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Technical Paper

A Reduced-Order Enclosure Radiation Modeling Technique for Aircraft Actuators

2010-11-02
2010-01-1741
Modern aircraft are aerodynamically designed at the edge of flight stability and therefore require high-response-rate flight control surfaces to maintain flight safety. In addition, to minimize weight and eliminate aircraft thermal cooling requirements, the actuator systems have increased power-density and utilize high-temperature components. This coupled with the wide operating temperature regimes experienced over a mission profile may result in detrimental performance of the actuator systems. Understanding the performance capabilities and power draw requirements as a function of temperature is essential in properly sizing and optimizing an aircraft platform. Under the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL's) Integrated Vehicle and Energy Technology (INVENT) Program, detailed models of high performance electromechanical actuators (HPEAS) were developed and include temperature dependent effects in the electrical and mechanical actuator components.
Technical Paper

Development of Portable and Flexible Track Positioning System for Aircraft Manufacturing Processes

2007-09-17
2007-01-3781
The Boeing Company has recently developed a portable positioning system based upon its patented flexible vacuum track technology, in support of its commitment to lean manufacturing techniques. The positioning system, referred to as Mini Flex Track, was initially developed as an inexpensive drilling system that minimizes machine setup time, does not require extensive operator training due to its simple user interface, is general purpose enough to be used in varying airplane applications, and meets strict accuracy requirements for aircraft manufacturing. The system consists of a variable length vacuum track that conforms to a range of contours, a two-axis numerically-controlled positioning carriage that controls machine motion, an additional rail perpendicular to the vacuum rail that provides transverse motion, and an end effector that can perform various tasks.
Technical Paper

Microbial Characterization of Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Hardware Surfaces after Five Years of Operation in the International Space Station

2006-07-17
2006-01-2157
A flex hose assembly containing aqueous coolant from the International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) consisting of a 2 foot section of Teflon hose and quick disconnects (QDs) and a Special Performance Checkout Unit (SPCU) heat exchanger containing separate channels of IATCS coolant and iodinated water used to cool spacesuits and Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) were returned for destructive analyses on Shuttle return to flight mission STS-114. The original aqueous IATCS coolant used in Node 1, the Laboratory Module, and the Airlock consisted of water, borate (pH buffer), phosphate (corrosion control), and silver sulfate (microbiological control) at a pH of 9.5 ± 0.5.
Technical Paper

The Personal Computer Transport Analyzer Program

2006-07-17
2006-01-2050
Since flight requirements often necessitate last-minute re-analysis, it became crucial to develop flexible and comprehensive transport phenomena analysis software that would quickly ensure all vehicle and payload requirements would be satisfied. The software would replace various mainframe-based software, such as the Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (TRASYS) and the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA). The software would need to have the flexibility to employ models that could be developed and modified as vehicle systems change. By use of event files which contain simple, intuitive commands, the characteristics of individual missions could be built as inputs to the model. By moving the Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS) system model to the PC environment, each analyst would have execution, storage, and processing management control. And of course, software portability would be greatly increased.
Technical Paper

Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM) Cabin Air Temperature and Humidity Control Analysis

2005-07-11
2005-01-2801
The Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM) is designed to be one of the modules of the International Space Station (ISS) for performing on-orbit science experiments over an extended period of time. The common cabin air assembly (CCAA) is utilized as the hardware for air temperature and humidity control (THC) for the CAM module cabin. The CCAA unit contains a variable speed fan, heat exchanger, temperature control valve, water separator, temperature sensor, and electrical interface box. A temperature and humidity simulation model was developed to perform the THC analysis for the CCAA unit inside the CAM. This model applies both fixed control volume and a quasi-steady-state approach for computing critical information for evaluating/assessing CCAA system performance and capabilities.
Technical Paper

Integrated Ceramic Composite Firewall

2005-10-03
2005-01-3430
This white paper will outline the material and processes, which have been developed for the fabrication and application of an integrated composite firewall primary structure for use in military and commercial aircraft. Military and commercial aircraft have requirements to protect occupants from fire. One specific fire protection requirement is to contain a (1100°C/2000°F) flame for 15 minutes. This protection on composites is usually provided by a metallic firewall attached to the composite structure. The integrated ceramic composite firewall is an improvement over existing metallic firewall technology. This technology reduces cost, part count, weight, and manufacturing complexity of composites, which require fire protection. The integrated ceramic composite firewall material and process incorporates ceramic fabric and film adhesive into one unique material.
Technical Paper

Electromagnetic Forming of Various Aircraft Components

2005-10-03
2005-01-3307
Electromagnetic forming (EMF) technology has been used lately for the joining and assembly of axisymmetric parts in the aerospace and automotive industries. A few case studies of compressive-type joining processes applied on both aluminum and titanium or stainless tubes for aerospace applications are presented. In the first case study, tests were conducted using 2024-T3 drawn tubes joined with a steel end fitting to form a torque tube using different forming variables including: the fitting geometry, material formability and forming power (KJ). The power setting and the fitting geometry were optimized to improve the fatigue life, torque off, and the axial load capability of the torque tube joints to drive the leading and trailing edge high-lift devices.
Journal Article

