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Technical Paper

Research on a New Electromagnetic Valve Actuator Based on Voice Coil Motor for Automobile Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-1070
The electromagnetic valve actuator (EMVA) is considered a technological solution for decoupling between crankshaft and camshaft to improve engine performance, emissions, and fuel efficiency. Conventional EMVA consists of two electromagnets, an armature, and two springs has been proved to have the drawbacks of fixed lift, impact noise, complex control method and large power consumption. This paper proposes a new type of EMVA that uses voice coil motor (VCM) as electromagnetic valve actuator. This new camless valvetrain (VEMA) is characterized by simple structure, flexible controllable and low actuating power. VCM provides an almost flat force versus stroke curve that is very useful for high precision trajectory control to achieve soft landing within simple control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Steering Model for Emergency Lane Change Based on the China Naturalistic Driving Data

2017-03-28
2017-01-1399
A driver steering model for emergency lane change based on the China naturalistic driving data is proposed in this paper. The steering characteristic of three phases is analyzed. Using the steering primitive fitting by Gaussian function, the steering behaviors in collision avoidance and lateral movement phases can be described, and the stabilization steering principle of yaw rate null is found. Based on the steering characteristic, the near and far aim point used in steering phases is analyzed. Using the near and far aim point correction model, a driver steering model for emergency lane change is established. The research results show that the driver emergency steering model proposed in this paper performs well when explaining realistic steering behavior, and this model can be used in developing the ADAS system.
Technical Paper

Optimal Study on the TL of Automotive Door Sealing System Based on the Interior Speech Intelligibility

2018-04-03
2018-01-0672
Wind noise becomes the foremost noise source when a car runs at high speeds. High frequency characteristics of wind noise source and effective performance of seal rubbers for insulating leakage noise make research on the Transmission Loss (TL) of automotive door sealing systems significant. The improvement of TL of automotive door sealing system could effectively decrease the interior noise due to wind noise for vehicles at high speeds. In this study, compression simulation of seal rubbers for an automotive door is performed through a Finite Element (FE) tool firstly. Compressed geometries of the seal rubbers are obtained. Then, based on the final compressed geometries and pre-stress modes of the automotive door seal rubbers, the TL of the whole door sealing system is acquired by hybrid Finite Element - Statistic Energy Analysis (FE-SEA) method. The fluctuating surface pressure on a car body was captured by a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool.
Technical Paper

The Research Progress of Dynamic Photo-Elastic Method

2014-04-01
2014-01-0829
With the rapid development of computing technology, high-speed photography system and image processing recently, in order to meet growing dynamic mechanical engineering problems demand, a brief description of advances in recent research which solved some key problems of dynamic photo-elastic method will be given, including:(1) New digital dynamic photo-elastic instrument was developed. Multi-spark discharge light source was replaced by laser light source which was a high intensity light source continuous and real-time. Multiple cameras shooting system was replaced by high-speed photography system. The whole system device was controlled by software. The image optimization collection was realized and a strong guarantee was provided for digital image processing. (2)The static and dynamic photo-elastic materials were explored. The new formula and process of the dynamic photo-elastic model materials will be introduced. The silicon rubber mold was used without the release agent.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Analysis on Multi-Layer-Steel Cylinder Head Gaskets

2016-04-05
2016-01-1381
Sealing system is an important subsystem of modern high-performance engine. Sealing system reliability directly affects the engine operating conditions. Cylinder head gaskets(CHG) sealing system is of the most importance to the engine sealing system, which is not only responsible for sealing chamber, the cooling fluid and lubricating oil passage, for preventing gas leakage, water leakage and oil leakage, but also responsible for force transferring between cylinder head and cylinder body. Basing on nonlinear solution method, the sealing performance of multi-layer-steel cylinder head gaskets to a gasoline engine is studied with the finite element software ABAQUS. The deformations of the cylinder liners and engine block are also considered.
Technical Paper

Gear Rattle Prediction Based on Compliance and Deformation of Gear Contact Points

