums, assembly sequences, assembly methods, and detail part tolerances across the product development team.
Technical Paper

Simulation Enhanced Work Instructions for Aircraft Assemblies

The Boeing Company is developing and implementing the tools for the 21st Century for product development with their Design Manufacturing and Producibility Simulation (DMAPS) program. DMAPS combines the best of people, hardware and software tools commercially available to develop product and process simulation applications. The DMAPS toolset enhances the process of preparing concept layouts, assembly layouts and build-to-packages. Comprised of an Integrated Product and Process Team (IPPT), DMAPS produces products faster and with higher quality. The result is a process that eliminates costly changes and rework, and provides all IPPT's the tools and training necessary to perform their tasks right the first time. Boeing applies DMAPS tools to a variety of existing and new programs to build more affordable products. Savings goals set forth by the program are shown in Figure 1.
Technical Paper

A Requirements-Based CNS/ATM Architecture

This paper identifies an approach to the definition of a National Airspace System (NAS) architecture which will support the future development of the U.S. air transportation system, consistent with long-range needs of the various users of the NAS. The approach outlined identifies the development of an FAA preliminary design methodology, with supporting tools and processes to provide the basis for NAS modernization. This approach begins with the quantification of the primary long-range objectives of the NAS, which the system architecture must support over its design life. These objectives are the basis of the mission analysis and requirements development, which, in turn, are used for technology tradeoff studies and the baselining of an architecture for evaluation.
Technical Paper

Flight Crew Training - A Total Concept

To serve the requirements of the operational environment of modern jet aircraft, the flight crew training program should be kept as simple as possible and be consistent with the total information system for aircraft operation of which it is a part. Systematic tools are described which assist the course developer in optimizing the implementation of Specific Behavioral Objectives, allocating learning elements to the most cost effective learning environment, and organizing those learning elements associated with the classroom environment. Included is a discussion on the management systems applied, the development of a Learning Task Analysis, and a systems approach to course organization.
Technical Paper

Automated Model Evaluation and Verification of Aircraft Components

The trend of moving towards model-based design and analysis of new and upgraded aircraft platforms requires integrated component and subsystem models. To support integrated system trades and design studies, these models must satisfy modeling and performance guidelines regarding interfaces, implementation, verification, and validation. As part of the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Integrated Vehicle and Energy Technology (INVENT) Program, standardized modeling and performance guidelines have been established and documented in the Modeling Requirement and Implementation Plan (MRIP). Although these guidelines address interfaces and suggested implementation approaches, system integration challenges remain with respect to computational stability and predicted performance over the entire operating region for a given component. This paper discusses standardized model evaluation tools aimed to address these challenges at a component/subsystem level prior to system integration.
Technical Paper

Efficient Assembly Integration and Test (EAIT) Moves Theory to Practice at a System Level to Effect Lean Outcomes on the Shop Floor

This paper will describe the Efficient Assembly Integration and Test (EAIT) system level project operated as a partnership among Boeing business units, universities, and suppliers. The focus is on the successful implementation and sharing of technology solutions to develop a model based, multi-product pulsed line factory of the future. The EAIT philosophy presented in this paper focuses on a collaborative environment that is tightly woven with the Lean Initiatives at Boeing's satellite development center. The prototype is comprised of a platform that includes a wireless instrumentation system, rapid bonding materials and virtual test of guidance hardware there are examples of collaborative development in collaboration with suppliers. Wireless tools and information systems are also being developed across the Boeing Company. Virtual reality development will include university partners in the US and India.
Technical Paper

Laser Tracker Assisted Aircraft Machining and Assembly

The patented (US 7,277,811 B1) Position Bar provides precise measurement, machining and drilling data for large Engineering and Tooling structure. The Position Bar also supports end item verification seamlessly in the same machining control code. Position Bar measurements are fast, accurate, and repeatable. The true centerline of the machine tool's spindle bearings are being measured to within .002 in a 20 foot cubic volume (20×20×20). True “I”, “J”, & “K” machine tool spindle positions are also precisely measured. Any Gantry or Post Mill Tool can be converted to a Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) with this laser tracker controlled Position Bar. Determinant Assembly (D.A.) holes, for fuselage and wing structures are drilled and then measured to within .006 in X, Y, & Z, over a 40 foot distance. Average laser tracker measurement time, per hole, is 2 seconds.
Technical Paper