Self-Configuring Hybrid Duct System and Attachment Technologies for Environmental Control Systems

2009-11-10
2009-01-3277
Environmental Control Systems (ECS) ducts on airplanes are primarily fabricated from aluminum or thermoset composites, depending on temperature and pressure requirements. It is imperative to fabricate lightweight, cost effective, durable, and repairable systems with minimal tooling. It is also important that the duct systems are easy to assemble even with alignment issues resulting from structural variations, tolerance accumulation, variation from thermal expansion of different materials, and inherent duct stiffness. These requirements create an opportunity and need for a technology that can address all of these issues, while increasing performance at the same time. This report provides a background on current ECS ducting systems.
Technical Paper

Modification of the USOS to Support Installation and Activation of the Node 3 Element

2009-07-12
2009-01-2416
The International Space Station (ISS) program is nearing an assembly complete configuration with the addition of the final resource node module in early 2010. The Node 3 module will provide critical functionality in support of permanent long duration crews aboard ISS. The new module will permanently house the regenerative Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and will also provide important habitability functions such as waste management and exercise facilities. The ISS program has selected the Port side of the Node 1 “Unity” module as the permanent location for Node 3 which will necessitate architecture changes to provide the required interfaces. The USOS ECLSS fluid and ventilation systems, Internal Thermal Control Systems, and Avionics Systems require significant modifications in order to support Node 3 interfaces at the Node 1 Port location since it was not initially designed for that configuration.
Journal Article

Analysis of Convective Heat Transfer in the Orbiter Middeck for the Shuttle Rescue Mission

2009-07-12
2009-01-2550
The paper presents the results of a CFD study for predictions of ventilation characteristics and convective heat transfer within the Shuttle Orbiter middeck cabin in the presence of seven suited crewmember simulation and Individual Cooling Units (ICU). For two ICU arrangements considered, the thermal environmental conditions directly affecting the ICU performance have been defined for landing operation. These data would allow for validation of the ICU arrangement optimization.
Journal Article

CFD Study of Ventilation and Carbon Dioxide Transport for ISS Node 2 and Attached Modules

2009-07-12
2009-01-2549
The objective of this study is to evaluate ventilation efficiency regarding to the International Space Station (ISS) cabin ventilation during the ISS assembly mission 1J. The focus is on carbon dioxide spatial/temporal variations within the Node 2 and attached modules. An integrated model for CO2 transport analysis that combines 3D CFD modeling with the lumped parameter approach has been implemented. CO2 scrubbing from the air by means of two ISS removal systems is taken into account. It has been established that the ventilation scheme with an ISS Node 2 bypass duct reduces short-circuiting effects and provides less CO2 gradients when the Space Shuttle Orbiter is docked to the ISS. This configuration results in reduced CO2 level within the ISS cabin.
Technical Paper

Development and Implementation of Sol-Gel Coatings for Aerospace Applications

2009-11-10
2009-01-3208
A family of water-based sol-gel coatings has been developed as an environmentally-friendly alternative to traditional aerospace finishing materials and processes. The sol-gel hybrid network is based on a reactive mixture of an organo-functionalized silane with a stabilized zirconium complex. Thin films of the material self-assemble on metal surfaces, resulting in a gradient coating that provides durable adhesion for paints, adhesives, and sealants. Use of the novel coating as a surface pretreatment for the exterior of commercial aircraft has enabled environmental, health, and safety benefits due to elimination of hexavalent chromium, and flight test and early fleet survey data support the laboratory observations that the sol gel coating reduces the occurrence of “rivet rash” adhesion failures. Modifications of the basic inorganic/organic hybrid network have yielded multifunctional coatings with promise for applications such as corrosion control and oxidation protection.
Journal Article

Role of Power Distribution System Tests in Final Assembly of a Military Derivative Airplane

2009-11-10
2009-01-3121
Boeing has contracts for military application of twin engine airplanes generically identified in this paper as the MX airplane. Unlike previous derivatives, the MX airplanes are produced with a streamlined manufacturing process to improve cost and schedule performance. The final assembly of each MX airplane includes a series of integration tests, called factory functional tests (FFTs), which are modified from those of typical commercial versions and verify correctness of equipment installation and basic functionalities. Two airplanes have been through the production line resulting in a number of FFT lessons learned. Addressed are the power distribution lessons learned: 1) the expanded coverage of the basic automated power-on generation system test, 2) the need for a manual wire continuity test, 3) salient features of the power distribution tests, and 4) keys to make first pass power distribution test smooth and successful.
Technical Paper

Efficient Assembly Integration and Test (EAIT) Moves Theory to Practice at a System Level to Effect Lean Outcomes on the Shop Floor

2009-11-10
2009-01-3169
This paper will describe the Efficient Assembly Integration and Test (EAIT) system level project operated as a partnership among Boeing business units, universities, and suppliers. The focus is on the successful implementation and sharing of technology solutions to develop a model based, multi-product pulsed line factory of the future. The EAIT philosophy presented in this paper focuses on a collaborative environment that is tightly woven with the Lean Initiatives at Boeing's satellite development center. The prototype is comprised of a platform that includes a wireless instrumentation system, rapid bonding materials and virtual test of guidance hardware there are examples of collaborative development in collaboration with suppliers. Wireless tools and information systems are also being developed across the Boeing Company. Virtual reality development will include university partners in the US and India.
Journal Article

