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Technical Paper

Vehicle to Vehicle Interaction Maneuvers Choreographed with an Automated Test Driver

2009-04-20
2009-01-0440
Modern passenger cars are being equipped with advanced driver assistance systems such as lane departure warning, collision avoidance systems, adaptive cruise control, etc. Testing for operation and effectiveness of these warning systems involves interaction between vehicles. While dealing with multiple moving vehicles, obtaining discriminatory results is difficult due to the difficulty in minimizing variations in vehicle separation and other parameters. This paper describes test strategies involving an automated test driver interacting with another moving vehicle. The autonomous vehicle controls its state (including position and speed) with respect to the target vehicle. Choreographed maneuvers such as chasing and overtaking can be performed with high accuracy and repeatability that even professional drivers have difficulty achieving. The system is also demonstrated to be usable in crash testing.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Modeling and Validation for the 2003 Ford Expedition with ESC using ADAMS View

2009-04-20
2009-01-0453
The paper discusses the development of a model of the 2003 Ford Expedition using ADAMS View and its validation with experimental data. The front and rear suspensions are independent double A-arm type suspensions modeled using rigid links and ideal joints. The suspension springs and shock absorbers are modeled as force elements. The plots comparing the experimental tests and the simulation results are shown in this paper. Quasi-static roll and bounce tests are used to validate the suspension characteristics of the model while the Sine with Dwell and Slowly Increasing Steer maneuvers are used to validate the vehicle handling and tire-road interaction characteristics of the model. This paper also details the incorporation of an ESC model, originally developed by Kinjawadekar et al. [2] for CarSim, with the ADAMS model. The ESC is modeled in Simulink and co-simulated with the ADAMS vehicle model. Plots validating the ESC model with experimental data are also included.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Modeling and Validation of the 2003 Ford Expedition with ESC using CarSim

2009-04-20
2009-01-0452
The paper discusses the development of a vehicle dynamics model and model validation of the 2003 Ford Expedition in CarSim. The accuracy of results obtained from simulations depends on the realism of the model which in turn depends on the measured data used to define the model parameters. The paper describes the tests used to measure the vehicle data and also gives a detailed account of the methodology used to determine parameters for the CarSim Ford Expedition model. The vehicle model was validated by comparing simulation results with experimental testing. Bounce and Roll tests in CarSim were used to validate the suspension and steering kinematics and compliances. Field test data of the Sine with Dwell maneuver was used for the vehicle model validation. The paper also discusses the development of a functional electronic stability control system and its effect on vehicle handling response in the Sine with Dwell maneuver.
Journal Article

Development of a Roll Stability Control Model for a Tractor Trailer Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0451
Heavy trucks are involved in many accidents every year and Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is viewed as a means to help mitigate this problem. ESC systems are designed to reduce the incidence of single vehicle loss of control, which might lead to rollover or jackknife. As the working details and control strategies of commercially available ESC systems are proprietary, a generic model of an ESC system that mimics the basic logical functionality of commercial systems was developed. This paper deals with the study of the working of a commercial ESC system equipped on an actual tractor trailer vehicle. The particular ESC system found on the test vehicle contained both roll stability control (RSC) and yaw stability control (YSC) features. This work focused on the development of a reliable RSC software model, and the integration of it into a full vehicle simulation (TruckSim) of a heavy truck.
Technical Paper

Refinement of a Parallel-Series PHEV for Year 3 of the EcoCAR 2 Competition

2014-10-13
2014-01-2908
Abstract The EcoCAR 2 team at the Ohio State University has designed an extended-range electric vehicle capable of 44 miles all-electric range, which features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and a 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 50 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report documents the team's refinement work on the vehicle during Year 3 of the competition, including vehicle improvements, control strategy calibration and dynamic vehicle testing, culminating in a 99% buy off vehicle that meets the goals set forth by the team. This effort was made possible through support from the U.S. Department of Energy, General Motors, The Ohio State University, and numerous competition and local sponsors.
Technical Paper