The Automated NC Mini-Driller

The introduction of a new derivative to an existing aircraft model poses many decisions regarding old versus new. In the case of the introduction of the extended range 767 (the 767-400ER), an entirely new wing design prompted the examination of the then current assembly processes and tooling. The hesitation to build new drill templates for use in the traditional method of second stage wing spar assembly inspired Tool Engineering Management to request the investigation of a low cost automated drilling apparatus. As a result, the Boeing Automated Tools Group and Advanced Integration Technology, Inc. (AIT) developed and implemented mobile numerically controlled mini-drilling machines for post-ASAT I assembly-drilling operations.
Technical Paper

ISS: On-Board ECLSS Maintenance Activities and Launch Logistics

The ISS U. S. ECLSS contains replaceable component designs to facilitate maintenance. A replaceable component is referred to as an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU). Total U. S. ECLSS maintenance events that have occurred over the five years (2001-2005) of operations are summarized. A more detailed description is provided for the ECLSS Remove and Replace (R&R) maintenance activities that have occurred during the last two years and the associated logistics that supported these activities. Maintenance activities have replaced failed or degraded ORU's by Corrective Maintenance (CM) and replaced spent expendable ORU's by Preventative Maintenance (PM). Corrective maintenance is performed only when necessary and often on relatively short notice. Preventative maintenance is planned in advance and is normally performed at a specified ORU service time. The paper also describes activities and successful efforts to increase the expendable ORU service life.
Technical Paper

Verification of Supply Chain Quality for Perishable Tools

Increased emphasis on standardizing processes and controlling variability in production operations includes validating perishable tools used in daily operations. Even though dealing with reputable manufacturers, many factors including communication, custom specifications and personnel turnover can lead to the perpetuation of mistakes if errors are not discovered and corrective action implemented. However, inspection is costly and inspection costs far outweigh many item costs unless considering product defects. A beneficial balance may be obtained by employing statistical sampling techniques similar to ISO 2859 [1] to verify the quality of incoming tools.
Technical Paper

Post-Flight Sampling and Loading Characterization of Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly Charcoal

Trace chemical contaminants produced by equipment offgassing and human metabolic processes are removed from the atmosphere of the International Space Station's U.S. Segment by a trace contaminant control subassembly (TCCS). The TCCS employs a combination of physical adsorption, thermal catalytic oxidation, and chemical adsorption processes to accomplish its task. A large bed of granular activated charcoal is a primary component of the TCCS. The charcoal contained in this bed, known as the charcoal bed assembly (CBA), is expendable and must be replaced periodically. Pre-flight engineering analyses based upon TCCS performance testing results established a service life estimate of 1 year. After nearly 1 year of cumulative in-flight operations, the first CBA was returned for refurbishment. Charcoal samples were collected and analyzed for loading to determine the best estimate for the CBA's service life.
Technical Paper

Portable Fastener Delivery and Installation System

The Portable Fastener Delivery System or PFDS, has been developed at the Boeing St. Louis facility to streamline the manual fastener installation process. The PFDS delivers various fasteners, on demand, through a delivery tube to an installation tool used by the operator to install the fasteners in an aircraft assembly. This paper describes the PFDS in its current configuration, along with the associated Huck® International (now Alcoa Fastening Systems) installation tooling, as it is being implemented on the F/A-18E/F Nosebarrel Skinning application. As a “portable” system, the PFDS cart can be rolled to any location on the shop floor it might be needed. The system uses a removable storage cassette to cache many sizes and types of fasteners in the moderate quantities that might be required for a particular assembly task. The operator begins the installation sequence by calling for the particular fastener grip length needed using a wireless control pendant.
Technical Paper

Use of Electromagnetic and Vacuum Forces on Aircraft Assembly

Decades ago our innovative grandfathers developed the first automated riveting machines based on hard automation using kinematics and tools attached to a C-frame. The C-frame serves multiple functions: First, it holds the upper and lower tools in fixed positions relative to each other; second, it translates upper active tooling forces to the lower tool; and third, it embraces the part placed between the upper and lower tool. C-frames and newly developed yoke, ring and gantry machines, used for low level (first, second) fuselage and wing assembly are growing in size to exorbitant proportions to satisfy requirements of larger and larger structures. High costs are dictated by massive kinematics and complex controls that provide stability, precision, and process speed. All this is mainly needed because we have to carry mechanical forces around the part, from upper to lower tool along the C-frame, gantry, yoke, bridge, etc.
Technical Paper

Radial and Tangential Forces, Tool Motion, and the Formation of Lobed Holes in Drilling

