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Technical Paper

Springback Analysis with a Modified Hardening Model

2000-03-06
2000-01-0768
Previously-reported draw-bend tests showed large discrepancies in springback angles from those predicted by two-dimensional finite element modeling (FEM). In some cases, the predicted angle was several times the measured angle. With more careful 3-D simulation taking into account anticlastic curvature, a significant discrepancy persisted. In order to evaluate the role of the Bauschinger Effect in springback, a transient hardening model was constructed based on novel tension-compression tests for for three sheet materials: drawing-quality steel (baseline material), high-strength low-alloy steel, and 6022-T4 aluminum alloy. This model reproduces the main features of hardening following a strain reversal: low yield stress, rapid strain hardening, and, optionally, permanent softening or hardening relative to the monotonic hardening law. The hardening law was implemented and 3-D FEM was carried out for comparison with the draw-bend springback results.
Technical Paper

VP-SIM: A Unified Approach to Energy and Power Flow Modeling Simulation and Analysis of Hybrid Vehicles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1565
The aim of this paper is to describe a unified approach to modeling the energy efficiency and power flow characteristics of energy storage and energy conversion elements used in hybrid vehicles. Hybrid vehicle analysis and design is concerned with the storage of energy in three domains - chemical, mechanical, and electrical - and on energy conversions between these domains. The paper presents the physical and mathematical basis of this modeling approach, as well as a modular simulator that embodies the same basic principles. The use of the simulator as an analysis tool is demonstrated through the conceptual design of a sport-utility hybrid drivetrain.
Technical Paper

Determination of Viscoelastic Core Material Properties Using Sandwich Beam Theory and Modal Experiments

1999-05-17
1999-01-1677
Damping material for automotive structures is often quantified in terms of composite loss factor or damping ratio by using ASTM/SAE beam or modal tests. Simplified expressions have also been used to estimate certain material properties. However, none of these tests provide any information on the properties of viscoelastic core material such as rubber or adhesive in practical structures. To overcome this deficiency, a refined estimation procedure is proposed. A new sandwich beam model has been developed which describes all layers of an arbitrarily applied damping patch. By using both analytical predictions and modal experiments on a cantilever beam, spectrally-varying loss factor and shear modulus of the unknown core are determined.
Technical Paper

Case History: Engine Timing Gear Noise Reduction

1999-05-17
1999-01-1716
This paper describes the procedures used to reduce the tonal noise of a class eight truck engine timing gear train that was initially found to be objectionable under idle operating conditions. Initial measurements showed that the objectionable sounds were related to the fundamental gear mesh frequency, and its second and third harmonics. Experimental and computational procedures used to study and trouble-shoot the problem include vibration and sound measurements, transmission error analysis of the gears under light load condition, and a dynamic analysis of the drive system. Detail applications of these techniques are described in this paper.
Technical Paper

Application of Enhanced Least Square to Component Synthesis Using FRF for Analyzing Dynamic Interaction of Coupled Body-Subframe System

1999-05-17
1999-01-1826
The component response synthesis approach utilizing frequency response function (FRF) has been used to analyze the dynamic interaction of two or more vehicle components coupled at discrete interface points. This method is somewhat suitable for computing higher frequency response because experimental component FRFs can be incorporated into the formulation directly. However its calculations are quite sensitive to measurement errors in the FRFs due to the several matrix inversion steps involved. In the past, researchers have essentially used a combined direct inverse and truncated singular valued decomposition (TSVD) technique to ensure a stable calculation, which is typically applied semi-empirically due to the lack of understanding of the influence of measurement error.
Technical Paper

