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Technical Paper

Expanded Accommodation Technique with Application to Maintenance Environment

2011-04-12
2011-01-0521
This paper presents a PC based mathematical and rapid prototyping technique for anthropometric accommodation in a maintenance environment using the principle of simulation based design. The developed technique is capable of analyzing anthropometric data using multivariate (Principal component Analysis) approach to describe the body size variability of any given population. A number of body size representative cases are established which, when used properly within the constraints of the maintenance environments, will ensure the accommodation of a desired percentage of a population. This technique evaluates the percentage accommodation of a given population for the environment using the specific manikin cases as boundary conditions. In the case where any member of a maintenance crew cannot be accommodated, the technique has the capability of informing the designer of the environment why the member(s) is/are not accommodated.
Technical Paper

A Reduced-Order Enclosure Radiation Modeling Technique for Aircraft Actuators

2010-11-02
2010-01-1741
Modern aircraft are aerodynamically designed at the edge of flight stability and therefore require high-response-rate flight control surfaces to maintain flight safety. In addition, to minimize weight and eliminate aircraft thermal cooling requirements, the actuator systems have increased power-density and utilize high-temperature components. This coupled with the wide operating temperature regimes experienced over a mission profile may result in detrimental performance of the actuator systems. Understanding the performance capabilities and power draw requirements as a function of temperature is essential in properly sizing and optimizing an aircraft platform. Under the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL's) Integrated Vehicle and Energy Technology (INVENT) Program, detailed models of high performance electromechanical actuators (HPEAS) were developed and include temperature dependent effects in the electrical and mechanical actuator components.
Technical Paper

Automated Model Evaluation and Verification of Aircraft Components

2010-11-02
2010-01-1806
The trend of moving towards model-based design and analysis of new and upgraded aircraft platforms requires integrated component and subsystem models. To support integrated system trades and design studies, these models must satisfy modeling and performance guidelines regarding interfaces, implementation, verification, and validation. As part of the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Integrated Vehicle and Energy Technology (INVENT) Program, standardized modeling and performance guidelines have been established and documented in the Modeling Requirement and Implementation Plan (MRIP). Although these guidelines address interfaces and suggested implementation approaches, system integration challenges remain with respect to computational stability and predicted performance over the entire operating region for a given component. This paper discusses standardized model evaluation tools aimed to address these challenges at a component/subsystem level prior to system integration.
Technical Paper

Calculations of Ice Shapes on Oscillating Airfoils

2011-06-13
2011-38-0015
The desire to operate rotorcraft in icing conditions has renewed the interest in developing high-fidelity analysis methods to predict ice accumulation and the ensuing rotor performance degradation. A subset of providing solutions for rotorcraft icing problems is predicting two-dimensional ice accumulation on rotor airfoils. While much has been done to predict ice for fixed-wing airfoil sections, the rotorcraft problem has two additional challenges: first, rotor airfoils tend to experience flows in higher Mach number regimes, often creating glaze ice which is harder to predict; second, rotor airfoils oscillate in pitch to produce balance across the rotor disk. A methodology and validation test cases are presented to solve the rotor airfoil problem as an important step to solving the larger rotorcraft icing problem. The process couples Navier-Stokes CFD analysis with the ice accretion analysis code, LEWICE3D.
Technical Paper

Designing Airplane Cabin Noise Treatment Packages using Statistical Energy Analysis

2007-05-15
2007-01-2316
Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is a very powerful tool in its ability to guide noise control package design in automobile, airplane and architectural systems. However transmission loss modeling in an SEA frame work has more to do with modeling of sound propagation through foam and fiber noise control materials than classical SEA power flow between groups of resonant modes. The transmission loss problem is reviewed in an SEA frame work with a focus on key paths and input parameter variations on predicted noise control package performance.
Technical Paper

Robust Analysis of Active Flutter Suppression Using Multiple Control Surfaces via Second-Order Controllers

2007-09-17
2007-01-3921
The robust stability of an active flexible wing section with leading- and trailing-edge control surfaces is further investigated via the μ-method. Motivated by a more detailed servo control dynamics, the two controllers K1 and K2, which command the deflections of the trailing-edge flap and the leading-edge flap respectively, are modeled as two second-order shock absorbers in this study. The nominal and robust stability margins, modal properties, critical flutter airspeeds and frequencies are computed to predict the flutter of a nonlinear aeroelastic system and to investigate the aeroservoelastic stability in the μ-framework. The simulation results are compared with the previous study of which the controllers were modeled as the simplified (first-order) shock absorbers. The improved sensitivity to detect the control-structure coupling is observed by applying the second-order shock absorbers in the ASE model.
Technical Paper

Microbial Characterization of Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Hardware Surfaces after Five Years of Operation in the International Space Station

