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Technical Paper

Cycle Resolved Combustion and Pre-Ignition Diagnostic Employing Ion Current in a PFI Boosted SI Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0881
An ion current sensor is employed in a 4 cylinder production SI engine for combustion diagnosis during combustion process, knock, and low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) detection. The results show that the ion current peak value and ion current peak phase have strong correlation with the cylinder pressure and pressure peak phase respectively. The COV of ion current integral value is greater than the COV of IMEP at the same operating condition. Results show that the ion current signal is sensitive to different lambdas. Using ion current signal, the knock in any given cylinder can be detected. Importantly, the ion sensor successfully detected the low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) about more than 20 °CA before spark ignition.
Technical Paper

Power Matching and Control Strategy of Plug-in Series Hybrid Electric Car

2010-10-25
2010-01-2195
In this paper, based on the plug-in series hybrid electric vehicle development project, the vehicle technology solutions and the match of power system parameters were analyzed. The vehicle control strategies were identified and optimized according to plug-in hybrid vehicle features. The plug-in series hybrid, rule-based logic threshold switching control strategy, charge depleting (CD) mode and charge-sustaining (CS) mode are chosen according to the key factors, such as the environment, performance requirements, technical requirements and cost. And then the structure and model of vehicle control strategy were established to carry out vehicle energy management and power system control. The parameter selection, electric drive system matching, energy storage system design based on the requirement of vehicle performance, system architecture and control strategy are presented.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Control Strategy for Engine Start-stop in a Plug-in Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2010-10-25
2010-01-2214
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) provide significantly improvement in fuel economy over conventional vehicles as well as reductions in greenhouse gas and petroleum. Numerous recent reports regarding control strategy, power train configuration, driving pattern, all electric range (AER) and their effects on fuel consumption and electric energy consumption of PHEVs are reported. Meanwhile, the control strategy for engine start-stop and mileage between recharging events from the electricity grid also has an important influence on the petroleum displacement potential of PHEVs, but few reports are published. In this paper, a detailed simulation model is set up for a plug-in series hybrid electric vehicle (PSHEV) employing the AVL CRUISE. The model was employed to predict the AER of the baseline PSHEV using rule-based logical threshold switching control strategy.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Factors Affecting Heated Wall Impinging Characteristics of SCR Spray

2011-04-12
2011-01-1311
Many studies show that under diesel engine operating conditions, SCR reductant sprays will impinge on the wall of exhaust pipes. In order to understand this impinging process of SCR reductant spray, and to analyze what factors affect it, a test bench was set up by means of high speed video camera. At atmospheric pressure, SCR spray was injected on a heated metal wall, the impacts of wall temperature, injection pressure, injection height and angle on developing characteristics of SCR reductant spray after impinging on the heated wall have been researched and analyzed. The results show that the heated wall temperature has a great impact on the spray developing process, when wall temperature is lower than 405K, after water evaporated the crystallized urea will remain on the wall to block exhaust pipes. When wall temperature is higher, the atomization and evaporation of SCR reductant spray will be better, and the hydrolysis process of urea will be faster.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics and Wall-impingement Process with Different Piston Tops for the Multi-hole Injector of DISI Gasoline Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1222
Spray characteristics and spray wall-impingement events are the key factors for the direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines, affecting fuel/air mixture preparation and its combustion process. Thus, the spray characteristics of a multi-hole injector for DISI engines, such as spray tip penetration and spray cone angle were investigated in an optical chamber employing the high-speed shadow photography. Furthermore, the effects of the injection pressure, ambient pressure and piston top shape on the impinging spray development were studied in the optical chamber, when the impinging distance is 26.1 mm, corresponding to about 60 CAD ATDC. In addition, the SMD and wall film thickness of the spray impinging on the piston top were studied by means of CFD technique. The results showed that the ambient pressure had the greater effect on the changes of the spray penetration and spray cone angle than the injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Stratified Mixture Formation and Combustion Process for Wall-guided Stratified-charge DISI Engines with Different Piston Bowls by Simulation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0595
This paper presents the simulation of in-cylinder stratified mixture formation, spray motion, combustion and emissions in a four-stroke and four valves direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine with a pent-roof combustion chamber by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The Extended Coherent Flame Combustion Model (ECFM), implemented in the AVL-Fire codes, was employed. The key parameters of spray characteristics related to computing settings, such as skew angle, cone angle and flow per pulse width with experimental measurements were compared. The numerical analysis is mainly focused on how the tumble flow ratio and geometry of piston bowls affect the motion of charge/spray in-cylinder, the formation of stratified mixture and the combustion and emissions (NO and CO₂) for the wall-guided stratified-charge spark-ignition DISI engine.
Technical Paper

