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Journal Article

Low Emissions and High-Efficiency Diesel Combustion Using Highly Dispersed Spray with Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flows

2011-04-12
2011-01-1393
A new clean diesel combustion concept has been proposed and its excellent performance with respect to gas emissions and fuel economy were demonstrated using a single cylinder diesel engine. It features the following three items: (1) low-penetrating and highly dispersed spray using a specially designed injector with very small and numerous orifices, (2) a lower compression ratio, and (3) drastically restricted in-cylinder flow by means of very low swirl ports and a lip-less shallow dish type piston cavity. Item (1) creates a more homogeneous air-fuel mixture with early fuel injection timings, while preventing wall wetting, i.e., impingement of the spray onto the wall. In other words, this spray is suitable for premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) operation, and can decrease both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot considerably when the utilization range of PCCI is maximized.
Technical Paper

Study on the Prediction of VOC Concentration in Vehicle Cabins (2) Development of Labeled Compound Addition Method

2013-04-08
2013-01-0491
The purpose of this study is to construct a method to predict vehicle cabin VOC (volatile organic compounds) concentration. Several methods have been used previously to evaluate VOC emission from interior parts and materials (e.g., sampling bag method, 1 m3 chamber method). However, measurement conditions vary depending on the method used, making it difficult to predict vehicle cabin VOC concentration from the VOC values evaluated for component parts. In this paper, we focused on measurement of toluene concentration using the bag method and investigated the relationship between VOC emissions and measurement conditions. We assumed that the amount of VOC contained in the parts (RA) and the adsorptive capacity of the parts (K) can describe the VOC amount obtained (RG) when the VOC concentration in the bag reaches equilibrium. We developed a novel method incorporating a labeled compound to predict RA and K.
Technical Paper

Study on the Prediction of VOC Concentration in Vehicle Cabins (1) Investigation of Relationship between Toluene Concentrations and Evaluation Conditions using Interior Parts

2013-04-08
2013-01-0490
The Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA) has recommended the voluntary regulation of the levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vehicles. However, initiatives to reduce these emissions further are being implemented in Japan to create a healthier and more comfortable environment within vehicles. In this study, it was attempted to estimate the observable amounts of VOC emitted from products used in vehicles based on the actual emission of VOC from the products components. The VOC we focused on was toluene. The amounts of toluene volatilizing from the components of a disassembled vehicular product were measured and tested whether a simple sum of these values could be used to predict the amount of toluene emitted from the whole product. However, it was found this predicted value deviated significantly from the actual amount of toluene emitted from the product.
Technical Paper

Universal Diesel Engine Simulator (UniDES) 2nd Report: Prediction of Engine Performance in Transient Driving Cycle Using One Dimensional Engine Model

2013-04-08
2013-01-0881
The aim of this research is to develop the diesel combustion simulation (UniDES: Universal Diesel Engine Simulator) that incorporates multiple-injection strategies and in-cylinder composition changes due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and that is capable of high speed calculation. The model is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) cycle simulation, and represents a multiple-injection strategy using a multi-zone model and inhomogeneity using a probability density function (PDF) model. Therefore, the 0D cycle simulation also enables both high accuracy and high speed. This research considers application to actual development. To expand the applicability of the simulation, a model that accurately estimates nozzle sac pressure with various injection quantities and common rail pressures, a model that accounts for the effects of adjacent spray interaction, and a model that considers the NOx reduction phenomenon under high load conditions were added.
Technical Paper

Reduction of the BPF Noise Radiated from an Engine Cooling Fan

2014-04-01
2014-01-0631
This study investigates the reduction of the Blade Passing Frequency (BPF) noise radiated from an automotive engine cooling fans, especially in case of the fan with an eccentric shroud. In recent years, with the increase of HV and EV, noise reduction demand been increased. Therefore it is necessary to reduce engine cooling fan noise. In addition, as a vehicle trend, engine rooms have diminished due to expansion of passenger rooms. As a result, since the space for engine cooling fans need to be small. In this situation, shroud shapes have become complicated and non-axial symmetric (eccentric). Generally, the noise of fan with an eccentric shroud becomes worse especially for BPF noise. So it is necessary to reduce the fan BPF noise. The purposes of this paper is to find sound sources of the BPF noise by measuring sound intensity and to analyze the flow structure around the blade by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD).
Technical Paper