2006-07-17
2006-01-2157
A flex hose assembly containing aqueous coolant from the International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) consisting of a 2 foot section of Teflon hose and quick disconnects (QDs) and a Special Performance Checkout Unit (SPCU) heat exchanger containing separate channels of IATCS coolant and iodinated water used to cool spacesuits and Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) were returned for destructive analyses on Shuttle return to flight mission STS-114. The original aqueous IATCS coolant used in Node 1, the Laboratory Module, and the Airlock consisted of water, borate (pH buffer), phosphate (corrosion control), and silver sulfate (microbiological control) at a pH of 9.5 ± 0.5.
Technical Paper

The Personal Computer Transport Analyzer Program

2006-07-17
2006-01-2050
Since flight requirements often necessitate last-minute re-analysis, it became crucial to develop flexible and comprehensive transport phenomena analysis software that would quickly ensure all vehicle and payload requirements would be satisfied. The software would replace various mainframe-based software, such as the Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (TRASYS) and the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA). The software would need to have the flexibility to employ models that could be developed and modified as vehicle systems change. By use of event files which contain simple, intuitive commands, the characteristics of individual missions could be built as inputs to the model. By moving the Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS) system model to the PC environment, each analyst would have execution, storage, and processing management control. And of course, software portability would be greatly increased.
Technical Paper

Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM) Cabin Air Temperature and Humidity Control Analysis

2005-07-11
2005-01-2801
The Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM) is designed to be one of the modules of the International Space Station (ISS) for performing on-orbit science experiments over an extended period of time. The common cabin air assembly (CCAA) is utilized as the hardware for air temperature and humidity control (THC) for the CAM module cabin. The CCAA unit contains a variable speed fan, heat exchanger, temperature control valve, water separator, temperature sensor, and electrical interface box. A temperature and humidity simulation model was developed to perform the THC analysis for the CCAA unit inside the CAM. This model applies both fixed control volume and a quasi-steady-state approach for computing critical information for evaluating/assessing CCAA system performance and capabilities.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Concentration in the Shuttle Orbiter Middeck for the Launch on Need (LON) Mission

2005-07-11
2005-01-2799
This paper presents results of the CFD study aimed at evaluation of the CO2 concentration within the Shuttle Orbiter Middeck during the Launch on Need (LON) Crew Rescue flight. An assessment of the Middeck ventilation characteristics has been performed for two possible ventilation arrangements. A recommendation to use the ventilation system configuration with the open aft floor diffuser has been made on the basis of a three-dimensional airflow and CO2 gradient analysis.
Technical Paper

Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Air Flow in Node 1 of the International Space Station

2005-07-11
2005-01-2797
Proper design of the air ventilation system is critical to maintaining a healthy environment for the ISS crew. In this study, a computational fluid dynamic model was used to model the air circulation in Node 1 to identify the locations where there are low air velocities under nominal operating conditions and several reduced ventilation flow conditions. The reduced ventilation flow conditions analyzed were loss of cabin air fan, loss of inter-module ventilation from Node 1 to the US Lab, and loss of inter-module ventilation from the airlock to Node 1. For nominal operation of the ventilation system, about 5% of the node had air velocity of between 1 and 5 ft/min and 14% of the node had air velocity of between 5 and 10 ft/min. Loss of the cabin air fan and loss of Lab inter-module ventilation did not have a significant impact on the percentage of the node that would have low air circulation.
Technical Paper

Node 1 With Advanced Resistive Exercise Device Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling

2005-07-11
2005-01-2798
This CFD study is aimed at evaluation of the ventilation characteristics within the ISS Node 1 with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) protrusions into ECLS keep-out zones. An assessment of Node 1 airflow characteristics in the presence of the ARED and a human body simulation model has been performed for the current on-orbit configuration of the Node 1 ventilation system. Both the quantitative velocity distribution analysis and qualitative three-dimensional airflow evaluation have shown that the installation of the ARED in the Node 1 radial bay produces a minimal impact on the cabin ventilation characteristics and the crew.
Technical Paper

Integrated Computational Fluid Dynamics Carbon Dioxide Concentration Study for the International Space Station

2005-07-11
2005-01-2795
This paper reports results of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of carbon dioxide (CO2) gradient variations in twelve ISS modules. Computations were performed using two 3D integrated models: one from the U.S. Laboratory to the forward end, and the other from the U.S. Laboratory to the aft end of the ISS. Operation of the CO2 removal systems and CO2 generation among six International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers' metabolic processes were included in the model. For several crew location scenarios, a detailed analysis of the CO2 gradients and time evolution in zones potentially occupied by astronauts is presented. In general, the paper gives an extended example of the application of CFD analysis to complex problems related to the quality of the cabin air.
Technical Paper

