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Technical Paper

Stratification Features of Swirl Nozzle Sprays and Slit Nozzle Spray in DI Gasoline Combustion

The stratification feature of DI gasoline combustion was studied by using a constant volume combustion vessel. An index of stratification degree, defined as volumetric burning velocity, has been proposed based on the thermodynamic analysis of the indicated pressure data. The burning feature analysis using this stratification degree and the fuel vapor concentration measurement using He-Ne laser ray absorption method were carried out for the swirl nozzle spray with 90° cone angle and the slit nozzle spray with 60° fan angle. Ambient pressure and ambient temperature were changed from atmospheric condition to 0.5∼0.6 MPa and 465 K, respectively. Air Swirl with swirl ratio of 0∼1.0 were added for the 90° swirl nozzle spray. Single component fuels with different volatility and self-ignitability from each other were used besides gasoline fuel. The major findings are as follows. High ambient temperature improves stratification degree due to the enhanced fuel vaporization and vapor diffusion.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Fuel Behavior in a Port-Injection Gasoline Engine

Three-dimensional numerical analysis of fuel liquid and mixture behavior in a port-injection gasoline engine is assessed by comparing calculations with measurements. The fuel mass distributed in the intake port and cylinder is measured using an engine with hydraulic valve and gas sampling system. The experimental results show that about half of the fuel mass per injection enters the cylinder, and the rest stays in the port. The difference of the mass fraction of injected fuel directly entering the cylinder is small between the cases of single pulse injection and serial injection. Therefore, three-dimensional calculation presupposing single pulse injection has difficulty in predicting the in-cylinder mixture formation process, although it can analyze the amount of fuel wetting the port wall. The calculations are performed for a port-injection engine, and the differences of fuel behavior with respect to swirl control valve opening and wall temperature are discussed.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Diesel Particulate Matter by Oil Consumption Improvement Utilizing Radioisotope Tracer Techniques

A study was conducted to reduce unburned oil fractions in diesel particulate matter (PM) by improving oil consumption. A method utilizing radioisotope 14C was developed to measure the unburned oil fractions separately for the four paths by which oil is consumed: valve stem seals, piston rings, PCV system, turbocharger. The conversion ratio of oil consumption to PM was calculated by comparing the unburned oil emission rates with oil consumption rates, which were obtained by the use of the 35S tracer method. The result in an experimental diesel engine shows the highest conversion ratio for the oil leaking through the valve stem seals. The modifications to the engine were thereby focused on reducing the leakage of the stem seals. This stem seal modification, along with piston ring improvements, reduced oil consumption, resulting in the unburned oil fractions in PM being effectively reduced.
Technical Paper

Schlieren Observations of In-Cylinder Phenomena Concerning a Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

The schlieren visualization of in-cylinder processes from the side of an engine cylinder is useful to understand the phenomena which change along the cylinder axis. A transparent collimating cylinder, TCC, permits schlieren observation inside the cylinder through its transparent wall. In this study, a single cylinder visualization engine with the TCC was applied to a direct-injection gasoline engine. A fuel spray, mixture formation and combustion were observed with a simultaneous measurement of in-cylinder pressure. The shape of the fuel spray and subsequent mixture formation process are drastically changed with the injection timing. The images of luminous flame were also taken with the schlieren images during the combustion period. Stable combustion, misfire and abnormal combustion are discussed with the comparison between the observed results and in-cylinder pressure analysis.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Particulate Emissions from D. I. Engine - Chemical Analysis and Characterization of Diesel Fuel

The properties of diesel fuels were investigated in terms of particulate emissions to clarify the specification of such a diesel fuel for minimizing particulate emissions. Diesel fuels were analyzed using thin layer chromatography (TLC), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These analysis revealed the entire composition of hydrocarbons in diesel fuels according to molecular formula. The entire composition of hydrocarbons in diesel fuels could be expressd on a three-dimensional graph: the X-axis as carbon number, the Y-axis as H/C ratio and the Z-axis as the amount of hydrocarbons of identical molecular formula. By using the graph, the properties reported so far were investigated. Also, simplified images of the fuel sprayed into a cylinder and its flame were derived from the observational results previously reported.
Technical Paper

