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Technical Paper

Comparison of Measurement Methods for Evaluating Displacement of Commercial Vehicle Seats

Measuring the displacements in vehicle seat suspensions and the displacements the seat has to absorb may assist vehicle seat designers in better designing seats to absorb vibrations. Low frequency seat displacement is important in seat design to identify end-stop events and higher frequency shorter displacements are also important since seat components can be optimized to absorb these smaller displacements. Displacements can be directly measured with special instruments, but it would be less complicated if simple, compact accelerometers could be used to measure the seat displacements. This paper compares accelerometer-derived displacement measurements to known displacements derived from sinusoidal physics and field measured random displacements measured with potentiometers. Using known, controlled sinusoidal displacements, three lab-based experiments were conducted to determine how well accelerometers, using double integration, could measure displacements.
Technical Paper

Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation of Glaze Ice Accretion on a Swept Wing

Aerodynamic assessment of icing effects on swept wings is an important component of a larger effort to improve three-dimensional icing simulation capabilities. An understanding of ice-shape geometric fidelity and Reynolds and Mach number effects on iced-wing aerodynamics is needed to guide the development and validation of ice-accretion simulation tools. To this end, wind-tunnel testing was carried out for 8.9% and 13.3% scale semispan wing models based upon the Common Research Model airplane configuration. Various levels of geometric fidelity of an artificial ice shape representing a realistic glaze-ice accretion on a swept wing were investigated. The highest fidelity artificial ice shape reproduced all of the three-dimensional features associated with the glaze ice accretion. The lowest fidelity artificial ice shapes were simple, spanwise-varying horn ice geometries intended to represent the maximum ice thickness on the wing upper surface.
Journal Article

Additional Comparison of Iced Aerodynamic Measurements on a Swept Wing from Two Wind Tunnels

Artificial ice shapes of various geometric fidelity were tested on a wing model based on the Common Research Model. Low Reynolds number tests were conducted at Wichita State University’s Walter H. Beech Memorial Wind Tunnel utilizing an 8.9% scale model, and high Reynolds number tests were conducted at ONERA’s F1 wind tunnel utilizing a 13.3% scale model. Several identical geometrically-scaled ice shapes were tested at both facilities, and the results were compared at overlapping Reynolds and Mach numbers. This was to ensure that the results and trends observed at low Reynolds number could be applied and continued to high, near-flight Reynolds number. The data from Wichita State University and ONERA F1 agreed well at matched Reynolds and Mach numbers. The lift and pitching moment curves agreed very well for most configurations.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Whole Body Vibration Exposures across Three Truck Seats

Whole-body vibration (WBV) is associated with several adverse health and safety outcomes including low-back pain (LBP) and driver fatigue. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three commercially-available air-suspension truck seats for reducing truck drivers’ exposures to WBV. Seventeen truck drivers operating over a standardized route were recruited for this study and three commercially-available air suspension seats were evaluated. The predominant, z-axis average weighted vibration (Aw) and Vibration Dose Values (VDV) were calculated and normalized to represent eight hours of truck operation. In addition, the Seat Effective Amplitude Transmissibility (SEAT), the ratio of the seat-measured vibration divided by the floor-measured vibration, was compared across the three seats. One seat had significantly higher on-road WBV exposures whereas there were no differences across seats in off-road WBV exposures.
Technical Paper

Improving Fuel Economy of Thermostatic Control for a Series Plugin-Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Driver Prediction

This study investigates using driver prediction to anticipate energy usage over a 160-meter look-ahead distance for a series, plug-in, hybrid-electric vehicle to improve conventional thermostatic powertrain control. Driver prediction algorithms utilize a hidden Markov model to predict route and a regression tree to predict speed over the route. Anticipated energy consumption is calculated by integrating force vectors over the look-ahead distance using the predicted incline slope and vehicle speed. Thermostatic powertrain control is improved by supplementing energy produced by the series generator with regenerative braking during events where anticipated energy consumption is negative, typically associated with declines or decelerations.
Technical Paper

Advances in Real-Time Monitoring of Acoustic Emissions

We are developing a flexible and general methodology for real-time monitoring of acoustic emissions in machining applications. The goal of this work is to develop an approach to in-process monitoring which allows continuous assessment of tool wear and early warning of process exceptions. The nature of metal removal processes creates short-lived vibrations that carry information about the condition of the cutting tool and quality of cut. We wish to extract and represent these transient events without loss of important spectral structure. Other challenges include the need for system training data selection in the absence of expert labeled data, the modeling of short-term time evolution, and efficient real-time operation on an inexpensive computing platform.
Technical Paper