Integrated Computational Fluid Dynamics Ventilation Model for the International Space Station

2005-07-11
2005-01-2794
This study covers CFD simulation of the air ventilation within the Assembly Complete stage of ISS on-orbit configuration of twelve modules. An assessment of ISS cabin aisle way airflow characteristics was performed on the basis of the integrated model computations. Both the quantitative evaluation of velocity distribution and qualitative analysis of three-dimensional airflow are presented.
Journal Article

Columbus Thermal Hydraulic Operations with US Payloads

2009-07-12
2009-01-2555
After launch and activation activities, the Columbus module started its operational life on February 2008 providing resources to the internal and external experiments. In March 2008 two US Payloads were successfully installed into Columbus Module: Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) and a US payload of the Express rack family, Express Rack 3, carrying the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) experiment. They were delivered to the European laboratory from the US laboratory and followed few months later by similar racks; Human Research Facility 1 (HRF1) and HRF2. The following paper provides an overview of US Payloads, giving their main features and experiments run inside Columbus on year 2008. Flight issues, mainly on the hydraulic side are also discussed. Engineering evaluations released to the flight control team, telemetry data, and relevant mathematical models predictions are described providing a background material for the adopted work-around solutions.
Journal Article

Analysis of Convective Heat Transfer in the Orbiter Middeck for the Shuttle Rescue Mission

2009-07-12
2009-01-2550
The paper presents the results of a CFD study for predictions of ventilation characteristics and convective heat transfer within the Shuttle Orbiter middeck cabin in the presence of seven suited crewmember simulation and Individual Cooling Units (ICU). For two ICU arrangements considered, the thermal environmental conditions directly affecting the ICU performance have been defined for landing operation. These data would allow for validation of the ICU arrangement optimization.
Journal Article

CFD Study of Ventilation and Carbon Dioxide Transport for ISS Node 2 and Attached Modules

2009-07-12
2009-01-2549
The objective of this study is to evaluate ventilation efficiency regarding to the International Space Station (ISS) cabin ventilation during the ISS assembly mission 1J. The focus is on carbon dioxide spatial/temporal variations within the Node 2 and attached modules. An integrated model for CO2 transport analysis that combines 3D CFD modeling with the lumped parameter approach has been implemented. CO2 scrubbing from the air by means of two ISS removal systems is taken into account. It has been established that the ventilation scheme with an ISS Node 2 bypass duct reduces short-circuiting effects and provides less CO2 gradients when the Space Shuttle Orbiter is docked to the ISS. This configuration results in reduced CO2 level within the ISS cabin.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Commercial Airplanes Service Request Process Flows

2009-11-10
2009-01-3199
The repairing of commercial aircraft is a complex task. Service engineers at Boeing's Commercial Aviation Services group specialize in providing crucial repair information and technical support for its many customers. This paper details factors that influence Boeing's response time to service requests and how to improve it. Information pertaining to over 5000 service requests from 2008 and 2009 was collected. From analysis of this data set, important findings were discovered. One major finding is that between 6 and 8 percent of service requests are late because time/date stamps used in reports were created in a different time zone.
Journal Article

Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis for the Waste and Hygiene Compartment in the International Space Station

2008-06-29
2008-01-2057
Computational Fluid Dynamics airflow models for the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) in the U.S. Laboratory module and Node 3 were developed and examined. The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides human waste collection and hygiene facilities in the Russian Segment Service Module (SM) which supports a three person crew. An additional set of Russian hardware, known as the system, is planned for the United States Operational Segment (USOS) to support expansion of the crew to six persons. Integration of the Russian system into the USOS incorporates direct Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) interfaces to allow more autonomous operation. A preliminary design concept was used to create a geometry model to evaluate the air interaction with the module cabin at varied locations and performance of the avionics fan placed in WHC. The Russian and the privacy protection bump-outs (Kabin) were included into the present modeling.
Technical Paper

Integrated Electrical System Testing and Modeling for Risk Mitigation

2008-11-11
2008-01-2897
International Space Station (ISS) Payload Engineering Integration (PEI) organization adopted the advanced computation and simulation technology to develop integrated electrical system models based on the test data of various sub-units. This system model was used end-to-end to mitigate system risk for the integrated Space Shuttle Pre-launch and Landing configurations. The Space Shuttle carries the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM), a pressurize transportation carrier, and the Laboratory Freezer for ISS, a freezer rack for storage and transport of science experiments from/to the ISS, is carried inside the MPLM. An end-to-end electrical system model for Space Shuttle Pre-Launch and Landing configurations, including the MPLM and Freezer, provided vital information for integrated electrical testing and to assess Mission success. The Pre-Launch and Landing configurations have different power supplies and cables to provide the power for the MPLM and the Freezer.
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