Study of Whistles with a Generic Sidebranch

1999-05-17
1999-01-1814
The coupling of shear layer instabilities with the acoustic resonances at the interface of two ducts, a main duct and a connecting sidebranch, leads to whistle noise. The present study investigates experimentally the mechanism of such pure tone noise. A generic sidebranch adapter is fabricated to allow for: (1) the ability to mount downstream of the throttle body in the induction system of a production engine; (2) the adjustment of sidebranch length; and (3) the changes in the diameter of the branch duct. Experiments are conducted both in a flow facility and an engine dynamometer facility for the same set of flow rates. The correlation of the whistle noise between these two facilities is examined in terms of frequency and the dimensionless numbers, including Strouhal and Mach.
Technical Paper

Study of the Flow Field Development During the Intake Stroke in an IC Engine Using 2–D PIV and 3–D PTV

1999-03-01
1999-01-0957
The evolution of the flow field inside an IC engine during the intake stroke was studied using 2 different experimental techniques, namely the 2–D Particle Image Velocimetry (2–D PIV) and 3–D Particle Tracking Velocimetry (3–D PTV) techniques. Both studies were conducted using a water analog engine simulation rig. The head tested was a typical pent–roof head geometry with two intake valves and one exhaust valve, and the simulated engine operating point corresponded to an idle condition. For both the 2–D PIV and 3–D PTV experiments, high–speed CCD cameras were used to record the motion of the flow tracer particles. The camera frame rate was adjusted to correspond to 1/4° of crank angle (CA), hence ensuring excellent temporal resolution for velocity calculations. For the 2–D PIV experiment, the flow field was illuminated by an Argon–ion laser with laser–sheet forming optics and this laser sheet was introduced through a transparent piston crown to illuminate the center tumble plane.
Technical Paper

Implementing Computer Simulation into the Concept to Product Process

1999-03-01
1999-01-1003
Process simulation for product and process design is currently being practiced in industry. However, a number of input variables have a significant effect on the accuracy and reliability of computer predictions. A study was conducted to evaluate the capability of finite element method (FEM) simulations for predicting part characteristics and process conditions in forming complex-shaped, industrial parts. In industrial applications, there are two objectives for conducting FEM simulations of the stamping process: (1) to optimize the product design by analyzing formability at the product design stage and (2) to reduce the tryout time and cost in process design by predicting the deformation process in advance during the die design stage. For each of these objectives, two kinds of FEM simulations are applied.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Modeling for the National Advanced Driving Simulator of a 1997 Jeep Cherokee

1999-03-01
1999-01-0121
This paper discusses the development of the 1997 Jeep Cherokee model for the National Advanced Driving Simulator's planned vehicle dynamics software, NADSdyna. Recursive rigid body formalism called the Real Time Recursive Dynamics (RTRD) developed by the University of Iowa is used to model the front and rear suspension mechanisms. To complement vehicle dynamics for simulator applications, subsystems that include tires, aerodynamics, powertrain, brake, and steering are added to the rigid body dynamics model. These models provide high fidelity driving realism to simulate severe handling maneuvers in real time. The soundness of the model does not only depend on the mathematics of the model, but also on the validity of the parameters. Therefore, this paper discusses thoroughly the methodology of parameters estimation. A generic model of cruise control is included.
Technical Paper

Fast Algorithm for On-Board Torque Estimation

1999-03-01
1999-01-0541
Electronic Throttle Control systems substitute the driver in commanding throttle position, with the driver acting on a potentiometer connected to the accelerator pedal. Such strategies allow precise control of air-fuel ratio and of other parameters, e.g. engine efficiency or vehicle driveability, but require detailed information about the engine operating conditions, in order to be implemented inside the Electronic Control Unit (ECU). In order to determine throttle position, an interpretation of the driver desire (revealed by the accelerator pedal position) is performed by the ECU. In our approach, such interpretation is carried out in terms of a torque request that can be appropriately addressed knowing the actual engine-vehicle operating conditions, which depend on the acting torques. Estimates of the torque due to in-cylinder pressure (indicated torque), as well as the torque required by the vehicle (load torque), must then be available to the control module.
Technical Paper