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Model of Connecting Rod Big End Bearings; Comparison with Experiments by Diesel Engine

The EHD lubrication model of connecting rod big end bearings is compared with experiments using an automotive diesel engine. The axial load and the bending moment near the middle of rod length were derived from strain measurements and compared with the theoretical results based on engine dynamics. Although oscillation appeared on bending moment at 5000 rpm, the theoretical load almost agreed with the experiment. The EHD lubrication theory and the experiments were compared by the histories of clearances and the journal center orbits in the bearing. The theoretical results agreed well with the experimental one. The deformation of the bearing appeared both in the theory and in the experiment at 3000 rpm or above; these results confirm the necessity of the EHD lubrication theory.
Technical Paper

Temperature Distribution and Lubrication Characteristics of Connecting Rod Big End Bearings

Temperature distributions on the surface of a connecting rod big end bearing were measured to understand the margin to the allowable limiting temperature. The results show that the temperature difference between the bearing surface and the feed oil is independent of the engine load but quadratically increased with the engine speed, and that the bearing surface temperature on the rod side is higher than those on the cap side, and that the high temperature regions appeared near the edges on the rod side of the bearing under high speed operations. The results were analyzed by the observation of rubbing traces on the bearing surface and the EHD lubrication theory.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Air-Fuel Mixture Distribution in a Gasoline Engine Using LIEF Technique

The laser-induced exciplex fluorescence (LIEF) technique, currently used to observe mixture formation in a diesel engine, has been applied to a spark ignition (SI) engine and a new equivalence ratio calibration technique has been developed in order that two-dimensional measurements of the equivalence ratio may be made in an operating engine. Spectrally separated fluorescent images of liquid and vapor phase fuel distributions were obtained by adding new exciplex-forming dopants to the gasoline fuel. Dual light sheets from an excimer laser were introduced into one of the cylinders of a 4-valve lean-burn engine, and 2-D images of the mixture formation were recorded at pre-set crank angles during the induction and compression strokes by an image-intensified camera equipped with the appropriate filter.
Technical Paper

Structural Vibration Analysis in Turbocharger-Exhaust Systems

Engine running tests and excitation tests were performed to reveal the vibration behavior in a turbocharger-exhaust system related to the turbocharger's operating sound. The operating sound was caused by the resonant vibration excited by the unbalanced inertia force of the rotor. The turbocharger-exhaust system had six resonant frequencies in the operating speed range of the rotor. At resonant speeds, the whole turbocharger was translating or rotating due to bending and torsional deflection of the exhaust manifold. Based on the test results, the vibration behavior could be well simulated by a rigid body-spring model with six degree of freedom. Furthermore, the model was used to analyze the relation between the stiffness of the exhaust manifold and the vibration level. Increasing the stiffness of the exhaust manifold was effective in sufficiently reducing the vibration and sound.
Technical Paper

Influence of Engine Oil Viscosity on Piston Ring and Cam Face Wear

The influence of engine oil viscosity on the wear of piston rings and cam faces has been investigated by fired engine tests using a radioisotope (RI) tracer technique. High-temperature and high-shear-rate (HTHS; 150°C, 1O6 s-1) viscosities of the experimental oils prepared are 2.2, 2.4, 2.6 and 3.1 mPa•s. At an oil temperature of 90°C the wear of piston rings and cam faces did not increase, even if the HTHS viscosity was lowered down to 2.2 mPa•s. However, both piston rings and cam faces exhibited an increase in wear below 2.4 mPa•s at 130°C. It was also recognized that valve train wear did not significantly increase with reducing viscosity in the motored engine tests at a temperature of 50°C. From these test results, it was suggested that the oil with the HTHS viscosity of 2.6 mPa•s sufficiently demonstrates the antiwear performance equivalent to that with around 3.0 mPa•s for application to piston rings and cam faces.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Simulation of Valve Motion