Development of Orbital Drilling for the Boeing 787

2008-09-16
2008-01-2317
The new materials and material combinations such as composites and titanium combinations used on today's new airplanes are proving to be very challenging when drilling holes during manufacturing and assembly operations. Orbital hole drilling technology has shown a great deal of promise for generating burr free, high quality holes in hard metals and in composite materials. This paper will show some of the orbital drilling development work Boeing is doing with Novator to overcome the obstacles of drilling holes in a combination of both hard metals and composites. The paper will include a new portable orbital drilling system designed for these challenging applications as well as some test results achieved with this system.
Technical Paper

Laser Tracker Assisted Aircraft Machining and Assembly

2008-09-16
2008-01-2313
The patented (US 7,277,811 B1) Position Bar provides precise measurement, machining and drilling data for large Engineering and Tooling structure. The Position Bar also supports end item verification seamlessly in the same machining control code. Position Bar measurements are fast, accurate, and repeatable. The true centerline of the machine tool's spindle bearings are being measured to within .002 in a 20 foot cubic volume (20×20×20). True “I”, “J”, & “K” machine tool spindle positions are also precisely measured. Any Gantry or Post Mill Tool can be converted to a Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) with this laser tracker controlled Position Bar. Determinant Assembly (D.A.) holes, for fuselage and wing structures are drilled and then measured to within .006 in X, Y, & Z, over a 40 foot distance. Average laser tracker measurement time, per hole, is 2 seconds.
Journal Article

The 747-400 Dreamlifter - Swing Tail Door Alignment and Latch Mechanism

2008-09-16
2008-01-2281
One essential feature of the 787 production system is the 747-400 Large Cargo Freighter (LCF), also known as the Dreamlifter,[1] and its ability to quickly and efficiently transport large components from global manufacturing locations to the final assembly site in Everett, Washington. This unique airplane has a tail section (Swing Tail) that opens to allow cargo loading. Quickly loading and unloading cargo is largely dependent on the reliable operation of the integral swing tail door alignment and latching systems. The swing tail door is approximately 23 feet horizontally by 29 feet vertically in size. The alignment and latching systems are required to function in a wide range of environmental conditions including temperature extremes and high winds. At the same time, these systems must ensure that flight loads are safely transmitted from the tail to the airplane fuselage without inducing undue fuselage preloads and without excessive play in the latching system.
Technical Paper

International Space Station (ISS) Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) Desiccant/Adsorbent Bed (DAB) Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) Redesign

2007-07-09
2007-01-3181
The Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) is a part of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system. The CDRA provides carbon dioxide (CO2) removal from the ISS on-orbit modules. Currently, the CDRA is the secondary removal system on the ISS, with the primary system being the Russian Vozdukh. Within the CDRA are two Desiccant/Adsorbent Beds (DAB), which perform the carbon dioxide removal function. The DAB adsorbent containment approach required improvements with respect to adsorbent containment. These improvements were implemented through a redesign program and have been implemented on units on the ground and returning from orbit. This paper presents a DAB design modification implementation description, a hardware performance comparison between the unmodified and modified DAB configurations, and a description of the modified DAB hardware implementation into the on-orbit CDRA.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Predicted Temperature Control of Crew Quarters added to Node 2 of the International Space Station

2007-07-09
2007-01-3071
Currently scheduled to be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009, Crew Quarters (CQs) will be installed in the Node 2 Module. The CQs provide crewmembers with private space, a place to sleep, and minimal storage. Analysis is to be performed to determine if the United States Operational Segment (USOS) Node 2 can maintain temperature between 47°C and 62°C (65°F and 80°F) [units are CCGS with U.S unit in parenthesis] within the CQ. The analysis will concentrate on the nominal hot environmental case. Environmental heat is due to solar heating of the external shell of the ISS. Configurations including both three and four CQs are examined, as well as multiple configurations of the Low Temperature Loop (LTL) that flows through the Node 2 Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). This paper describes the analysis performed to determine if Node 2 will be able to maintain cabin temperature between 47°C and 62°C (65°F and 85°F).
Technical Paper

Dual Electric Spindle Retrofit for Wing Riveters

2006-09-12
2006-01-3176
The Boeing Company (Renton Division) had a requirement for a 30,000 RPM spindle to provide improved surface finish when milling 2034 ice box rivets in hydraulic wing riveters. Electroimpact supplied an electrical spindle which fit into the same cylinder block as the hydraulic spindle. This was reported in SAE Paper #2000-01-3017. Boeing Renton has also now put Electroimpact 20,000 RPM electric drilling spindles into five wing riveting machines so now both spindles in the machine are Electroimpact electric spindles. The electric drill spindle features an HSK 40C holder. Both spindles are powered by the same spindle drive which is alternately connected to the drill and then the shave spindle.
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