Two-Zone Heat Release Analysis of Combustion Data and Calibration of Heat Transfer Correlation in an I. C. Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-0218
Typically, the combustion analysis for S.I. engines is limited to the determination of the apparent heat release from in-cylinder pressure measurements, effectively using a single zone approach with constant properties determined at some average temperature. In this paper, we follow an approach consistent with the engine modeling approach (i.e., reverse modeling) to extract heat release rate from combustion pressure data. The experimental data used here solely consists of quantities measured in a typical engine dynamometer tests, namely the crank-angle resolved cylinder pressure, as well as global measurements of the A/F ratio, engine speed, load, EGR, air mass flow rate and temperature and exhaust emissions. We then perform a two-zone, crank-angle resolved analysis of the pressure data using variable composition and properties.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach to Real-Time Estimation of the Individual Cylinder Combustion Pressure for S.I. Engine Control

1999-03-01
1999-01-0209
Over the last decade, many methods have been proposed for estimating the in-cylinder combustion pressure or the torque from instantaneous crankshaft speed measurements. However, such approaches are typically computationally expensive. In this paper, an entirely different approach is presented to allow the real-time estimation of the in-cylinder pressures based on crankshaft speed measurements. The technical implementation of the method will be presented, as well as extensive results obtained for a V-6 S.I. engine while varying spark timing, engine speed, engine load and EGR. The method allows to estimate the in-cylinder pressure with an average estimation error of the order of 1 to 2% of the peak pressure. It is very general in its formulation, is statistically robust in the presence of noise, and computationally inexpensive.
Technical Paper

Consumer Braking Performance Information Initiative

1999-03-01
1999-01-1291
A test procedure that rates brake performance must control variability so that measured differences between vehicles are real. Tests were conducted using standard brake test procedures with three drivers in three cars on wet and dry asphalt with the ABS working and disabled. The differences between vehicles were greater than differences due to ABS condition, surface condition, and drivers. The procedure measured differences between all the vehicles with statistical certainty but used many replications and drivers. If only large differences in performance need to be distinguished, fewer replications and drivers will be needed.
Technical Paper

Air-Fuel Ratio Control for a High Performance Engine using Throttle Angle Information

1999-03-01
1999-01-1169
This paper presents the development of a model-based air/fuel ratio controller for a high performance engine that uses, in addition to other usual signals, the throttle angle to enable predictive air mass flow rate estimation. The objective of the paper is to evaluate the possibility to achieve a finer air/fuel ratio control during transients that involve sudden variations in the physical conditions inside the intake manifold, due, for example, to fast throttle opening or closing actions. The air mass flow rate toward the engine cylinders undertakes strong variation in such transients, and its correct estimation becomes critical mainly because of the time lag between its evaluation and the instant when the air actually enters the cylinders.
Technical Paper

Suspension Parameter Measurement Using Side-Pull Test To Enhance Modeling of Vehicle Roll

1999-03-01
1999-01-1323
This paper describes a new laboratory test facility for measuring suspension parameters that affect rollover. The Side-Pull mechanism rolls the test vehicle through a cable attached rigidly at its center of gravity (CG). Changes in wheel camber and wheel steer angles are measured as a function of body roll angle. The roll test simulates a steady-state cornering. Thus, both compliance and kinematic forces are fed simultaneously to the vehicle as they would be applied in a real cornering situation. The lateral load transfer, and roll angle as a function of simulated lateral acceleration is determined. The Side-Pull Roll Measurement has advantages over the conventional roll tests where the rolling force couple is applied vertically. The Side-Pull mechanism rolls the vehicle in a unrestricted way with horizontal forces applied at the tire / pad contact and the CG location. Thus, the measurements take into account coupling of compliance with roll.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Simulation of Nonlinear Model-Based Observer for Hydrodynamic Torque Converter System