Structural Design Technology for Brake Squeal Reduction Using Sensitivity Analysis

2010-10-10
2010-01-1691
The finite element method (FEM) is effective for analyzing brake squeal phenomena. Although FEM analysis can be used to easily obtain squeal frequencies and complex vibration modes, it is difficult to identify how to modify brake structure design or contact conditions between components. Therefore, this study deals with a practical design method using sensitivity analysis to reduce brake squeal, which is capable of optimizing both the structure of components and contact conditions. A series of analysis processes that consist of modal reduction, complex eigenvalue analysis, sensitivity analysis and optimization analysis is shown and some application results are described using disk brake systems.
Journal Article

Injection Nozzle Coking Mechanism in Common-rail Diesel Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1818
The hole diameter of injection nozzles in diesel engines has become smaller and the nozzle coking could potentially cause injection characteristics and emissions to deteriorate. In this research, engine tests with zinc-added fuels, deposit analyses, laboratory tests and numerical calculations were carried out to clarify the deposit formation mechanisms. In the initial phase of deposit formation, lower zinc carboxylate formed close to the nozzle hole outlet by reactions between zinc in the fuel and lower carboxylic acid in the combustion gas. In the subsequent growth phase, the main component changed to zinc carbonate close to nozzle hole inlet by reactions with CO₂ in the combustion gas. Metal components and combustion gases are essential elements in the composition of these deposits. One way of removing these deposits is to utilize cavitations inside the nozzle holes.
Journal Article

A New Generation of Optically Accessible Single-Cylinder Engines for High-speed and High-load Combustion Analysis

2011-08-30
2011-01-2050
Over the last few decades, in-cylinder visualization using optically accessible engines has been an important tool in the detailed analysis of the in-cylinder phenomena of internal combustion engines. However, most current optically accessible engines are recognized as being limited in terms of their speed and load, because of the fragility of certain components such as the elongated pistons and transparent windows. To overcome these speed and load limits, we developed a new generation of optically accessible engines which extends the operating range up to speeds of 6000 rpm for the SI engine version, and up to in-cylinder pressures of 20 MPa for the CI engine version. The main reason for the speed limitation is the vibration caused by the inertia force arising from the heavy elongated piston, which increases with the square of the engine speed.
Journal Article

Lubrication Analysis of a Con-Rod Bearing Using a Cycle Simulation of Gasoline Engines with A/F Variation

2011-08-30
2011-01-2118
In the case of engine bearings, pressure in a cylinder is necessary for the analysis of lubrication. In this study, a cycle simulation of gasoline engines has been developed to predict the pressure in the cylinder under the wide range of engine operation. In the cycle simulation, intake and exhaust processes are included and combustion process is calculated with flame propagation based on burning velocity. Here, the equation of ignition delay and the equation of burning velocity were determined with experimental results of a gasoline engine over wide A/F ratio. The pressure in the cylinder over the engine cycle is introduced into an elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis of a con-rod bearing to calculate the load on the bearing in addition to the inertia force. Orbital movement, minimum film thickness, and power loss in the bearing were estimated over the wide range of engine operation.
Journal Article

Verification of ASSTREET Driver-Agent Model by Collaborating with the Driving Simulator

2012-04-16
2012-01-1161
This paper proposes a novel method of verifying comprehensive driver model used for the evaluation of driving safety systems, which is achieved by coupling the traffic simulation and the driving simulator (DS). The method consists of three-step procedure. In the first step, an actual driver operates a DS vehicle in the traffic flow controlled by the traffic simulation. Then in the next step, the actual driver is replaced by a driver model and the surrounding vehicle maneuvers are replayed using the recorded data from the first step. Then, the maneuver by the driver model is compared directly with the actual driver's maneuver along the simulation time steps.
Journal Article

Validation and Modeling of Transient Aerodynamic Loads Acting on a Simplified Passenger Car Model in Sinusoidal Motion

