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Technical Paper


Flight tests of a new 13% General Aviation Airfoil - the GA(W)-2 - gloved full span onto the existing wing of a Beech Sundowner have generated chordwise pressure distributions and wake surveys. Section lift, drag and moment coefficients derived from these measurements verify wind tunnel data and theory predicting the performance of this airfoil. The effect of steps, rivets and surface coatings upon the drag of the GA(W)-2 was also evaluated.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Responses of PMHS Subjected to Abdominal Seatbelt Loading

Past studies have found that a pressure based injury risk function was the best predictor of liver injuries due to blunt impacts. In an effort to expand upon these findings, this study investigated the biomechanical responses of the abdomen of post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) to high-speed seatbelt loading and developed external response targets in conjunction with proposing an abdominal injury criterion. A total of seven unembalmed PMHS, with an average mass and stature of 71 kg and 174 cm respectively were subjected to belt loading using a seatbelt pull mechanism, with the PMHS seated upright in a free-back configuration. A pneumatic piston pulled a seatbelt into the abdomen at the level of the umbilicus with a nominal peak penetration speed of 4.0 m/s. Pressure transducers were placed in the re-pressurized abdominal vasculature, including the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abdominal aorta, to measure internal pressure variation during the event.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach to Real-Time Estimation of the Individual Cylinder Combustion Pressure for S.I. Engine Control

Over the last decade, many methods have been proposed for estimating the in-cylinder combustion pressure or the torque from instantaneous crankshaft speed measurements. However, such approaches are typically computationally expensive. In this paper, an entirely different approach is presented to allow the real-time estimation of the in-cylinder pressures based on crankshaft speed measurements. The technical implementation of the method will be presented, as well as extensive results obtained for a V-6 S.I. engine while varying spark timing, engine speed, engine load and EGR. The method allows to estimate the in-cylinder pressure with an average estimation error of the order of 1 to 2% of the peak pressure. It is very general in its formulation, is statistically robust in the presence of noise, and computationally inexpensive.
Technical Paper

Errors Associated with Transfer Path Analysis when Rotations are not Measured

Previously we had found significant errors in the interfacial force results for a source-path-receiver system where only translational motions were measured. This paper examines the sources of those errors by using computational finite and boundary element models. The example case consists of a source structure (with few modes), a receiver (with many modes) and three steel rod paths. We first formulate indirect, yet exact, methods for estimating interfacial forces, by assuming that six-dimensional motions at any location are available though we focus on only the driving points. One- and three-dimensional sub-sets of the proposed formulation are compared with the six-dimensional theory in terms of interfacial force and partial sound pressure spectra.
Technical Paper

Structure-Borne Noise Measures and Their Correlation to Sound Radiation over a Broad Range of Frequencies

Structure-borne noise within vehicle structures is often transmitted in a multi-dimensional manner and thus the vibro-acoustic model(s) of automotive powertrain or chassis must incorporate longitudinal and transverse (flexural) motions as well as their couplings. In this article, we employ the continuous system theory to model a typical vibration isolator (say the engine mounting system) and a compliant receiver that could simulate the body structure. The powertrain source is however assumed to be rigid, and both harmonic force and moment excitations are considered. Our analysis is limited to a linear time-invariant system, and the frequency domain based mobility method is utilized to synthesize the overall system. Contributions of both in-plane and flexural motions to structure-borne and radiated noise are incorporated. Two examples are considered to illustrate the methodology.
Technical Paper

Approximating Engine Tailpipe Orifice Noise Sound Quality using a Surge Tank and In-Duct Measurements

Because of the need to safely vent exhaust gases, most engine dynamometer facilities are not well suited to measuring engine exhaust orifice noise. Depending on the location of the dyno facility within the building, the exhaust system may need to be extended in order to properly vent the exhaust fumes. This additional ducting changes the acoustic modes of the exhaust system which will change the measured orifice noise. Duct additions downstream of the original orifice location also alter the termination impedance such that in-duct pressure measurements with and without the extended exhaust system can vary significantly. In order to minimize the effect of the building's exhaust system on the desired engine exhaust system measurements, the present approach terminates the engine exhaust into a large enclosed volume or surge tank before venting the gases into the building's ventilation system.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Intake Primary Runner Blockages on Combustion and Emissions in SI Engines under Part-Load Conditions

Charge motion is known to accelerate and stabilize combustion through its influence on turbulence intensity and flame propagation. The present work investigates the effect of charge motion generated by intake runner blockages on combustion characteristics and emissions under part-load conditions in SI engines. Firing experiments have been conducted on a DaimlerChrysler (DC) 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine, with spark range extending around the Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing. Three blockages with 20% open area are compared to the fully open baseline case under two operating conditions: 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure (bmep) at 1600 rpm, and 0.78 bar bmep at 1200 rpm. The blocked areas are shaped to create different levels of swirl, tumble, and cross-tumble. Crank-angle resolved pressures have been acquired, including cylinders 1 and 4, intake runners 1 and 4 upstream and downstream of the blockage, and exhaust runners 1 and 4.
Journal Article

Instabilities at the Low-Flow Range of a Turbocharger Compressor

The acoustic and performance characteristics of an automotive centrifugal compressor are studied on a steady-flow turbocharger test bench, with the goal of advancing the current understanding of compression system instabilities at the low-flow range. Two different ducting configurations were utilized downstream of the compressor, one with a well-defined plenum (large volume) and the other with minimized (small) volume of compressed air. The present study measured time-resolved oscillations of in-duct and external pressure, along with rotational speed. An orifice flow meter was incorporated to obtain time-averaged mass flow rate. In addition, fast-response thermocouples captured temperature fluctuations in the compressor inlet and exit ducts along with a location near the inducer tips.
Journal Article

Dynamic Stiffness of Hydraulic Bushing with Multiple Internal Configurations

Fluid filled bushings are commonly used in vehicle suspension and sub-frame systems due to their spectrally-varying and amplitude-dependent properties. Since the literature on this topic is sparse, a controlled laboratory prototype bushing is first designed, constructed, and instrumented. This device provides different internal combination of long and short flow passages and flow restriction elements. Experiments with sinusoidal displacement excitations are conducted on the prototype, and dynamic stiffness spectra along with fluid chamber pressure responses are measured. The frequency-dependent properties of several commonly seen hydraulic bushing designs are experimentally studied and compared under two excitation amplitudes. Further, new linear time-invariant models with one long and one short flow passages (in parallel or series) are proposed along with the limiting cases.
Journal Article

Effect of the Tooth Surface Waviness on the Dynamics and Structure-Borne Noise of a Spur Gear Pair

This article studies the effects of tooth surface waviness and sliding friction on the dynamics and radiated structure-borne noise of a spur gear pair. This study is conducted using an improved gear dynamics model while taking into account the sliding frictional contact between meshing teeth. An analytical six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) linear time varying (LTV) model is developed to predict system responses and bearing forces. The time varying mesh stiffness is calculated using a gear contact mechanics code. A Coulomb friction model is used to calculate the sliding frictional forces. Experimental measurements of partial pressure to acceleration transfer functions are used to calculate the radiated structure-borne noise level. The roles of various time-varying parameters on gear dynamics are analyzed (for a specific example case), and the predictions from the analytical model are compared with prior literature.