The valve motion of a direct-acting valve train was measured, and an equivalent model with the main object of the jump and bounce occurrence and the valve spring stresses was developed, as described below: (1) The jump and bounce were clarified by direct measurement at the positions they occurred. (2) The equivalent model was developed which features the contact elements and the valve spring model with two or more masses per coil and the function of coil contact. (3) Based on the experimental results, identification of parameters and verification of the model were performed. It was proved that the simulation corresponded with the experimental results. (4) Using this model, the accurate prediction of the motions and stresses of reciprocating components becomes possible in the design process. (5) Consequently, a synthetic tool for the design and evaluation for valve trains driven at higher speed is completed.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Poor Engine Response Caused by MTBE-Blended Gasoline from the Standpoint of Fuel Evaporation

Fifty percent distillation temperature (T50) can be used as a warm-up driveability indicator for a hydrocarbon-type gasoline. MTBE-blended gasoline, however, provides poorer driveability than a hydrocarbon-type gasoline with the same T50. The purposes of this paper are to examine the reason for poor engine driveability caused by MTBE-blended gasolines, and to propose a new driveability indicator for gasolines including MTBE-blended gasolines. The static and dynamic evaporation characteristics of MTBE-blended gasolines such as the evaporation rate and the behavior of each component during evaporation were analyzed mainly by using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. The results of the analysis show that the MTBE concentration in the vapor, evaporated at ambient temperature (e.g. 24°C), is higher than that in the original gasoline. Accordingly, the fuel vapor with enriched MTBE flows into the combustion chamber of an engine just after the throttle valve is opened.
Technical Paper

Anti- Combustion Deposit Fuel Development for 2009 Toyota Formula One Racing Engine

Toyota participated in Formula One1 (F1) Racing from 2002 to 2009. As a result of the downturn in the world economy, various engine developments within F1 were restricted in order to reduce the cost of competing in F1. The limit on the maximum number of engines allowed has decreased year by year. Toyota focused on the engine performance deterioration due to the combustion chamber deposits. In 2009, Toyota was successful in reducing around 40% of the deterioration by making combustion chamber cleaner in cooperation with ExxonMobil. This contributed to good result of 2009 F1 season for Toyota, including two second place finishes.
Technical Paper

A Study on Natural Gas Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine - Expanding the Operating Range and Combustion Mode Switching

Natural gas homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines require high compression ratios and intake air heating because of the high auto-ignition temperature of natural gas. In the first study, the natural gas fueled HCCI combustion with internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was achieved without an intake air heater. The effects of the combustion chamber configuration, turbocharging, and external EGR were investigated for expanding the operating range. As a result, it was cleared that the combination of internal / external EGR and turbocharging is effective for expanding the HCCI operational range toward high loads. Meanwhile, the HCCI combustion characteristics at high engine speeds were unstable because of an insufficient reaction time for auto-ignition. Although the engine operation with a richer air-fuel ratio was effective for improving the combustion stability, the combustion noise (CN) was at an unacceptable level.
Technical Paper

Universal Diesel Engine Simulator (UniDES) 2nd Report: Prediction of Engine Performance in Transient Driving Cycle Using One Dimensional Engine Model

The aim of this research is to develop the diesel combustion simulation (UniDES: Universal Diesel Engine Simulator) that incorporates multiple-injection strategies and in-cylinder composition changes due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and that is capable of high speed calculation. The model is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) cycle simulation, and represents a multiple-injection strategy using a multi-zone model and inhomogeneity using a probability density function (PDF) model. Therefore, the 0D cycle simulation also enables both high accuracy and high speed. This research considers application to actual development. To expand the applicability of the simulation, a model that accurately estimates nozzle sac pressure with various injection quantities and common rail pressures, a model that accounts for the effects of adjacent spray interaction, and a model that considers the NOx reduction phenomenon under high load conditions were added.
Technical Paper