2016-04-05
2016-01-1094
Generally, the gear rattle noise prediction models are composed of the mass and stiffness elements. The proposals are about the gear inertia or backlash and the shaft inertia or stiffness, but there are many detailed designs in the same inertia, stiffness or backlash conditions. Therefore, these proposals can’t guide detailed designs. These models only investigate the rattle in the rotating degree, and ignore rattle contribution in the radical and axial directions. Those prediction models only consider one or several factors which affect the rattle noise performance. It is difficult to predict the influence of individual factor and multi-factors coupling on the gear rattle noise in a rattle simulation model.
Technical Paper

Time Delay Predictive and Compensation Method in the Theory of X-in-the-Loop

2016-04-05
2016-01-0031
X-in-the-loop (XiL) framework is a new validation concept for vehicle product development, which integrates different virtual and physical components to improve the development efficiency. With XiL platform the requirements of reproducible test, optimization and validation, in which hardware, equipment and test objects are located in different places, could be realized. In the view of different location and communication form of hardware, equipment and test objects, time delay problem exists in the XiL platform, which could have a negative impact on development and validation process. In this paper, a simulation system of time delay prediction and compensation is founded with the help of BP neural network and RBF neural network. With this simulation system the effect of time delay in a vehicle dynamic model as well as tests of geographically distributed vehicle powertrain system is improved during the validation process.
Technical Paper

Development and Evaluation of the Performance Characteristics of a Poly-Disperse Droplet Stream Generator

2013-04-08
2013-01-1617
A specially designed generator has been developed to produce poly-disperse droplet streams: A liquid fuel (n-heptane) is metered to an ultrasonic atomizer to produce droplets, which are then carried and accelerated vertically upwards through a nozzle tube by carrier-air flow. Conditions of the streams at the nozzle exit are modulated by varying the length of nozzle tubes, the fuel and carrier-air flow rate. Optical measurement techniques such as direct photography method, schlieren photography and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are employed to characterize its performance characteristics. Effects of the nozzle tube length, the carrier-air and fuel flow rate are investigated to evaluate the performance of the generator. Longer nozzle tubes provide a better flow guidance for the carrier-air, and tend to generate streams with less and smaller droplets due to the transporting losses.
Technical Paper

Reducing Part Load Pumping Loss and Improving Thermal Efficiency through High Compression Ratio Over-Expanded Cycle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1744
In vehicle application, most of time gasoline engines are part load operated, especially in city traffic, part load operation covers most common operation situations, however part load performances deteriorate due to pumping losses and low thermal efficiency. Many different technologies have been applied to improve part load performances. One of them is to adopt over-expanded (Atkinson/Miller) cycle, which uses late/early intake valve closing (LIVC/EIVC) to reduce pumping losses in part load operation. But over-expanded cycle has an intrinsic drawback in that combustion performance deteriorates due to the decline in the effective compression ratio (CR). Combining with high geometry CR may be an ideal solution, however there is a trade-off between maintaining a high CR for good part load fuel consumption and maintaining optimal combustion phasing at higher load.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Gear Rattle Noise and Vibration Characteristics Using Relative Approaches

2016-04-05
2016-01-1121
Noise signals of the driver’s right ear include those of engine, environment, chassis dynamometer, loaded gears and unloaded gears when they are recorded in full vehicle on chassis dynamometer in semi-anechoic room. Gear rattle noise signals of the driver’s right ear caused by unloaded gear pairs can’t be identified or quantified directly. To solve the problems, relative approaches are used to identify and quantify the gear rattle noise signals. Firstly, the rattle noise signals of the driver’s right ear are filtered by human ear characteristic functions and steady noise signals are extracted by regression and smoothing processes. The noise signals are regressed at 200ms interval in the hearing critical frequency bands and smoothed in the flanking frequencies. Then, the noise relative approaches are obtained by subtracting the steady noise signals from the filtered noise signals, which are the transient noise signals of the unloaded gear pairs inducing the rattle noise.
Technical Paper