2012-04-16
2012-01-0447
Dynamic wind-tunnel tests of a simplified passenger car model were conducted using a two-degree-of-freedom model shaker. Time-resolved aerodynamic loads were derived from a built-in six-component balance and other sensors while the model underwent sinusoidal heaving and pitching motions at frequencies up to 8 Hz. The experimental results showed that frequency-dependent gains and phase differences between the model height/angle and the aerodynamic loads are in close agreement with those predicted by large-eddy simulation (LES) using an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method. Based on these findings, transient aerodynamic loads associated with lateral motions were also estimated by LES analysis. Based on the above results, a full-unsteady aerodynamic load model was then derived in the form of a linear transfer function. The force and moment fluctuations associated with the vertical and lateral motions are well described by the full-unsteady aerodynamic load model.
Journal Article

Cooling Loss Reduction of Highly Dispersed Spray Combustion with Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flow in Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0689
In diesel engines with a straight intake port and a lipless cavity to restrict in-cylinder flow, an injector with numerous small-diameter orifices with a narrow angle can be used to create a highly homogeneous air-fuel mixture that, during PCCI combustion, dramatically reduces the NOX and soot without the addition of expensive new devices. To further improve this new combustion concept, this research focused on cooling losses, which are generally thought to account for 16 to 35% of the total energy of the fuel, and approaches to reducing fuel consumption were explored. First, to clarify the proportions of convective heat transfer and radiation in the cooling losses, a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) was used to measure the local heat flux and radiation to the combustion chamber wall. The results showed that though larger amounts of injected fuel increased the proportion of heat losses from radiation, the primary factor in cooling losses is convective heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Three-Way Catalyst with Improved NOx Conversion

2015-04-14
2015-01-1005
Countries and regions around the world are tightening emissions regulations in reaction to the increasing awareness of environmental conservation. At the same time, growing concerns about the depletion of raw materials as vehicle ownership continues to increase is prompting automakers to look for ways of decreasing the use of platinum-group metals (PGMs) in the exhaust systems. This research has developed a new catalyst with strong robustness against fluctuations in the exhaust gas and excellent nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion performance. This catalyst incorporates rhodium (Rh) clusters with a particle size of several nanometers, and stabilized CeO2-ZrO2 solid-solution (CZ) with a pyrochlore crystal structure as a high-volume oxygen storage capacity (OSC) material with a slow O2 storage rate.
Technical Paper

A Study on Natural Gas Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine - Expanding the Operating Range and Combustion Mode Switching

2007-04-16
2007-01-0176
Natural gas homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines require high compression ratios and intake air heating because of the high auto-ignition temperature of natural gas. In the first study, the natural gas fueled HCCI combustion with internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was achieved without an intake air heater. The effects of the combustion chamber configuration, turbocharging, and external EGR were investigated for expanding the operating range. As a result, it was cleared that the combination of internal / external EGR and turbocharging is effective for expanding the HCCI operational range toward high loads. Meanwhile, the HCCI combustion characteristics at high engine speeds were unstable because of an insufficient reaction time for auto-ignition. Although the engine operation with a richer air-fuel ratio was effective for improving the combustion stability, the combustion noise (CN) was at an unacceptable level.
Technical Paper

Stereo Vision System for Advanced Vehicle Safety System

2007-04-16
2007-01-0405
In this paper, we will introduce a stereo vision system developed as a sensor for a vehicle's front monitor. This system consists of three parts; namely, a stereo camera that collects video images of the forward view of the vehicle, a stereo ECU that processes its output image, and a near-infrared floodlight for illuminating the front at night. We were able to develop an obstacle detection function for the Pre-Crash Safety System and also a traffic lane detection function for a Lane-Keeping Assist System. Especially in regard to the obstacle detection function, we were able to achieve real-time processing of the disparity image calculations that had formerly required long processing times by using two types of recently developed LSIs.
Technical Paper