2004-03-08
2004-01-1228
It is well-known that the hydrodynamic torque converter plays a major role in the transient study of power train systems since it has a great influence on the transient characteristics of a vehicle during gear shifting as well as vehicle launching. To predict accurately the vehicle characteristics, detailed analysis of the hydrodynamic torque converter is required. However, even with the development of a nonlinear dynamic model for the torque converter based on Hrovat and Tobler's paper (1985) is available, it is imperative to calculate both torques from impeller and turbine in order to utilize the dynamic model since it takes torque as an input [3]. In order to obtain the information about necessary but unmeasurable variables, nonlinear model-based estimator is developed using already available and measurable speeds data of impeller and turbine. The hydrodynamic torque converter model includes all necessary dynamics, namely, hydraulic as well as mechanical dynamics.
Technical Paper

A Study of Jackknife Stability of Class VIII Vehicles with Multiple Trailers with ABS Disc/Drum Brakes

2004-03-08
2004-01-1741
This study investigated the jackknife stability of Class VIII double tractor-trailer combination vehicles that had mixed braking configurations between the tractor and trailers and dolly (e.g. ECBS disc brakes on the tractor and pneumatic drum brakes on the trailers and dolly). Brake-in-turn maneuvers were performed with varying vehicle loads and surface conditions. Conditions with ABS ON for the entire vehicle (and select-high control algorithm on the trailers and dolly) found that instabilities (i.e. lane excursions and/or jackknifes) were exhibited under conditions when the surface friction coefficient was 0.3. It was demonstrated that these instabilities could be avoided while utilizing a select-low control algorithm on the trailers and dolly. Simulation results with the ABS OFF for the tractor showed that a tractor equipped with disc brakes had greater jackknife stability.
Technical Paper

The Application of Piezoceramic Actuation to Direct Fuel Injection

2003-09-16
2003-32-0001
With increasing demands to reduce emissions from internal combustion engines, engine manufacturers are forced to seek out new technology. One such technology employed primarily in the diesel and two-stroke engine community is direct-injection (DI). Direct injection has shown promising results in reduction of CO and NOx for both two- and four-stroke engines. While having been used for several years in the diesel industry, direct injection has been scrutinized for an inability to meet future requirements to reduce particulate matter emissions. Direct injection has also came under fire for complicating fuel delivery systems, thus making it cost prohibitive for small utility engine manufacturers. Recent research shows that the application of piezo-driven actuators has a positive effect on soot formation reduction for diesel engines and as this paper will distinguish, has the ability to simplify direct injection fuel delivery systems in general.
Technical Paper

Smart Icing Systems for Aircraft Icing Safety

2003-06-16
2003-01-2100
Aircraft incidents and accidents in icing are often the result of degradation in performance and control. However, current ice sensors measure the amount of ice and not the effect on performance and control. No processed aircraft performance degradation information is available to the pilot. In this paper research is reported on a system to estimate aircraft performance and control changes due to ice, then use this information to automatically operate ice protection systems, provide aircraft envelope protection and, if icing is severe, adapt the flight controls. Key to such a safety system would be he proper communication to, and coordination with, the flight crew. This paper reviews the basic system concept, as well as the research conducted in three critical areas; aerodynamics and flight mechanics, aircraft control and identification, and human factors.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Shaft Dynamic Effects on Gear Vibration and Noise Excitations

2003-05-05
2003-01-1491
Transmission error has long been identified to be the main exciter of gear whine noise. This research effort seeks to investigate the mechanisms and principal controlling factors that affect the actual noise generation from a typical gearbox housing due to transmission error excitations. The insight gained is expected to help in identifying possible noise control procedures in typical gearing applications. The example gearbox of this paper is an aircraft auxiliary-drive idler gearbox run at low load so that transmission error is the primary mesh excitation. A limited set of dynamic noise and vibration data are collected in transient speed run-ups. A contact-mechanics gear-tooth model is used to predict the static transmission error at each mesh. A finite-element model of the shafting that incorporates complex shaft and bearing data is used to predict the shaft dynamics with the static transmission error at the gear mesh(es) as the sole excitation.
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