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Journal Article

Hydrocarbons and Particulate Matter in EGR Cooler Deposits: Effects of Gas Flow Rate, Coolant Temperature, and Oxidation Catalyst

Compact heat exchangers are commonly used in diesel engines to reduce the temperature of recirculated exhaust gases, resulting in decreased NOx emissions. These exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers experience fouling through deposition of particulate matter (PM) and hydrocarbons (HCs) that reduces the effectiveness of the cooler. Surrogate tubes have been used to investigate the impacts of gas flow rate and coolant temperature on the deposition of PM and HCs. The results indicate that mass deposition is lowest at high flow rates and high coolant temperatures. An oxidation catalyst was investigated and proved to effectively reduce deposition of HCs, but did not reduce overall mass deposition to near-zero levels. Speciation of the deposit HCs showed that a range of HCs from C15 - C25 were deposited and retained in the surrogate tubes.
Technical Paper

An Estimation of Supporting Hand Forces for Common Automotive Assembly Tasks

Assembly operators are rarely observed performing one-handed tasks where the unutilized hand is entirely inactive. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the forces applied to supporting hands, by automotive assembly operators, during common one-handed tasks such as hose installations or electrical connections. The data were computed as a percentage of body weight and a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p<0.05) was conducted. Supporting hand forces were observed to range from 5.5% to 12.1% of body mass across a variety of tasks. The results of this study can be used to account for these supporting hand forces when performing a biomechanical/ergonomic analysis.
Technical Paper

Environmentally Friendly and Low Cost Manufacturing – Implementation of MQL Machining (Minimum Quantity Lubrication)

Near Dry or Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) Machining eliminates conventional flood coolant from the machining processes. In doing so, MQL reduces oil mist generation, biological contamination of coolant, waste water volume, costs for capital equipment and regulatory permitting. MQL also improves recycling and transport of coolant contaminated chips [1]. Although MQL machining technology has several advantages compared to wet machining, widespread implementation will require a paradigm shift among end-users, machine suppliers, and cutting tool suppliers. Successful implementation of MQL machining requires a high technical understanding and a solid infrastructure to support maintenance and on-going continuous improvement [2].
Technical Paper

Implementing Thermoelectrics for Media Thermal Management in Automotive Radios

A continuous demand for added multimedia features in the automotive audio systems not only requires adequate cooling of the internal electronics, but also the media itself. Thermal engineers focus their efforts only on keeping the electronics below thresholds by conventional methods such as internal fans, heat sinks, etc., while overlooking the CD media. The environment within the instrument panel (IP) poses additional challenge in maintaining the media at a temperature level that is comfortable to the human touch. Fans that would be a natural choice in such situations, could cause noise audible to the customer and thus create a new problem. A solid-state cooling device that uses Thermoelectric coolers (TEC) is proposed to keep the CD temperature low. The system comprises of TECs assembled with the hot side attached to a heat sink and the cold side attached to the radio top surface.
Technical Paper

Thermal Conductivity Measurements in Nanofluids via the Transient Planar Source Method

The use of nanotechnology to develop advanced heat-transfer materials is a rapidly growing topic of research at facilities around the world. One class of these materials, nanofluids, has shown promise in the laboratory to dramatically improve thermal conductivity. Quantification of the thermophysical properties of these fluids is important for optimizing the design of automotive powertrains and electrical subsystems in order to produce highly efficient and robust vehicle cooling. A new technique for measuring thermal conductivity, the Transient Planar Source (TPS) method, was used for the first time to investigate the thermal conductivity of automotive coolants and their equivalent nanofluid, as a function of temperature. The results of this study indicate that the TPS method allows for rapid and repeatable measurement of thermal conductivity with an error of between 2-4%. The technique also presents several advantages over other methods which we will briefly describe.
Technical Paper

A Parametric DOE Study of Various Factors that Influence the CD Temperature in Automotive Radios

A continuous demand for added multimedia features in the automotive audio systems not only requires adequate cooling of the internal electronics, but also the media itself. Thermal engineers focus their efforts only on keeping the electronics below thresholds by conventional methods such as internal fans, heat sinks, etc., while overlooking the CD media. The environment within the instrument panel (IP) poses a challenge in maintaining the media at a temperature level that is comfortable to the human touch. This paper investigates the effectiveness of various factors that influence the CD temperature in a car player. These factors represent independent and interactive effects of the three modes of heat transfer. In this study, a design of experiment (DOE) technique is utilized to generate a response function that filters insignificant parameters and their interactions, in order to minimize the CD temperature.
Technical Paper

The Current Development of Nanofluid Research

It has been shown that the addition of a small amount of nanoparticles into a fluid results in anomalous increase in the thermal conductivity of the mixture, and the resulting nanofluid may provide better overall thermal management and better lubrication in many applications, such as heat transfer fluids, engine oils, transmission fluids, gear oils, coolants and other similar fluids and lubricants. The potential benefits of this technology to the automotive and related industries would be more efficient engines, reduced size and weight of the cooling and propulsion systems, lowered operating temperature of the mechanical systems, and increased life of the engine and other mechanical systems. The new mechanisms for this phenomenon of anomalous thermal conductivity increase have been proposed. The heat transfer properties of a series of graphite nanofluids were presented, and the experimental results were compared with the conventional heat transfer theory for pure liquids.
Technical Paper