An Online Fault Detection and Isolation Method for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0451
An online fault detection and isolation (FDI) method for several common sensor faults and even demagnetization of PMSM is proposed by combining model-based and signal analysis technology. To begin with, the field reconstruction method (FRM) of PMSM is employed to obtain the flux residuals which are used as the criterion of fault detection. Then, the flux residuals are transformed by multi sequence harmonic synchronous rotating transformation and inputted into low pass filters (LPFs) in order to obtain the DC components. Last, offset and gain faults of the two phase current sensors, offset fault of the rotor angle sensor and permanent magnet (PM) demagnetization can be isolated by comparing the DC components and preset thresholds. The detection and isolation strategy of PMSM is validated by motor controller hardware in motor bench tests.
Technical Paper

The Design and Evaluation of EMB Actuator Scheme

2017-09-17
2017-01-2509
Electromechanical Braking System (EMB) stops the wheel by motor and related enforce mechanism to drive braking pads to clamp the friction plate. It is compact in sized as well as faster in response, which solves the issue of potential leakage and slows response of traditional hydraulic brake system. The institutions at home and abroad have put forward all kinds of new structural schemes of EMB. At present, there are various EMB structural schemes, but the analysis and evaluation of these schemes are relatively few. In this paper, on the basis of a large number of research, the EMB actuator is modular decomposed according to function ,then the parametric 3D model library of each function module is established. According to brake requirements of the target vehicle, a development platform is set up to match EMB actuator structure scheme quickly.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Performance Simulation Analysis of a Waste-Gated Turbocharger Turbine under Different Valve Opening Conditions

2017-10-08
2017-01-2417
An electronic waste-gated turbocharger for automotive application can accurately control the boost pressure and effectively reduce turbo-lag. It can improve the transient responsive performance of engine and the acceleration performance of vehicle, which makes vehicle have a better adaptation to the complex traffic environment. A detailed analysis of aerodynamic working principle of electronic wastegate is the foundation for designing the control strategy of electronic wastegate. Putting turbine with electronic wastegate under unsteady condition that simulates the pulse exhaust gas of engine and studying influences of different valve opening on the performance of turbine has the practical value. This paper sets fixed and periodical unsteady conditions and adopts numerical methods to explore the performance of turbine in twin-entry turbocharger and the flow loss of bypass. Steady simulation structure is given for reference.
Technical Paper

Research into Autoignition Characteristics of Diesel Fuel in a Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere

2006-04-03
2006-01-0073
A novel method is applied to analysis the autoignition phenomenon. Experiments on the study of autoignition characteristics of diesel fuel were carried out with a Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustor. The results show that the method for autoignition studying of liquid fuel is of feasibility. Autoignition delay time and autoignition height from the nozzle increase with the coflow temperature decreasing and autoignition delay time changes sensitively under lower coflow temperature. Liftoff height of diesel spray flame decreases with the increasing of coflow temperature. Lower temperature causes higher variance of liftoff height. It might be speculated that there are two different mechanisms of flame stabilization that the lower lift-off heights flames are related to a balance between the flow velocity and flame speed while the higher lift-off heights flames are stabilized by the mixture autoignition.
Technical Paper

Vibration Analysis of Series-parallel Hybrid Powertrain System under Typical Working Condition and Modes

2018-04-03
2018-01-1291
Powertrain system of series-parallel hybrid vehicle contains multiple excitation sources like engine, motor and generator. The reduction of noise and vibration is quite difficult during multiplex working modes or the switch of modes. Aiming at Series-parallel hybrid powertrain system which contains engine, motor and planetary gear subsystems, this paper considered a typical working condition which is based on the power control strategy and established the torsional vibration mechanical model of hybrid powertrain system. The inherent characteristics and transient vibration response of the electric mode, hybrid mode and parking charging mode were studied and it was discovered that the repetitive frequency of the powertrain system under the three working modes is the same which is only related to inertia and meshing stiffness of planetary gear system. The non-repetitive frequency and corresponding vibration modes under the electric mode and parking charging mode are both close.
Technical Paper