Correlation of a CAE Hood Deflection Prediction Method

2008-04-14
2008-01-0098
As we continue to create ever-lighter road vehicles, the challenge of balancing weight reduction and structural performance also continues. One of the key parts this occurs on is the hood, where lighter materials (e.g. aluminum) have been used. However, the aerodynamic loads, such as hood lift, are essentially unchanged and are driven by the front fascia and front grille size and styling shape. This paper outlines a combination CFD/FEA prediction method for hood deflection performance at high speeds, by using the surface pressures as boundary conditions for a FEA linear static deflection analysis. Additionally, custom post-processing methods were developed to enhance flow analysis and understanding. This enabled the modification of existing test methods to further improve accuracy to real world conditions. The application of these analytical methods and their correlation with experimental results are discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Transient Clunk Response of a Driveline System: Laboratory Experiment and Analytical Studies

2007-05-15
2007-01-2233
A laboratory experiment is designed to examine the clunk phenomenon. A static torque is applied to a driveline system via the mass of an overhanging torsion bar and electromagnet. Then an applied load may be varied via attached mass and released to simulate the step down (tip-out) response of the system. Shaft torques and torsional and translational accelerations are recorded at pre-defined locations. The static torque closes up the driveline clearances in the pinion/ring (crown wheel) mesh. With release of the applied load the driveline undergoes transient vibration. Further, the ratio of preload to static load is adjusted to lead to either no-impact or impact events. Test A provides a ‘linear’ result where the contact stiffness does not pass into clearance. This test is used for confirming transient response and studying friction and damping. Test B is for mass release with sufficient applied torque to pass into clearance, allowing the study of the clunk.
Technical Paper

Errors Associated with Transfer Path Analysis when Rotations are not Measured

2007-05-15
2007-01-2179
Previously we had found significant errors in the interfacial force results for a source-path-receiver system where only translational motions were measured. This paper examines the sources of those errors by using computational finite and boundary element models. The example case consists of a source structure (with few modes), a receiver (with many modes) and three steel rod paths. We first formulate indirect, yet exact, methods for estimating interfacial forces, by assuming that six-dimensional motions at any location are available though we focus on only the driving points. One- and three-dimensional sub-sets of the proposed formulation are compared with the six-dimensional theory in terms of interfacial force and partial sound pressure spectra.
Technical Paper

Implementation of an Electric All-Wheel Drive (eAWD) System

2008-04-14
2008-01-0599
This paper presents the implementation and performance of an electric all-wheel drive system on a series-parallel, through-the-road hybrid electric vehicle. Conventional methods of all-wheel drive do not provide a suitable solution for this type of vehicle as the powertrain lacks a mechanical link between the front and rear axles. Moreover, this unique architecture allows the vehicle to be propelled solely by the front, or the rear, wheels during typical operation. Thus, the algorithm presented here manages wheel slip by either the front, or rear wheels when engaging to provide all-wheel drive capability. necessary testing validates the robustness of this Extensive system.
Journal Article

Vehicle Coast Analysis: Typical SUV Characteristics

2008-04-14
2008-01-0598
Typical factors that contribute to the coast down characteristics of a vehicle include aerodynamic drag, gravitational forces due to slope, pumping losses within the engine, frictional losses throughout the powertrain, and tire rolling resistance. When summed together, these reactions yield predictable deceleration values that can be related to vehicle speeds. This paper focuses on vehicle decelerations while coasting with a typical medium-sized SUV. Drag factors can be classified into two categories: (1) those that are caused by environmental factors (wind and slope) and (2) those that are caused by the vehicle (powertrain losses, rolling resistance, and drag into stationary air). The purpose of this paper is to provide data that will help engineers understand and model vehicle response after loss of engine power.
Technical Paper