Variation in Nerve Fiber Strain in Brain Tissue Subjected to Uniaxial Stretch

2007-10-29
2007-22-0006
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is the most frequent type of closed head injury involved in vehicular accidents, and is characterized by structural and functional damage of nerve fibers in the white matter that may be caused by their overstretch. Because nerve fibers in the white matter have an undulated network-like structure embedded in the neuroglia and extracellular matrix, and are expected to be much stiffer than other components, the strain in the nerve fiber is not necessarily equal to that in the white matter. In this study, the authors have measured strain of the nerve fibers running in various directions in porcine brain tissue subjected to uniaxial stretch and compared them with global strain (tissue strain). The nerve fiber strain had a close correlation with their direction, and was smaller than surrounding global strain.
Technical Paper

Development of Compact, High Capacity AWD Coupling with DLC-Si Coated Electromagnetic Clutch

2006-04-03
2006-01-0820
We have developed a high capacity electromagnetic clutch by means of Si-containing diamond-like carbon (DLC-Si) coating. The durability of the new clutch is enhanced up to 8 times higher than that of the conventional one. Such a superior performance is due to several tribological properties of the DLC-Si film and micro morphology on the clutch surface. In particular, the DLC-Si plays a significant role in maintaining the groove shape of the clutch and giving sufficient friction in fluid, which is required for a drivetrain device. Besides, our deposition process (using direct current plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition) has afforded homogeneous DLC-Si-coated clutches in large quantities. These techniques have enabled us to reduce the number of clutch discs per coupling and achieve a more compact and higher capacity AWD coupling at a lower cost.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Deterioration of Nylon-66 Immersed in GTL Diesel Fuel Part 1. Analysis and Test of Nylon and GTL Diesel Fuel Before and After Immersion

2006-10-16
2006-01-3326
The effect of GTL diesel fuel on organic materials used in fuel delivery systems of vehicles was investigated. Specimens made from 16 kinds of organic materials were immersed in GTL diesel fuels synthesized at Refinery-A and Refinery-B (referred to as GTL-A and GTL-B, respectively) and then subjected to tensile testing. The tensile test results revealed that elongation of the nylon sample immersed in GTL-A was extremely small, about 4% of that of untreated nylon. In the light of this finding, the GTL diesel fuels and nylons before and after immersion test were analyzed in detail using about 20 analysis methods to determine the cause for poor elongation. The following points were found. (1) GTL-A consisted of low molecular-weight paraffins. (2) GTL-A had low molecular-weight i-paraffins. (3) The nylon immersed in GTL-A contained low molecular-weight paraffins. (4) The paraffins in the nylon immersed in GTL-A were richer in i-paraffins than the original GTL-A.
Technical Paper

2-D Temperature Measurements of Unburned Gas Mixture in an Engine by Two-line Excitation LIF Technique

2006-10-16
2006-01-3336
Two-line excitation LIF (Laser-Induced Fluorescence) technique for 2-dimensional temperature measurements in an engine cylinder before ignition is presented. From the fundamental examinations, the combination of toluene tracer with a pair of excitation lines of 248nm and 266nm has been selected because of the high LIF intensity ratio and closer excitation wavelengths. In-cylinder thermometry is conducted using a visualized single cylinder spark ignition engine both in PFI (port-fuel-injection) and DI (direct-injection) operation. The accuracy of this technique is determined through the homogeneous PFI experiment. Temperature and fuel distribution in unburned mixture are measured simultaneously in DI operation. It exists a strong correlation between equivalence ratio and temperature inside the mixture. Temperature in the fuel rich region is lower than in the fuel lean region.
Technical Paper

Dual-Fuel PCI Combustion Controlled by In-Cylinder Stratification of Ignitability

2006-04-03
2006-01-0028
A concept of dual-fuel, Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) combustion controlled by two fuels with different ignitability has been developed to achieve drastically low NOx and smoke emissions. In this system, isooctane, which was used to represent high-octane gasoline, was supplied from an intake port and diesel fuel was injected directly into an engine cylinder at early timing as ignition trigger. It was found that the ignition timing of this PCI combustion can be controlled by changing the ratio of amounts of injected two fuels and combustion proceeds very mildly by making spatial stratifications of ignitability in the cylinder even without EGR, as preventing the whole mixture from igniting simultaneously. The operable range of load, where NOx and smoke were less than 10ppm and 0.1 FSN, respectively, was extended up to 1.2MPa of IMEP using an intake air boosting system together with dual fueling.
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