Development of a Compact Adsorption Heat Pump System for Automotive Air Conditioning System

In order to reduce the energy consumption of the automotive air conditioning system, adsorption heat pump (AHP) system is one of the key technologies. We have been developing compact AHP system utilizing the exhaust heat from the engine coolant system (80-100 °C), which can meet the requirements in the automotive application. However, AHP systems have not been practically used in automotive applications because of its low volumetric power density of the adsorber. The volumetric power density of the adsorber is proportional to sorption rate, packing density and latent heat. In general, the sorption rate is determined by mass transfer resistance in primary particle of an adsorbent and heat and mass transfer resistance in packed bed. In order to improve the volumetric power density of the adsorber, it is necessary to increase the production of the sorption rate and the packing density.
Technical Paper

Reduction of the BPF Noise Radiated from an Engine Cooling Fan

This study investigates the reduction of the Blade Passing Frequency (BPF) noise radiated from an automotive engine cooling fans, especially in case of the fan with an eccentric shroud. In recent years, with the increase of HV and EV, noise reduction demand been increased. Therefore it is necessary to reduce engine cooling fan noise. In addition, as a vehicle trend, engine rooms have diminished due to expansion of passenger rooms. As a result, since the space for engine cooling fans need to be small. In this situation, shroud shapes have become complicated and non-axial symmetric (eccentric). Generally, the noise of fan with an eccentric shroud becomes worse especially for BPF noise. So it is necessary to reduce the fan BPF noise. The purposes of this paper is to find sound sources of the BPF noise by measuring sound intensity and to analyze the flow structure around the blade by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD).
Technical Paper

Dual-Fuel PCI Combustion Controlled by In-Cylinder Stratification of Ignitability

A concept of dual-fuel, Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) combustion controlled by two fuels with different ignitability has been developed to achieve drastically low NOx and smoke emissions. In this system, isooctane, which was used to represent high-octane gasoline, was supplied from an intake port and diesel fuel was injected directly into an engine cylinder at early timing as ignition trigger. It was found that the ignition timing of this PCI combustion can be controlled by changing the ratio of amounts of injected two fuels and combustion proceeds very mildly by making spatial stratifications of ignitability in the cylinder even without EGR, as preventing the whole mixture from igniting simultaneously. The operable range of load, where NOx and smoke were less than 10ppm and 0.1 FSN, respectively, was extended up to 1.2MPa of IMEP using an intake air boosting system together with dual fueling.
Technical Paper

2-D Temperature Measurements of Unburned Gas Mixture in an Engine by Two-line Excitation LIF Technique

Two-line excitation LIF (Laser-Induced Fluorescence) technique for 2-dimensional temperature measurements in an engine cylinder before ignition is presented. From the fundamental examinations, the combination of toluene tracer with a pair of excitation lines of 248nm and 266nm has been selected because of the high LIF intensity ratio and closer excitation wavelengths. In-cylinder thermometry is conducted using a visualized single cylinder spark ignition engine both in PFI (port-fuel-injection) and DI (direct-injection) operation. The accuracy of this technique is determined through the homogeneous PFI experiment. Temperature and fuel distribution in unburned mixture are measured simultaneously in DI operation. It exists a strong correlation between equivalence ratio and temperature inside the mixture. Temperature in the fuel rich region is lower than in the fuel lean region.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of a New Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

A new stratified charge combustion system has been developed for direct injection gasoline engines. The special feature of this system is employment of a thin fan-shaped fuel spray formed by a slit nozzle. The stratified mixture is produced by the combination of this fan-spray and a shell-shaped piston cavity. Both under-mixing and over-mixing of fuel in the stratified mixture is reduced by this system. This combustion system does not require distinct charge motion such as tumble or swirl, which enables intake port geometry to be simplified to improve full load performance. The effects of the new system on engine performance at part load are improved fuel consumption and reduced smoke, CO and HC emissions, obviously at medium load and medium engine speed. HC emissions at light load are also improved even with high EGR conditions.