Automated Steering Controller for Vehicle Testing

2007-08-05
2007-01-3647
Automating road vehicle control can increase the range and reliability of dynamic testing. Some tests, for instance, specify precise steering inputs which human test drivers are only able to approximate, adding uncertainty to the test results. An automated steering system has been developed which is capable of removing these limitations. This system enables any production car or light truck to follow a user-defined path, using global position feedback, or to perform specific steering sequences with excellent repeatability. The system adapts itself to a given vehicle s handling characteristics, and it can be installed and uninstalled quickly without damage or permanent modification to the vehicle.
Journal Article

Tuned Silencer Using Adaptive Variable Volume Resonator

2008-04-14
2008-01-0896
In this study, an adaptive control mechanism is proposed to design a silencer applying variable volume resonator concept. Transfer matrix method is used to calculate the transmission loss and evaluate acoustic performance of the proposed mechanism. Effects of damping factor, area ratio of expansion chambers are examined first for a fixed double chamber resonator. Then a two-dimensional search scheme is developed to find optimal piston position that achieves maximum transmission loss with minimal effort. This study shows that the proposed adaptive silencer can efficiently attenuate noise when comparing with a conventional fixed resonator.
Technical Paper

Scenario Regeneration using a Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation Platform to Study ABS and ESC Performance Benefits

2015-09-29
2015-01-2835
Abstract This study was performed to showcase the possible applications of the Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation environment developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), to test heavy truck crash avoidance safety systems. In this study, the HIL simulation environment was used to recreate a simulation of an actual accident scenario involving a single tractor semi-trailer combination. The scenario was then simulated with and without an antilock brake system (ABS) and electronic stability control (ESC) system to investigate the crash avoidance potential afforded by the tractor equipped with the safety systems. The crash scenario was interpreted as a path-following problem, and three possible driver intended paths were developed from the accident scene data.
Technical Paper

Comparison of ATD to PMHS Response in the Under-Body Blast Environment

2015-11-09
2015-22-0017
A blast buck (Accelerative Loading Fixture, or ALF) was developed for studying underbody blast events in a laboratory-like setting. It was designed to provide a high-magnitude, high-rate, vertical loading environment for cadaver and dummy testing. It consists of a platform with a reinforcing cage that supports adjustable-height rigid seats for two crew positions. The platform has a heavy frame with a deformable floor insert. Fourteen tests were conducted using fourteen PMHS (post mortem human surrogates) and the Hybrid III ATD (Anthropomorphic Test Device). Tests were conducted at two charge levels: enhanced and mild. The surrogates were tested with and without PPE (Personal Protective Equipment), and in two different postures: nominal (knee angle of 90°) and obtuse (knee angle of 120°). The ALF reproduces damage in the PMHS commensurate with injuries experienced in theater, with the most common damage being to the pelvis and ankle.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Responses of PMHS Subjected to Abdominal Seatbelt Loading

2016-11-07
2016-22-0004
Past studies have found that a pressure based injury risk function was the best predictor of liver injuries due to blunt impacts. In an effort to expand upon these findings, this study investigated the biomechanical responses of the abdomen of post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) to high-speed seatbelt loading and developed external response targets in conjunction with proposing an abdominal injury criterion. A total of seven unembalmed PMHS, with an average mass and stature of 71 kg and 174 cm respectively were subjected to belt loading using a seatbelt pull mechanism, with the PMHS seated upright in a free-back configuration. A pneumatic piston pulled a seatbelt into the abdomen at the level of the umbilicus with a nominal peak penetration speed of 4.0 m/s. Pressure transducers were placed in the re-pressurized abdominal vasculature, including the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abdominal aorta, to measure internal pressure variation during the event.
Technical Paper

The Large Omnidirectional Child (LODC) ATD: Biofidelity Comparison with the Hybrid III 10 Year Old