A Novel Closed Loop Control based on Ionization Current in Combustion Cycle at Cold Start in a GDI Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1339
As the invalidation of the oxygen sensor in the initial cycles at cold start, the engine can not operate based on the closed loop control based on oxygen sensor. And it may result in the misfire events and higher hydrocarbon (HC) emissions during this period. To solve this problem, a novel closed loop control based on ionization current in combustion cycle is proposed. The in-cylinder combustion quality is monitored by means of the ion current detection technique; meanwhile, if the misfire event is detected in the combustion cycle, the spark re-ignition is made in the current combustion cycle. In addition, to optimize the combustion and reduce HC emissions during cold start, the fuel injection quantity and ignition timing in the next cycle are adjusted based on the current ion current signal.
Technical Paper

Transient Characteristics of Cold Start Emissions from a Two-Stage Direct Injection Gasoline Engines Employing the Total Stoichiometric Ratio and Local Rich Mixture Start-up Strategy

2012-04-16
2012-01-1068
To improve the cold start performance and to reduce the misfire occurrence at cold start, the start-up strategy of total stoichiometric ratio combined with local rich mixture was applied in the study. The effect of injection strategy (the 1st injection timing, 2nd injection timing, 1st and 2nd fuel injection proportion and ignition timing) on the cold start HC emissions in the initial 10 cycles were investigated in a Two stage direct injection (TSDI) gasoline engine. The transient HC and NO emissions in the initial 10 cycles were analyzed, when the fuels are injected in the only 1st cycle and in the followed all cycles. The transient misfiring HC emissions were compared between the single and two-stage injection modes. In addition, the unburned HC (UBHC) emissions in the 1st cycle are compared among the TSDI engine, Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, Port fuel injection (PFI) engine and Liquefied petroleum gaseous (LPG) engine at the stoichiometric ratio.
Technical Paper

Effect of First Cycle Fuel Injection Timing on Performance of a PFI Engine during Quick Start for HEV Application

2011-04-12
2011-01-0886
Idle stopping is one of the most important fuel saving methods for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). While the enriched injection strategy which was employed to ensure reliable ignition of first cycle will leads to even more fuel film stayed in the intake port, all of the liquid film will evaporate randomly and interfere the mixture air-fuel ratio of the followed cycles. The fuel transport of the first cycle should be enhanced to reduce the residual fuel film, and then the control of the cycle-by-cycle air-fuel ratio will become easier and the combustion and HC emissions will also be better. In this paper the mixture preparation characteristics of the unfired first cycle, as well as the combustion and HC emissions characteristics of the fired first cycle under various injection timing strategies such as close-valve injection, mid-valve injection, and open-valve injection were investigated.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ambient Density and Temperature on Diesel Spray Characteristics

2014-04-01
2014-01-1414
In this study, in order to form a wide range of ambient gas density, Nitrogen and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are employed as ambient gas. Based on the common rail and high speed imaging system, the spray characteristics in extremely high ambient density and different ambient temperature are investigated in a constant volume vessel, and the influences of gas physical property on the spray characteristics have also been analyzed. The investigation results show that: the spray tip penetration and spray cone angle vary phenomenally with the increase of the ambient gas density. Due to the generation of shock wave, the results of the spray characteristics from two ambient gas densities are different nevertheless the same densities. Furthermore, the spray tip penetrations from the different ambient gases do not vary obviously from each other until the detachment of the shock wave from the spray tip.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Mixture Formation during Start-UP Process of a Two-Stage Direct Injection Gasoline Engine for HEV Application