Out-of-round holes are formed as a result of tool motion during drilling. Tool vibration is driven by radial and tangential forces on the primary and secondary cutting edges. These forces in turn depend on the chip loads on each cutting edge, which in turn depend on the position of the tool at the current time and at the time of the previous tooth passage. A preliminary analysis based on balancing the cutting forces and the bending forces on the tool, shows that the characteristic frequencies of motion of the tool in the tool frame are near 3/rev, 5/rev, 7/rev etc. (corresponding to 2/rev, 4/rev, 6/rev) in the workpiece frame. These motions are consistent with the tool motion and hole form errors commonly observed on the shop floor. We will describe procedures for measuring the dependence of cutting forces on chip load, the development of simple equations for lateral motion of the tool, and solutions for the tool's behavior.
Technical Paper

ESM Analysis of COTS Laundry Systems for Space Missions

Clothing supply has been examined for historical, current, and planned missions. For STS, crew clothing is stowed on the orbiter and returned to JSC for refurbishment. On Mir, clothing was supplied and then disposed of on Progress for incineration on re-entry. For ISS, the Russian laundry and 75% of the US laundry is placed on Progress for destructive re-entry. The rest of the US laundry is stowed in mesh bags and returned to earth in the Multi Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) or in the STS middeck. For previous missions, clothing was supplied and thrown away. Supplying clothing without washing dirty clothing will be costly for long-duration missions. An on-board laundry system may reduce overall mission costs, as shown in previous, less accurate, metric studies. Some design and development of flight hardware laundry systems has been completed, such as the SBIR Phase I and Phase II study performed by UMPQUA Research Company for JSC in 1993.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Human Modeling Simulation Process for the International Space Station, Intra-Vehicular Activity

Defining a process for integrating human modeling within the design and verification activities of the International Space Station (ISS) has proven to be as important as the simulations themselves. The process developed (1) ensured configuration management of the required digital mockups, (2) provided consistent methodology for simulating and analyzing human tasks and hardware layout, (3) facilitated an efficient method of communicating design requirements and relaying satisfaction of contract requirements, and (4) provided substantial cost savings by reducing the amount of late redesign and expensive mockup tests. Human simulation is frequently the last step in the design process. Consequently, the influence it has on product design is minimal and oftentimes being used as a post-design verification tool.
Technical Paper

A Robust Method of Countersink Inspection Using Machine Vision

An automated system drills the outer moldline holes on a military aircraft wing. Currently, the operator manually checks countersink diameter every ten holes as a process quality check. The manual method of countersink inspection (using a countersink gauge with a dial readout) is prone to errors both in measurement and transcription, and is time consuming since the operator must stop the automated equipment before measuring the hole. Machine vision provides a fast, non-contact method for measuring countersink diameter, however, data from machine vision systems is frequently corrupted by non-gaussian noise which causes traditional model fitting methods, such as least squares, to fail miserably. We present a solution for circle measurement using a statistically robust fitting technique that does an exceptional job of identifying the countersink even in the presence of large amounts of structured and non-structured noise such as tear-out, scratches, surface defects, salt-and-pepper, etc.
Technical Paper

Human Swept Volumes

The Human Swept Volume (HSV) software described here is an interactive tool that allows users to position and animate articulated human models and then generate tessellated swept volume solids. Inverse kinematics and keyframe interpolation are used to define motion sequences, and a voxel-based method is used to create swept volume solid models. The software has been designed to accept various human anthropometry models, which can be imported from other CAD tools. For our initial implementation, we defined several human models based on dimensions from CAESAR/SAE anthropometric data. A case study is described in which the swept volume software was used as a part of a human space occupancy analysis. Results show the advantages of using complete swept volumes for objective measurement comparisons.
Technical Paper

Power Quality Specification Development for More Electric Airplane Architectures

Power quality has become a subject of increased attention for electrical power systems on both commercial and military aircraft. Several power quality guidelines and specification documents exist that govern today's power system operation and the contributing characteristics of electrical load equipment. This paper presents power quality requirements for future Boeing commercial airplanes, driven by advances in aerospace applications of power electronic equipment, increased load demand and complexity, as well as new power system architectures. The influence of new equipment types on electrical system power quality is described including the effects of motor controllers, AC power converters, and large dynamic loads. The impact of power type classifications such as variable frequency AC power and multiple DC voltage levels is also discussed. Simulation results are presented to develop and validate these power quality requirements.