Quasi-Isothermal Expansion Engines for Liquid Nitrogen Automotive Propulsion

An automotive propulsion concept is presented which utilizes liquid nitrogen as the working fluid for an open Rankine cycle. Ambient heat exchangers are used to power an engine that is configured to maximize heat transfer during the expansion stroke. If sufficient heat input during the expansion process can be realized then this cryogenic propulsive system would provide greater automotive ranges and lower operating costs than those of electric vehicles currently being considered for mass production. The feasibility of meeting this engineering challenge has been evaluated and several means of achieving quasi-isothermal expansion are discussed.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Geometric Field of View and Tunnel Design for Perspective Flight-Path Displays

Previous studies have shown that use of flight-path displays may lead to increased situational awareness during final approach and landing. However, there are a number of research issues which remain to be investigated concerning the optimum design of a perspective flight-path display. The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a study which investigated the relationship between the geometric field of view, number of tunnels in the display, and flight-path complexity on the subject's ability to fly a computer-simulated aircraft during final approach. Implications of the results for the design of perspective flight-path displays are discussed.
Technical Paper

AutoDSS: A System Level KBE Tool for Vehicle Product Definition

A key to shortening the design cycle is to shorten the initial or conceptual design phase. An enabling technology towards this goal is an architecture called the Design Support System (DSS), which is based on the virtual prototype concept. The DSS combines knowledge with hardware and software into a system that is a model for the design process. It produces a virtual prototype of the design and maintains an intelligent design document, which is automatically updated during the design process. A design domain dependent version for automotive design, known as “Automobile Design Support System” (AutoDSS) was developed in the CADTECH Research Lab at the University of Washington.
Technical Paper

ESS Design Process Overview and Key Outcomes of Year Two of EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future

EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The EcoCAR 2 VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles.
Journal Article

Design Tradeoffs: The Social Costs of Vehicle Fire Protection

Rational design for fire safety necessarily includes consideration of risk tradeoffs that tend to reduce one risk but may increase another. Traditional engineering design criteria can be supplemented with important factors that rely on expertise from other disciplines. Engineering analysis may be able to address reduction in fire risk due to the introduction of new technology, but may not address the social costs associated with this new technology. For example, the resultant increase in vehicle cost may prevent some people from purchasing a vehicle (impacting individuals' lives), may reduce the number of vehicles sold (impacting manufacturers), and may reduce taxes collected (impacting the government). This must be weighed against decreased risk of property damage, injury, and fatality due to fire. In this paper, the methods of benefit-cost analysis from economics were applied to make this evaluation.
Technical Paper

The Importance of Maximizing Grid Electricity Usage in the Component Selection and Design of a Midsize PHEV

The University of Washington EcoCAR2 team (UWEC2) is currently in the process of building a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) for the EcoCAR2 Challenge. This competition challenges 15 universities across North America to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu without compromising consumer acceptability. In order to be competitive in EcoCAR2, grid electricity is relied on heavily and the use of the Utility Factor method presented in SAE J2841 - Utility Factor Definitions must be used to compare emissions and consumption results with traditional vehicle results. Powertrain simulation in Autonomie was performed to explore many different hybrid architectures. The simulation results were normalized using the Utility Factor method to reach final architecture and component decisions.
Journal Article

Optimization of Spatially Varying Fiber Paths for a Symmetric Laminate with a Circular Cutout under Remote Uniaxial Tension

Minimizing the stress concentrations around cutouts in a plate is often a design problem, especially in the Aerospace industry. A problem of optimizing spatially varying fiber paths in a symmetric, linear orthotropic composite laminate with a cutout, so as to achieve minimum stress concentration under remote unidirectional tensile loading is of interest in this study. A finite element (FE) model is developed to this extent, which constraints the fiber angles while optimizing the fiber paths, proving essential in manufacturing processes. The idea to be presented could be used to derive fiber paths that would drastically reduce the Stress Concentration Factor (SCF) in a symmetric laminate by using spatially varying fibers in place of unidirectional fibers. The model is proposed for a four layer symmetric laminate, and can be easily reproduced for any number of layers.
Technical Paper

Automatic Wildfire Detection and Simulation using Optical Information from Unmanned Aerial Systems