Polymer Additives as Mist Suppressants in Metalworking Fluids Part IIa: Preliminary Laboratory and Plant Studies - Water Soluble Fluids

Mist generated from water-soluble fluids used in machining operations represents a potentially significant contribution to worker exposure to airborne particles. Part I of this study [1], discussed polymer additives as mist suppressants for straight mineral oil metalworking fluids (MWF), which have been successfully employed at several locations. This paper focuses on recent developments in polymer mist suppressants for water-based MWF, particularly in the production environment. The polymer developed and tested in this study functions on a similar basis to that for straight oil anti-mist additives. This water soluble polymer suppresses the formation of small mist droplets and results in a distribution of larger droplet sizes. These larger droplets tend to settle out near the point of machining, resulting in a significant decrease in the total airborne mist concentration.
Technical Paper

Leaching of Ions from Fuel Cell Vehicle Cooling System and Their Removal to Maintain Low Conductivity

The deionized water/ethylene glycol coolant used in the Ford Focus Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) requires very low conductivity (< 5 μS/cm) to avoid current leakage and short circuiting, presenting a unique water chemistry issue. The coolant's initially low conductivity increases as: 1) ions are released from system materials through leaching, degradation and/or corrosion, and 2) organic acids are produced by ethylene glycol degradation. Estimating the leaching potential of these ions is necessary for design and operation of fuel cell vehicles. An on-board mixed-bed, ion exchange resin filter is used to maintain low conductivity by removing leached or produced ions. Various candidate materials were evaluated for leaching potential by exposing them to coolant at the design operating temperature for several months and periodically analyzing the coolant for ions.
Technical Paper

Testing of Cooling Module Component for Frontal Impact and Sensor Modeling Development

This paper describes (1) the development of a component test methodology for testing a cooling module including radiator, condenser and trans. cooler, and (2) the associated CAE model development. A series of light truck/SUV cooling module component tests were conducted to obtain their characteristics as inputs for frontal impact and sensor modeling development. First, the cooling module component CAE sub-model was developed using soft springs along with fine-mesh sheet metal shell elements. Second, simulated sub-model results were correlated fairly well with the test data. Third, this component CAE sub-model was then incorporated into a full vehicle CAE model that was used for frontal impact (NCAP) and sensor development. Results indicated that the proposed test method for cooling module components provided consistent data and the results from cooling module sub-model can be incorporated into the full vehicle CAE model for improving the quality and accuracy of CAE models.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Procedure for Simulating an SC03 Emissions Test with Air Conditioner On

In a continuing effort to include real-world emissions in regulatory testing, the USEPA has included air conditioning operation as part of the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP). Known as the SC03, these tests require automobile manufacturers to construct and maintain expensive environmental chambers. However, the regulations make allowances for a simulation test, if one can be shown to demonstrate correlation with the SFTP results. We present the results from an experiment on a 1998 Ford sedan, which simulates the heat load of a full environmental chamber. Moreover, the test procedure is simpler and more cost effective. The process essentially involves heating the condenser of the air conditioning system by using the heat of the engine, rather than heating the entire vehicle. The results indicate that if the head pressure is used as a feedback signal to the radiator fan, the load generated by a full environmental chamber can be duplicated.
Journal Article

Modeling of Phase Change within a Wax Element Thermostat Embedded in an Automotive Cooling System

In an automotive cooling circuit, the wax melting process determines the net and time history of the energy transfer between the engine and its environment. A numerical process that gives insight into the mixing process outside the wax chamber, the wax melting process inside the wax chamber, and the effect on the poppet valve displacement will be advantageous to both the engine and automotive system design. A fully three dimensional, transient, system level simulation of an inlet controlled thermostat inside an automotive cooling circuit is undertaken in this paper. A proprietary CFD algorithm, Simerics-Sys®/PumpLinx®, is used to solve this complex problem. A two-phase model is developed in PumpLinx® to simulate the wax melting process. The hysteresis effect of the wax melting process is also considered in the simulation.
Journal Article

Calibration and Demonstration of Vehicle Powertrain Thermal Management Using Model Predictive Control

Control of vehicle powertrain thermal management systems is becoming more challenging as the number of components is growing, and as a result, advanced control methods are being investigated. Model predictive control (MPC) is particularly interesting in this application because it provides a suitable framework to manage actuator and temperature constraints, and can potentially leverage preview information if available in the future. In previous SAE publications (2015-01-0336 and 2016-01-0215), a robust MPC control formulation was proposed, and both simulation and powertrain thermal lab test results were provided. In this work, we discuss the controller deployment in a vehicle; where controller validation is done through road driving and on a wind tunnel chassis dynamometer. This paper discusses challenges of linear MPC implementation related to nonlinearities in this over-actuated thermal system.
Technical Paper

