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Technical Paper

The Prospects of Using Alcohol-Based Fuels in Stratified-Charge Spark-Ignition Engines

Near-term energy policy for ground transportation is likely to have a strong focus on both gains in efficiency as well as the use of alternate fuels; as both can reduce crude oil dependence and carbon loading on the environment. Stratified-charge spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines are capable of achieving significant gains in efficiency. In addition, these engines are likely to be run on alternative fuels. Specifically, lower alcohols such as ethanol and iso-butanol, which can be produced from renewable sources. SIDI engines, particularly the spray-guided variant, tend to be very sensitive to mixture preparation since fuel injection and ignition occur within a short time of each other. This close spacing is necessary to form a flammable mixture near the spark plug while maintaining an overall lean state in the combustion chamber. As a result, the physical properties of the fuel have a large effect on this process.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of Cross Flow Compact Heat Exchanger with Louvered Fins using Thermal Resistance Concept

Compact heat exchangers have been widely used in various applications in thermal fluid systems including automotive thermal management systems. Radiators for engine cooling systems, evaporators and condensers for HVAC systems, oil coolers, and intercoolers are typical examples of the compact heat exchangers that can be found in ground vehicles. Among the different types of heat exchangers for engine cooling applications, cross flow compact heat exchangers with louvered fins are of special interest because of their higher heat rejection capability with the lower flow resistance. In this study, a predictive numerical model for the cross flow type heat exchanger with louvered fins has been developed based on the thermal resistance concept and the finite difference method in order to provide a design and development tool for the heat exchanger. The model was validated with the experimental data from an engine cooling radiator.
Technical Paper

Factors Influencing Spark Behavior in a Spray-Guided Direct-Injected Engine

The spark process has previously been shown to heavily influence ignition stability, particularly in direct-injected gasoline engines. Despite this influence, few studies have addressed spark behavior in direct-injected engines. This study examines the role of environmental factors on the behavior of the spark. Through measurement of the spark duration, by way of the ignition current trace, several observations are made on the influence of external factors on the behavior of the spark. Changing the level of nitrogen in the cylinder (to simulate EGR), the level of wetting and velocity imparted by the spray, the ignition dwell time and the orientation of the ground strap, observations are made as to which conditions are likely to produce unfavorable (shorter) spark durations. Through collection of a statistically significant number of sample spark lengths under each condition, histograms have been assembled and compared under each case.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Variable High-Speed Imaging Study of Ignition Instabilities in a Spray-Guided Direct-Injected Spark-Ignition Engine

Ignition stability was studied in an optical spray guided spark ignition direct injection engine. The impact of intake air dilution with nitrogen, spark plug orientation, ignition system dwell time, and fuel injector targeting was addressed. Crank angle resolved fuel distributions were measured with a high-speed planar laser-induced fluorescence technique for hundreds of consecutive cycles. IMEP, COV of IMEP, burn rates and spark energy delivered to the gas were examined and used in conjunction with the imaging data to identify potential reasons for misfires.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Turbocharged E85 Engine for Formula SAE Racing

A summary of the design and development process for a Formula SAE engine is described. The focus is on three fundamental elements on which the entire engine package is based. The first is engine layout and displacement, second is the fuel type, and third is the air induction method. These decisions lead to a design around a 4-cylinder 600cc motorcycle engine, utilizing a turbocharger and ethanol E-85 fuel. Concerns and constraints involved with vehicle integration are also highlighted. The final design was then tested on an engine dynamometer, and finally in the 2007 M-Racing FSAE racecar.
Journal Article

Cycle-Resolved NO Measurements in a Spray-Guided SIDI Engine using Fast Exhaust Measurements and High-Speed OH* Chemiluminescence Imaging

A potential correlation between OH* chemiluminescence and exhaust NO concentration is investigated to pursue a simple diagnostic technique for measurements of NO cycle-to-cycle fluctuations. Previous investigations of NO formation in a direct-injection gasoline engine have indicated that there may be a correlation between the concentration of NO and OH* chemiluminescence. Shortcomings of this work, namely phase-locked measurements, were overcome in the present study by using highspeed imaging capability to obtain chemiluminescence within the entire engine cycle and from entire engine cylinder volume. Cycle-resolved NO exhaust gas detection were performed synchronously with the chemiluminescence measurements on an optical spark-ignited engine with spray-guided direct-injection. A quartz cylinder liner, head and piston windows provide optical access for a highspeed CMOS camera and image intensifier to capture OH* images.
Technical Paper

Using Neural Networks to Compensate Altitude Effects on the Air Flow Rate in Variable Valve Timing Engines

An accurate air flow rate model is critical for high-quality air-fuel ratio control in Spark-Ignition engines using a Three-Way-Catalyst. Emerging Variable Valve Timing technology complicates cylinder air charge estimation by increasing the number of independent variables. In our previous study (SAE 2004-01-3054), an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used successfully to represent the air flow rate as a function of four independent variables: intake camshaft position, exhaust camshaft position, engine speed and intake manifold pressure. However, in more general terms the air flow rate also depends on ambient temperature and pressure, the latter being largely a function of altitude. With arbitrary cam phasing combinations, the ambient pressure effects in particular can be very complex. In this study, we propose using a separate neural network to compensate the effects of altitude on the air flow rate.
Technical Paper