In many parts of the world, uncontrolled fires in sparsely populated areas are a major concern as they can quickly grow into large and destructive conflagrations in short time spans. Detecting these fires has traditionally been a job for trained humans on the ground, or in the air. In many cases, these manned solutions are simply not able to survey the amount of area necessary to maintain sufficient vigilance and coverage. This paper investigates the use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for automated wildfire detection. The proposed system uses low-cost, consumer-grade electronics and sensors combined with various airframes to create a system suitable for automatic detection of wildfires. The system employs automatic image processing techniques to analyze captured images and autonomously detect fire-related features such as fire lines, burnt regions, and flammable material.
Technical Paper

Stresswave® Fatigue Life Improvement Process

A new method for improving the fatigue lives of holes in metal structures has been developed. The StressWave® process provides compressive residual stresses and fatigue life improvement factors that are similar to or exceed those produced by legacy mandrel cold working processes. StressWave creates the stresses prior to machining the hole, without any pre- or extra post-processing operations. The process has been applied in a variety of alloys (aluminum, steel, titanium and cast iron) and section thickness (0.8 to 25 mm). Fatigue testing has shown life improvement factors typically five to twenty times greater than untreated open-hole specimens. Residual stress distributions have been measured by neutron diffraction and photo-elastic techniques and compared with FEA analysis to verify process parameters. Crack growth measurements and fractography have revealed the beneficial compressive residual stresses extend fatigue crack growth life.
Technical Paper

Artifact vs. Anatomy: Dealing with Conflict of Geometric Modeling Descriptions

In applications ranging from design of customized vehicle interiors to virtual testing of biomedical devices, the processes of modeling, design and analysis involve the simultaneous treatment of artifacts (i.e., parts designed by humans) and anatomical structures. An inherent conflict arises because the geometric descriptions are completely different. Artifact descriptions are typically the output of computer-aided design (CAD) software and consist of a collection of parametric patches that comprise the boundary of the artifact. In stark contrast, the native description of an anatomical structure typically consists of an image stack obtained using a volumetric scanning technology such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Current practice for simultaneously dealing with both categories of entities involves working primarily in the world of CAD.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Commercial Airplanes Service Request Process Flows

The repairing of commercial aircraft is a complex task. Service engineers at Boeing's Commercial Aviation Services group specialize in providing crucial repair information and technical support for its many customers. This paper details factors that influence Boeing's response time to service requests and how to improve it. Information pertaining to over 5000 service requests from 2008 and 2009 was collected. From analysis of this data set, important findings were discovered. One major finding is that between 6 and 8 percent of service requests are late because time/date stamps used in reports were created in a different time zone.
Journal Article

Modeling of Fastener Kitting Logistics for Boeing Wide Body Airplanes

At Boeing’s commercial aircraft production in Everett Washington, the organization that supplies parts to the factory floor (known internally as Company 625) is revising their methods. A new process will deliver parts in kits that correspond to the installation plans used by the mechanics. Several alternative methods are under review. The authors used simulation methods to evaluate and compare these alternatives. This study focuses on the category of parts known as standard fasteners (‘standards’). Through direct observation, interviews with experts, as well as time and motion study, the process flow of the kitting operation was mapped A simulation model was created using the simulation software ARENA to examine two scenarios: the current kitting operation in the factory cribs and the proposed centralization of kitting operation in the Company 625.
Technical Paper

Route Prediction from Trip Observations

This paper develops and tests algorithms for predicting the end-to-end route of a vehicle based on GPS observations of the vehicle's past trips. We show that a large portion a typical driver's trips are repeated. Our algorithms exploit this fact for prediction by matching the first part of a driver's current trip with one of the set of previously observed trips. Rather than predicting upcoming road segments, our focus is on making long term predictions of the route. We evaluate our algorithms using a large corpus of real world GPS driving data acquired from observing over 250 drivers for an average of 15.1 days per subject. Our results show how often and how accurately we can predict a driver's route as a function of the distance already driven.
Technical Paper

The StressWaveTM Fatigue Life Enhancement Process

A new, patented process for improving the fatigue lives of holes in metal structures has been developed. The process, known as StressWaveTM, produces residual compressive stresses and fatigue performance comparable to, or better than, those produced by legacy cold working methods and is designed primarily for automated manufacturing, fastening and assembly environments. Eliminating the need for close-tolerance starting holes, consumable sleeves, liquid lubricant cleanup and off-line processing increases speed of operation. These process benefits and associated cost savings satisfy many aspects of lean and continuous improvement program initiatives.