Gear Tooth Modification of EV Powertrain for Vibration and Noise Reduction

2018-04-03
2018-01-1289
In order to research the vibration and noise reduction in pure electric vehicle power-train, a comprehensive work is to simulate the power-train incentive of a high-speed pure electric vehicle, and indicates significant impact of gear mesh system on the power-train NVH performance. Therefore, it is necessary to further study the impact of meshing gear system on electric vehicle power-train vibration and noise performance and seek reasonable methods to reduce the vibration and noise. In this paper, a typical pure electric vehicle's powertrain was used to conduct vibration and noise dynamic simulation. Firstly, the power train model was established considering the gear meshing stiffness, transmission errors, bearing factors and shell flexible, then the vibration and sound radiation dynamic response of power-train was simulated. Based on the accuracy of prediction model, a gear tooth modification was carried out for vibration and noise optimization.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Dry-clutch Transmissibility Characteristic for Vehicle Launch Shudder

2018-04-03
2018-01-1225
Vehicle launch shudder is the terminology used in automotive industry to describe severe longitudinal oscillation during clutch engagement under start-up condition. This paper presents and implements detailed investigation for dry-clutch engagement and disengagement process, in order to deeply analyze vehicle launch shudder phenomenon which seriously deteriorates ride comfort. Firstly, diaphragm spring and cushion spring and link strip, which are three elastic components related to dry-clutch engagement and disengagement process in axial direction, are studied for their elastic properties, respectively, to obtain relationship between load and deflection. The elastic properties of these three elastic components are taken into considerations to establish nonlinear relationship between release bearing travel and clutch clamp force.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Driver Emergency Steering Behavior Based on the China Naturalistic Driving Data

2016-09-14
2016-01-1872
Based on the emergency lane change cases extracted from the China naturalistic driving data, the driving steering behavior divides into three phases: collision avoidance, lateral movement and steering stabilization. Using the steering primitive fitting by Gaussian function, the distribution of the duration time, the relationship between steering wheel rate and deflection were analyzed in three phases. It is shown that the steering behavior essentially is composed of steering primitives during the emergency lane-change. However, the combination of the steering primitives is different according to the specific steering constraints in three phases. In the collision avoidance phase, a single steering primitive with high peak is used for the fast steering; in the lateral movement and stabilization phase, a combination of two or even more steering primitives is built to a more accurate steering.
Journal Article

The Impact of Gear Meshing Nonlinearities on the Vehicle Launch Shudder

2015-04-14
2015-01-0610
During the launch of a car, severe torsional vibration sometimes may occur in its driveline due to somewhat the slipping of the clutch, its intuitive sense for an occupant is the longitudinal vibration of the vehicle, referred to as the launch shudder whose characteristic frequency is from 5 to 25 Hz generally. As the main vibration sources of the driveline and its crucial nonlinear components, the variable stiffness and backlash of the gear meshing are considered, their impacts on the launch shudder are analyzed in this paper. Conformal mapping, finite element method and regression method etc. are the main approaches to calculate the variable meshing stiffness of a gear pair. If this stiffness is get, it can usually be substituted for its approximate analytical expression, just with finite harmonic terms, in Fourier Series form into Ordinary Differential Equations(ODEs) to calculate the vehicle responses with its nonlinearity considered.
Journal Article

Vibro-Impact Analysis of Manual Transmission Gear Rattle and Its Sound Quality Evaluation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0403
Experimental schemes, frequency characteristics, subjective and objective sound quality evaluation and sound quality prediction model establishment of a certain mass-production SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle, SUV) manual transmission gear rattle phenomenon were analyzed in this paper. Firstly, vehicle experiments, including experiment conditions, vibration acceleration sensor and microphone arrangements and especial considerations in experiments, were described in detail. Secondly, through time-frequency analysis, broadband characteristics of manual transmission gear rattle noise were identified and vibro-impact of gear rattle occurs in the frequency range of 450~4000Hz on the vehicle idle condition and the creeping condition. Thirdly, based on bandwidth filtering processing of gear rattle noise, subjective assessment experiments by a paired comparison method were carried out.
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