A Research Study on a Curved Radiator Concept for Automotive Engine Cooling

The need to increase the fuel-efficiency of modern vehicles while lowering the emission footprint is a continuous driver in automotive design. This has given rise to the use of engines with smaller displacements and higher power outputs. Compared to past engine designs, this combination generates greater amounts of excess heat which must be removed to ensure the durability of the engine. This has resulted in an increase in the number and size of the heat exchangers required to adequately cool the engine. Further, the use of smaller, more aerodynamic front-end designs has reduced the area available in the engine compartment to mount the heat exchangers. This is an issue, since the reduced engine compartment space is increasingly incapable of supporting an enlarged rectangular radiator system. Thus, this situation demands an innovative solution to aid the design of radiator systems such that the weight is reduced while maintaining the engine within acceptable operating temperatures.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study of Radiator Performance under a Transient Thermal Cycle

Radiator thermal cycle test is a test method to check out the robustness of a radiator. During the test, the radiator is going through transient cycles that include high and low temperature spikes. These spikes could lead to component failure and transient temperature map is the key to predict high thermal strain and failure locations. In this investigation, an accurate and efficient way of building a numerical model to simulate the transient thermal performance of the radiator is introduced. A good correlation with physical test result is observed on temperature values at various locations.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Motion on the Fatigue Life of Cooling Components

Ensuring durability is one of the key requirements while developing cooling modules for various powertrains. Typically, road surface induced loads are the main driving force behind mechanical failures. While developing the components, road load accelerations are utilized in CAE simulations to predict the high-stress regions and estimate the fatigue life of the components mounted on the body. In certain scenarios where components are mounted to the body and attached to the engine with hoses, the components can experience additional loads associated with engine vibration. This attachment scheme requires a different analysis methodology to determine fatigue life. In the proposed paper, we look at the effect of engine motion (EM) on the fatigue life of internal transmission oil cooler (ITOC) which is mounted on the body through radiator and is simultaneously connected to the engine using a steel pipe. We propose a new CAE methodology taking into account the engine motion displacements.
Technical Paper

Door System Design for Improved Closure Sound Quality

Door closing sounds are an important element of the craftsmanship image of a vehicle. This paper examines the relationship between closure sound quality and door system design. The perception of door closing sound quality is shown to be primarily related to it's loudness and sharpness. Of the two, sharpness is more important than loudness. Other factors, like ring-down may also affect closure sound quality. The door system is made up of a number of components. The most important in terms of sound quality are the door and body structure, latch, and door seals. Each of these are classified as either a sound source, a transmission path or a sound radiator. Methods for improving the design of these components for good closure sound quality are discussed in some detail.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Retained Fluid and Humidity on the Evacuation of Critical Vehicle Systems

In automotive assembly facilities worldwide, many critical vehicle systems such as brakes, power steering, radiator, and air conditioning require the appropriate fluid to function. In order to insure that these critical vehicle systems receive the correct amount of properly treated fluid, automotive manufacturers employ a method called Evacuation and Fill. Due to their closed-loop design, many critical vehicle systems must be first exposed to vacuum prior to being flooded with fluid. Only after the evacuation and fill process is complete will the critical vehicle system be able to perform as specified. It has long been thought, but never proven, that humidity and entrenched fluid were major hindrances to the Evacuation and Fill process. Consequently, Ford Motor Company Advanced Manufacturing Technology Development, Sandalwood Enterprises, Kettering University, and Dominion Tool & Die conducted a detailed project on this subject.
Technical Paper

Automatic Freeze Point Determination in Ethylene Glycol Based Engine Coolants

Automatic equipment based on optical detection has been used for petroleum products successfully. Examples include ASTM D5773 Standard Test Method for Cloud Point Determination of Petroleum Products and ASTM D5972 Standard Test Method for the Freezing Point of Aviation Fuels. Recently it has been shown that the technology can be extended to engine coolants1. The determination of freezing point in aqueous ethylene glycol based systems is imperfectly understood and complicated by non-equilibrium solidification. The current ASTM D 1177-94 method includes manual seeding to overcome this but requires a cryogenic bath, time and considerable operator skill. Experimentally determined aqueous ethylene glycol freezing points show good agreement between laboratories only to approximately 60 wt %. In the 58 wt % to 80 wt % region, one, two and even three eutectics have been reported at varying temperatures.
Technical Paper

Standard Test Method for Cavitation and Erosion-Corrosion Characteristics of Aluminum Pumps with Engine Coolants

The ASTM D 2809 test method, “Standard Test Method For Cavitation Corrosion and Erosion-Corrosion Characteristics of Aluminum Pumps With Engine Coolants” was first published in 19691. The method involves a copper-pipe circuit through which coolant solution, heated to 113°C, is pumped at 103 kPa for 100 hours. The method was modified to change the pump used in the test in 1989. It was updated in 1994 to accommodate a change in the cleaning procedure and was subsequently reapproved by the ASTM D-15 Committee on Engine Coolants in 1999.2 Tests recently conducted on several modern coolants have produced “failing” results, but the coolants are performing well in the field. Further, the repeatability and reproducibility of the method have been questioned. A round-robin series of tests sponsored by the Ford Motor Company revealed significant variations and cause for concern.