Model Based Analysis of Performance-Cost Tradeoffs for Engine Manifold Surface Finishing

The link between manufacturing process and product performance is studied in order to construct analytical, quantifiable criteria for the introduction of new engine technologies and processes. Cost associated with a new process must be balanced against increases in engine performance and thus demand for the particular vehicle. In this work, the effect of the Abrasive Flow Machining (AFM) technique on surface roughness is characterized through measurements of specimens, and a predictive engine simulation is used to quantify performance gains due to the new surface finish. Subsequently, economic cost-benefit analysis is used to evaluate manufacturing decisions based on their impact on firm's profitability. A demonstration study examines the use of AFM for finishing the inner surfaces of intake manifolds for two engines, one installed in a compact car and the other in an SUV.
Technical Paper

Is Toluene a Suitable LIF Tracer for Fuel Film Measurements?

Quantitative LIF measurements of liquid fuel films on the piston of direct-injected gasoline engines are difficult to achieve because generally these films are thin and the signal strength is low. Additionally, interference from scattered laser light or background signal can be substantial. The selection of a suitable fluorescence tracer and excitation wavelength plays an important role in the success of such measurements. We have investigated the possibility of using toluene as a tracer for fuel film measurements and compare it to the use of 3-pentanone. The fuel film dynamics in a motored engine at different engine speeds, temperatures and in-cylinder swirl levels is characterized and discussed.
Technical Paper

Testing and Modeling of Frequency Drops in Resonant Bending Fatigue Tests of Notched Crankshaft Sections

Resonant frequencies of a resonant bending system with notched crankshaft sections are obtained experimentally and numerically in order to investigate the effect of notch depth on the drop of the resonant frequency of the system. Notches with the depths ranging from 1 to 5 mm, machined by an EDM (Electrical-Discharging Machining) system, were introduced in crankshaft sections at the fillet between the main crank pin and crank cheek. The resonant frequencies of the resonant bending system with the crankshaft sections with various notch depths were first obtained from the experiments. Three-dimensional finite element models of the resonant bending system with the crankshafts sections with various notch depths are then generated. The resonant frequencies based on the finite element computations are in good agreement with those based on the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Gaseous Fuel-Air Mixing in Direct Injection Engines Using an RNG Based k-ε Model

Direct injection of natural gas under high pressure conditions has emerged as a promising option for improving engine fuel economy and emissions. However, since the gaseous injection technology is new, limited experience exists as to the optimum configuration of the injection system and associated combustion chamber design. The present study uses KIVA-3 based, multidimensional modeling to improve the understanding and assist the optimization of the gaseous injection process. Compared to standard k-ε models, a Renormalization Group Theory (RNG) based k-ε model [1] has been found to be in better agreement with experiments in predicting gaseous penetration histories for both free and confined jet configurations. Hence, this validated RNG model is adopted here to perform computations in realistic engine geometries.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Diesel Combustion and NO Emissions Based on a Modified Eddy Dissipation Concept

This paper reports the development of a model of diesel combustion and NO emissions, based on a modified eddy dissipation concept (EDC), and its implementation into the KIVA-3V multidimensional simulation. The EDC model allows for more realistic representation of the thin sub-grid scale reaction zone as well as the small-scale molecular mixing processes. Realistic chemical kinetic mechanisms for n-heptane combustion and NOx formation processes are fully incorporated. A model based on the normalized fuel mass fraction is implemented to transition between ignition and combustion. The modeling approach has been validated by comparison with experimental data for a range of operating conditions. Predicted cylinder pressure and heat release rates agree well with measurements. The predictions for NO concentration show a consistent trend with experiments. Overall, the results demonstrate the improved capability of the model for predictions of the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Servo Guns for Resistance Spot Welding

Resistance spot welding (RWS) guns driven by servomotors instead of pneumatic cylinders are called servo guns. They bring many new features to RWS process. In this study, the influences of servo guns on RSW process are systematically investigated based on comparative experiments. In addition, the costs of servo guns are also analyzed. The long-term applications of servo guns will be cost effective due to their technical features and savings on pneumatic systems although the acquisition cost of servo guns is high. Therefore, servo gun is an excellent alternative RSW machine for sheet metal assembly.
Technical Paper

A Generic Methodology for Chamber Flame Geometry Modeling

Combustion flame geometry calculation is a critical task in the design and analysis of combustion engine chamber. Combustion flame directly influences the fuel economy, engine performance and efficiency. Currently, many of the flame geometry calculation methods assume certain specific chamber and piston top shapes and make some approximations to them. Even further, most methods can not handle multiple spark plug set-ups. Consequently, most of the current flame geometry calculation methods do not give accurate results and have some built-in limitations. They are particularly poor for adapting to any kind of new chamber geometry and spark plug set-up design. This report presents a novel methodology which allows the accurate calculation of flame geometry regardless of the chamber geometry and the number of spark plugs. In this methodology, solid models are used to represent the components within the chamber and unique attributes (colors) are attached respectively to these components.
Technical Paper

