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Technical Paper

Multi-Zone DI Diesel Spray Combustion Model for Cycle Simulation Studies of Engine Performance and Emissions

2001-03-05
2001-01-1246
A quasi-dimensional, multi-zone, direct injection (DI) diesel combustion model has been developed and implemented in a full cycle simulation of a turbocharged engine. The combustion model accounts for transient fuel spray evolution, fuel-air mixing, ignition, combustion and NO and soot pollutant formation. In the model, the fuel spray is divided into a number of zones, which are treated as open systems. While mass and energy equations are solved for each zone, a simplified momentum conservation equation is used to calculate the amount of air entrained into each zone. Details of the DI spray, combustion model and its implementation into the cycle simulation of Assanis and Heywood [1] are described in this paper. The model is validated with experimental data obtained in a constant volume chamber and engines. First, predictions of spray penetration and spray angle are validated against measurements in a pressurized constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

A Research Design to Collect Data for a Second Generation Eyellipse

1975-02-01
750362
Current automotive design practices related to driver visibility are based on static laboratory studies of mostly straight ahead viewing that were conducted by Meldrum and others beginning in 1962. These individual studies have never been replicated either in the lab or in actual driving situations to determine the validity of their procedures. After a thorough review of the literature related to driver eye location and a statistical analysis of previous static eye location data, an experimental design is proposed to determine dynamic eye location distribution characteristics. This design will provide information on: (a) the relationship of static anthropometric measurements to dynamic eye location; (b) the difference between dynamic on-the-road eye location versus static in-the-lab eye location distributions: (c) the effect of different types of vehicle seating package parameters on eye location; and, (d) a validation of previous static eye location studies.
Technical Paper

The Roles of Camera-Based Rear Vision Systems and Object-Detection Systems: Inferences from Crash Data

2004-03-08
2004-01-1758
Advances in electronic countermeasures for lane-change crashes, including both camera-based rear vision systems and object-detection systems, have provided more options for meeting driver needs than were previously available with rearview mirrors. To some extent, human factors principles can be used to determine what countermeasures would best meet driver needs. However, it is also important to examine sets of crash data as closely as possible for the information they may provide. We review previous analyses of crash data and attempt to reconcile the implications of these analyses with each other as well as with general human factors principles. We argue that the data seem to indicate that the contribution of blind zones to lane-change crashes is substantial.
Technical Paper

Using Vehicle Dynamics Simulation as a Teaching Tool in Automotive Engineering Courses

2005-04-11
2005-01-1795
Some of the best teaching methods are laboratory courses in which students experience application of the principles being presented. Preparing young engineering students for a career in the automotive industry challenges us to provide comparable opportunities to explore the dynamic performance of motor vehicles in a controlled environment. Today we are fortunate to have accurate and easy-to-use software programs making it practical for students to simulate the performance of motor vehicles on “virtual” proving grounds. At the University of Michigan the CarSim® vehicle dynamics simulation program has been introduced as such a tool to augment the learning experience. The software is used in the Automotive Engineering course to supplement homework exercises analyzing acceleration, braking, aerodynamics, and cornering performance. This paper provides an overview of the use of simulation in this setting.
Technical Paper

Driving with HID Headlamps: A Review of Research Findings

2003-03-03
2003-01-0295
High-intensity discharge (HID) headlamps have several advantages over tungsten-halogen headlamps, including greater light efficiency (lumens per watt) and longer life. However, from the safety point of view, the primary attraction of HID headlamps is that, because they produce more total light, they have the potential to provide more useful illumination to the driver. At the same time, there are concerns with the effects of HID illumination on perception of the colors of important objects and glare to oncoming traffic. This paper reviews research evidence that we have accumulated over the past 14 years concerning the potential benefits and drawbacks associated with the use of HID headlighting. We conclude that the evidence strongly supports the use of well-designed HID headlamps.
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