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Technical Paper

Fundamental Studies on ATF Friction, Part II

Interactions between automatic transmission fluid (ATF) components and composite friction materials and their effect on friction system performance continues to be an active area of interest to the automotive industry. A more fundamental understanding is needed of how base fluids, ATF additives, friction materials, and transmission design interact to produce the observed transmission system performance and durability. We herein report results from investigations carried out using a relatively thermo-oxidatively stable polyalphaolefin (PAO) base fluid treated with components representative of several additive types we previously reported to have significant negative effects on frictional performance. Secondly, we investigated a conventionally refined 150 N base oil treated with a calcium sulfonate detergent previously shown to improve friction performance.
Technical Paper

Copper Fuel Additives as a Part of a Particulate Emmission Control Strategy

The use of a copper diesel fuel additive in an emission control system improves particulate oxidation. This expands the operability of available systems by reducing the particulate mass loading and related external energy consumption required during regeneration. Easier, more frequent regenerations improve overall engine/system efficiency and reduce thermal stress on filtration media. Procedures for optimizing additive use are presented. In addition, the results from a health study are reviewed.
Technical Paper

Modeling of ASTM Sequence IIIE Piston Ring Land Deposit Formation

Piston ring land deposit formation is a key performance criterion in the ASTM Sequence IIIE engine test. Because engine testing of lubricant formulation variables is expensive, a ring land deposit bench test was developed replicating the Sequence IIIE bulk oxidation and deposit formation mechanisms. Following an initial bulk oxidation of the candidate oils, deposits similar in chemical composition and morphology to Sequence IIIE ring land deposits are produced in a modified panel coker apparatus. Good correlation with the ASTM Sequence IIIE engine test has been established. Lubricant additive and base oil effects on oxidation control and deposit formation have been investigated. Their influences on lubricant formulation strategy are discussed.