Efficient Engine Models Using Recursive Formulation of Multibody Dynamics

Engine models with fully coupled dynamic effects of the engine components can be constructed through the use of commercial multibody dynamics codes, such as ADAMS and DADS. These commercial codes provide a modeling platform for very general mechanical systems and the time and effort required to learn how to use them may preclude their use for some engine designers. In this paper, we review an alternative and specialized modeling platform that functions as a template for engine design. Relative to commercial codes, this engine design template employs a recursive formulation of multibody dynamics, and thus it leads directly to the minimum number of equations of motion describing the dynamic response of the engine by a priori satisfaction of kinematic constraints. This is achieved by employing relative coordinates in lieu of the absolute coordinates adopted in commercial multibody dynamics codes. This engine modeling tool requires only minimal information for the input data.
Technical Paper

Measurements and Predictions of Steady-State and Transient Stress Distributions in a Diesel Engine Cylinder Head

A combined experimental and analytical approach was followed in this work to study stress distributions and causes of failure in diesel cylinder heads under steady-state and transient operation. Experimental studies were conducted first to measure temperatures, heat fluxes and stresses under a series of steady-state operating conditions. Furthermore, by placing high temperature strain gages within the thermal penetration depth of the cylinder head, the effect of thermal shock loading under rapid transients was studied. A comparison of our steady-state and transient measurements suggests that the steady-state temperature gradients and the level of temperatures are the primary causes of thermal fatigue in cast-iron cylinder heads. Subsequently, a finite element analysis was conducted to predict the detailed steady-state temperature and stress distributions within the cylinder head. A comparison of the predicted steady-state temperatures and stresses compared well with our measurements.
Technical Paper

Model Analysis of a Diesel Engine Cylinder Block using HEXA8 Finite Elements - Analysis and Experiment

Analytical and experimental investigations of a diesel engine cylinder block are performed. An attempt is made to reduce modeling and analysis costs in the design process of an engine. Traditionally, the engine has been modeled using either 8-node or 20-node solid elements for stress and thermal analyses and modeled using 4-node plate and shell elements for the dynamic analysis. In this paper, a simpler finite element modeling technique using only 8 node solid elements for both dynamic and static analyses is presented. Based on this integrated modeling technique of finite elements, eigenvalues are calculated and compared with the experimental data obtained from modal testing of an actual engine cylinder block.
Technical Paper

Piston-Ring Assembly Friction Modeling by Similarity Analysis

A semi-empirical engine piston/ring assembly friction model based on the concept of the Stribeck diagram and similarity analysis is described. The model was constructed by forming non-dimensional parameters based on design and operating conditions. Friction data collected by the Fixed-Sleeve method described in [1]* at one condition, were used to correlate the coefficient of friction of the assembly and the other non-dimensional parameters. Then, using the instantaneous cylinder pressure as input together with measured and calculated design and operating parameters, reasonable assembly friction and fmep predictions were obtained for a variety of additional conditions, some of which could be compared with experimental values. Model inputs are component dimensions, ring tensions, piston skirt spring constant, piston skirt thermal expansion, engine temperatures, speed, load and oil viscosity.
Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon Emission Sequence Related to Cylinder Mal-Distribution in a L-Head Engine

The distribution of fuel-air mixtures in many L-head engines is not homogeneous. If local mixture is too rich or lean, incomplete combustion occurs. This can play a major role in unburned hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. Fuel-air mixture distribution depends on in-cylinder swirl and turbulence and is directly related to intake manifold configuration, fuel delivery system design and combustion chamber shape. Understanding the spatial mixture distribution may help improve the design of these aforementioned components. Consequently, a more complete combustion process may result, and emissions reduced. A method that measures the emission of CH and C2 radicals via the use of an optical fiber bundle was used in this research to map the mixture uniformity in the combustion chamber. The intensity ratio (IC2/ICH) was correlated to the fuel-air equivalence ratio. The mixture distribution measured was then correlated with the hydrocarbon emission sequence.
Technical Paper

Friction Measurement in the Valve Train with a Roller Follower

The valve train was instrumented to record the instantaneous roller speed, roller pin friction torque, pushrod forces, and cam speed. Results are presented for one exhaust valve of a motored Cummins L-10 engine. The instantaneous cam/roller friction force was determined from the instantaneous roller speed and the pin friction torque. The pushrod force and displacement were also measured. Friction work loss was determined for both cam and roller interface as well as the upper valve train which includes the valve pushrod, rocker arm, valve guide, and valve. Roller follower slippage on the cam was also determined. A kinematic analysis with the measured data provided the normal force and contact stress at cam/roller interface.(1) Finally, the valve train friction was found to be in the mixed lubrication regime.(2) Further efforts will address the theoretical analysis of valve train friction to predict roller slippage.