2016-11-07
2016-22-0017
When the Hybrid III 10-year old (HIII-10C) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was adopted into Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 49 Part 572 as the best available tool for evaluating large belt-positioning booster seats in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 213, NHTSA stated that research activities would continue to improve the performance of the HIII-10C to address biofidelity concerns. A significant part of this effort has been NHTSA’s in-house development of the Large Omnidirectional Child (LODC) ATD. This prototype ATD is comprised of (1) a head with pediatric mass properties, (2) a neck that produces head lag with Z-axis rotation at the atlanto-occipital joint, (3) a flexible thoracic spine, (4) multi-point thoracic deflection measurement capability, (5) skeletal anthropometry representative of a seated child, and (6) an abdomen that can directly measure belt loading.
Journal Article

Impact of Different Desired Velocity Profiles and Controller Gains on Convoy Driveability of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control Operated Platoons

2017-03-28
2017-01-0111
Abstract As the development of autonomous vehicles rapidly advances, the use of convoying/platooning becomes a more widely explored technology option for saving fuel and increasing the efficiency of traffic. In cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC), the vehicles in a convoy follow each other under adaptive cruise control (ACC) that is augmented by the sharing of preceding vehicle acceleration through the vehicle to vehicle communication in a feedforward control path. In general, the desired velocity optimization for vehicles in the convoy is based on fuel economy optimization, rather than driveability. This paper is a preliminary study on the impact of the desired velocity profile on the driveability characteristics of a convoy of vehicles and the controller gain impact on the driveability. A simple low-level longitudinal model of the vehicle has been used along with a PD type cruise controller and a generic spacing policy for ACC/CACC.
Technical Paper

Testing and Validation of a Belted Alternator System for a Post-Transmission Parallel PHEV for the EcoCAR 3 Competition

2017-03-28
2017-01-1263
Abstract The Ohio State University EcoCAR 3 team is building a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) post-transmission parallel 2016 Chevrolet Camaro. With the end-goal of improving fuel economy and reducing tail pipe emissions, the Ohio State Camaro has been fitted with a 32 kW alternator-starter belt coupled to a 119 kW 2.0L GDI I4 engine that runs on 85% ethanol (E85). The belted alternator starter (BAS) which aids engine start-stop operation, series mode and torque assist, is powered by an 18.9 kWh Lithium Iron Phosphate energy storage system, and controlled by a DC-AC inverter/controller. This report details the modeling, calibration, testing and validation work done by the Ohio State team to fast track development of the BAS system in Year 2 of the competition.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Human Driver Behavior in Highway Cut-in Scenarios

2017-03-28
2017-01-1402
Abstract The rapid development of driver assistance systems, such as lane-departure warning (LDW) and lane-keeping support (LKS), along with widely publicized reports of automated vehicle testing, have created the expectation for an increasing amount of vehicle automation in the near future. As these systems are being phased in, the coexistence of automated vehicles and human-driven vehicles on roadways will be inevitable and necessary. In order to develop automated vehicles that integrate well with those that are operated in traditional ways, an appropriate understanding of human driver behavior in normal traffic situations would be beneficial. Unlike many research studies that have focused on collision-avoidance maneuvering, this paper analyzes the behavior of human drivers in response to cut-in vehicles moving at similar speeds. Both automated and human-driven vehicles are likely to encounter this scenario in daily highway driving.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Internal and External Biofidelity of Current Rear Impact ATDs to Response Targets Developed from Moderate-Speed Rear Impacts of PMHS

2012-10-29
2012-22-0005
The goal of this study is to evaluate both the internal and external biofidelity of existing rear impact anthropomorphic test devices (BioRID II, RID3D, Hybrid III 50th) in two moderate-speed rear impact sled test conditions (8.5g, 17 km/h; 10.5g, 24 km/h) by quantitatively comparing the ATD responses to biomechanical response targets developed from PMHS testing in a corresponding study. The ATDs and PMHS were tested in an experimental seat system that is capable of simulating the dynamic seat back rotation response of production seats. The experimental seat contains a total of fourteen load cells installed such that external loads from the ATDs and PMHS can be measured to evaluate external biofidelity. The PMHS were instrumented to correspond to the instrumentation contained in the ATDs so that direct comparison between ATDs and PMHS could be made to evaluate internal biofidelity.
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