2013-10-14
2013-01-2657
A cycle-resolved test system was designed in a Two Stage Direct Injection (TSDI) Gasoline engine to simulate the engine quick start process in an Integrated Start and Generator (ISG) Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system. Based on the test system, measurement of the in cylinder HC concentrations near the spark plug under different engine coolant temperature and cranking speed conditions were conducted using a Fast Response Flame Ionization Detector (FFID) with Sampling Spark Plug (SSP) fits, then the in-cylinder equivalence ratio near the spark plug was estimated from the measured HC concentrations. In addition, the effects of the 1st injection timing, 2nd injection timing, and total equivalence ratio on the mixture formation near the spark plug were analyzed by means of experiments.
Technical Paper

Study of Combustion Characteristics of a Quasi Internal Combustion Rankine Cycle Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2698
Internal combustion Rankine cycle (ICRC) engine uses oxygen instead of air as oxidant during the combustion process, therefore totally eliminates the emission of NOx. CO2 could be captured after separated from the exhaust gas, the latter are mainly water vapor and CO2, through condensation at a relatively low price, and thus an ultra-low emission working cycle is achieved. Moreover, water is heated up by exhaust gas and injected into the cylinder during the combustion process to control combustion temperature, and evaporation of the water mist would increase working fluid inside the cylinder, therefore enhance indicated thermal efficiency. This study investigates the combustion characteristics of a quasi ICRC on a single-cylinder SI engine fueled with propane. Gas mixture of O2/CO2 is employed to simulate EGR in order to control in-cylinder temperature.
Technical Paper

Closed-loop Control of Low Temperature Combustion Employing Ion Current Detecting Technology

2014-04-01
2014-01-1362
Based on high EGR rate, the low temperature combustion (LTC) has been studied widely, of which the application range is more extensive than the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). As the high EGR rate would influence the condition of intake charge, it would also affect the combustion process and the HC emissions, thus the combustion stability of LTC would be lower than tradition diesel combustion. In this study, an ion current detecting technology was employed to explore the ion current at different EGR rates. Meanwhile, the combustion parameters were also investigated, which included the in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate. The CA50 and CAI50 were adopted as the phases of combustion and ion current, which respectively represented the crank angle of mid-point for the integrated heat release and integrated ion current. Then the correlation between CA50 and CAI50 was analysed.
Technical Paper

Study of the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Quasi ICRC Engine Under Different Engine Loads

2014-04-01
2014-01-1202
A novel reciprocating engine version of oxy-fuel combustion cycle combined with water direct injection (known as internal combustion rankine cycle) is presented in this paper. Water is injected near top dead center to control the reaction rate of the oxy-fuel mixture, as well as the peak in-cylinder temperature. The evaporation of the water mist will increase the mass of working gas inside the cylinder, and enhances the thermo efficiency and MEP. Moreover, the injected water is heated up through heat exchangers by both engine coolant and exhaust gas, and the waste heat is effectively recovered this way. This study investigates the combustion and emission characteristics of ICRC under different engine loads based on a single-cylinder, air-cooled SI engine fueled with propane. An extra diesel injector is employed to inject water with high injection temperature (160°C).
Technical Paper

Study on Fuel Economy Improvement by Low Pressure Water-Cooled EGR System on a Downsized Boosted Gasoline Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0678
This research was concerned with the use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) improving the fuel economy over a wide operating range in a downsized boosted gasoline engine. The experiments were performed in a 1.3-Litre turbocharged PFI gasoline engine, equipped with a Low Pressure (LP) water-cooled EGR system. The operating conditions varied from 1500rpm to 4000rpm and BMEP from 2bar to 17bar. Meanwhile, the engine’s typical operating points in NEDC cycle were tested separately. The compression ratio was also changed from 9.5 to 10.5 to pursue a higher thermal efficiency. A pre-compressor throttle was used in the experiment working together with the EGR loop to keep enough EGR rate over a large area of the engine speed and load map. The results indicated that, combined with a higher compression ratio, the LP-EGR could help to reduce the BSFC by 9∼12% at high-load region and 3∼5% at low-load region.
Technical Paper

The Effect of High-Power Capacitive Spark Discharge on the Ignition and Flame Propagation in a Lean and Diluted Cylinder Charge

