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Technical Paper

Simplified MADYMO Model of the IHRA Head-form Impactor

2006-07-04
2006-01-2349
Interest in pedestrian head injury has prompted a need to measure the potential of head injury resulting from vehicular impacts. A variety of head impactors have been developed to fulfill this measurement need. A protocol has been developed by the International Harmonization Research Activity (IHRA) to use head impactor measurements to predict head injury. However, the effect of certain characteristics of the various head impactors on the measurement procedure is not well understood. This includes the location of the accelerometers within the head-form and testing the head-form under the variety of conditions necessary to establish its global performance. To address this problem, a simple model of the IHRA head-form has been developed. This model was created using MADYMO© and consists of a solid sphere with a second sphere representing the vinyl covering. Stiffness and damping characteristics of the vinyl covering were determined analytically from drop test data of an IHRA head-form.
Technical Paper

Implementing Computer Simulation into the Concept to Product Process

1999-03-01
1999-01-1003
Process simulation for product and process design is currently being practiced in industry. However, a number of input variables have a significant effect on the accuracy and reliability of computer predictions. A study was conducted to evaluate the capability of finite element method (FEM) simulations for predicting part characteristics and process conditions in forming complex-shaped, industrial parts. In industrial applications, there are two objectives for conducting FEM simulations of the stamping process: (1) to optimize the product design by analyzing formability at the product design stage and (2) to reduce the tryout time and cost in process design by predicting the deformation process in advance during the die design stage. For each of these objectives, two kinds of FEM simulations are applied.
Technical Paper

Errors Associated with Transfer Path Analysis when Rotations are not Measured

2007-05-15
2007-01-2179
Previously we had found significant errors in the interfacial force results for a source-path-receiver system where only translational motions were measured. This paper examines the sources of those errors by using computational finite and boundary element models. The example case consists of a source structure (with few modes), a receiver (with many modes) and three steel rod paths. We first formulate indirect, yet exact, methods for estimating interfacial forces, by assuming that six-dimensional motions at any location are available though we focus on only the driving points. One- and three-dimensional sub-sets of the proposed formulation are compared with the six-dimensional theory in terms of interfacial force and partial sound pressure spectra.
Technical Paper

Springback Analysis with a Modified Hardening Model

2000-03-06
2000-01-0768
Previously-reported draw-bend tests showed large discrepancies in springback angles from those predicted by two-dimensional finite element modeling (FEM). In some cases, the predicted angle was several times the measured angle. With more careful 3-D simulation taking into account anticlastic curvature, a significant discrepancy persisted. In order to evaluate the role of the Bauschinger Effect in springback, a transient hardening model was constructed based on novel tension-compression tests for for three sheet materials: drawing-quality steel (baseline material), high-strength low-alloy steel, and 6022-T4 aluminum alloy. This model reproduces the main features of hardening following a strain reversal: low yield stress, rapid strain hardening, and, optionally, permanent softening or hardening relative to the monotonic hardening law. The hardening law was implemented and 3-D FEM was carried out for comparison with the draw-bend springback results.
Journal Article

Effect of Local Stiffness Coupling on the Modes of a Subframe-Bushing System

2013-05-13
2013-01-1904
The elastomeric joints (bushings or mounts) in vehicle structural frames are usually described as uncoupled springs (only with diagonal terms) in large scale system models. The off-diagonal terms of an elastomeric joint have been previously ignored as they are often unknown since their properties cannot be measured in a uniaxial elastomer test system. This paper overcomes this deficiency via a scientific study of a laboratory frame that is designed to maintain a high fidelity with real-world vehicle body subframes in terms of natural modes under free boundaries. The steel beam construction of the laboratory frame, with four elastomeric mounts at the corners, permits the development of a highly accurate, yet simple, beam finite element model. This allows for a correlation study between the experiment and model that helps shed light upon the underlying physical phenomenon.
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