2016-04-05
2016-01-0707
Research studies have suggested that changes to the ignition system are required to generate a more robust flame kernel in order to secure the ignition process for the future advanced high efficiency spark-ignition (SI) engines. In a typical inductive ignition system, the spark discharge is initiated by a transient high-power electrical breakdown and sustained by a relatively low-power glow process. The electrical breakdown is characterized as a capacitive discharge process with a small quantity of energy coming mainly from the gap parasitic capacitor. Enhancement of the breakdown is a potential avenue effectively for extending the lean limit of SI engine. In this work, the effect of high-power capacitive spark discharge on the early flame kernel growth of premixed methane-air mixtures is investigated through electrical probing and optical diagnosis.
Technical Paper

Evaporation Characteristics of n-Heptane Droplet Streams in a Heated Air Channel Flow

2016-04-05
2016-01-0843
An experimental study is presented on the evaporation of diluted droplet-laden two-phase jet flows within a heated air channel co-flow. In this study, n-heptane is pre-atomized by an ultrasonic nozzle to produce droplet cluster with a median diameter of about15μm, and a continuous cold air flow is applied to carry the fuel droplet cluster to emerge from a nozzle tube, producing a free turbulent jet of droplet stream. The droplet stream is then introduced as a central jet into a square-shaped channel with heated air co-flow for evaporation investigations. With flexibilities of the initial properties of droplet stream and surrounding conditions of channel flow, the axial evolution of droplet size is determined to characterize the evaporation behavior of n-heptane droplet stream under various boundary conditions. The equivalence ratios of droplet streams are varied by changing both the carrier-air flow rate and the fuel flow rate.
Technical Paper

Effect of Stratification on Ion Distribution in HCCI Combustion Using 3D-CFD with Detailed Chemistry

2013-10-14
2013-01-2512
Ion current sensing, which usually employs a spark plug as its sensor to obtain feedback signal from different types of combustion in SI engines, may be applied to HCCI combustion sensing instead of a prohibitively expensive piezoelectric pressure transducer. However, studies showed that the ion current detected by a spark plug sensor is a localized signal within the vicinity of the sensor's electrode gap, being affected by conditions around it. To find out better and feasible ion probe positions, a 3D-CFD model with a detailed surrogate mechanism containing 1423 species and 6106 reactions was employed to study the effect of stratification on ion distribution in HCCI combustion. The simulation results indicate that the monitor probe 1, 8 and 9 are more stable and reliable than the others. IONmax and dIONmax are more accurate to estimate CA50 and dQmax respectively.
Technical Paper

Effect of Nozzle Geometry on Macroscopic Behavior of Diesel Spray in the Near-Nozzle Field

2013-04-08
2013-01-1587
In this study, the orifice inlet rounding radii of four diesel nozzles with different hydro erosive grinding time were measured based on the x-ray CT scan technology provided by Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), and a wide parametrical study of the spray macroscopic behavior in the first 18 mm from the nozzle tip have been carried out with high speed camera. And then the influence of orifice inlet rounding radius on the spray behavior in the near-nozzle field was thoroughly investigated. The investigation results show that: the mean values of orifice inlet rounding radii of different nozzles are measured to be on the order of 21.5-56.8 μm. Although the spray tip penetrations of different nozzles tend to increase with the hydro erosive grinding time through statistical analyzing method, the variations of penetration from nozzles are less than 15% according to different hydro erosive grinding timing.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Hole-to-Hole Spray Variation Based on Nozzle Internal Structure

2013-04-08
2013-01-1611
Spray behavior is regarded as one of main factors which influence engine performance, fuel consumption and emissions for diesel engine. In practice, spray characteristics from each orifice from a multi-hole nozzle are normally arranged symmetrically, while the hole-to-hole spray variation is unavoidable. This variation will cause spatial uneven distribution of spray and combustion degrade, which will be no longer inconsiderable in face of the more and more stringent emission rules. In this paper, two methods including spray macro-characteristics experiment and separated fuel mass measurement are employed to test the hole-to-hole spray variation of two six-hole symmetric VCO injectors of different brands, and experiments are operated under different conditions including different injection pressures, back pressures and injection durations.
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