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Technical Paper

An Intelligent Catalyst

The catalyst of the crystalline ceramics known as a perovskite-type oxide was designed and controlled at the atomic level in order to create a new function for self-regeneration of precious metals in a usage ambience without auxiliary treatment. We have already reported that a catalyst with Pd supported on the perovskite-type oxide has higher activity than a catalyst with Pd supported on alumina. It was also found that Pd supported on the perovskite catalyst is finely dispersed [1, 2 and 3] The object of this study was to investigate the mechanism of self-regeneration by using hyper-analytical facilities. XAFS analysis, at SPring-8 (8 GeV), revealed that Pd is in six-fold coordinations with oxygen in a perovskite crystal, which indicating that Pd occupies the B site of the unit formula of ABO3 in the perovskite crystal structure under oxidation atmosphere.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Oxidation Stability of Engine Oils Using Laboratory Scale Simulator

The purposes of this paper are to develop a new laboratory oxidation stability testing method and to clarify factors relative to the viscosity increase of engine oil. Polymerized products, obtained from the oil after a JASO M333-93 engine test, were found to consist mainly of carboxyl, nitrate and nitro compounds and to increase the oil viscosity. A good similarity between the JASO M333-93 test and the laboratory simulation test was found for the polymerized products. The products were obtained not by heating oil only in air but by heating oil while supplying a synthetic blowby gas consisting of fuel pyrolysis products, NO, SO2 and air. The laboratory test has also revealed that the viscosity increase depends on oil quality, organic Fe content and hydrocarbon composition in the fuel. Moreover, it has been found that blowby gas and organic Fe accelerate ZnDTP consumption and that aromatics concentration in the fuel correlates with the viscosity increase of oil.
Technical Paper

Multifunctional Surface Treatment for Car Air Conditioners

In order to improve corrosion resistance and thermal efficiency of the air conditioner evaporator, a coating which provides hydrophilicity was formed over the chromate coating. In addition, there has been greater demand for air with fewer smells. This report describes the cause of “dusty odor” and a method to reduce it. The dusty odor is caused by a little corrosion of the substrate aluminum. Hydrophilic coating film dissolves little by little in condensed water, and substrate aluminum is exposed. A method to prevent the odor was developed by forming a coating giving hydrophilicity and durability to the evaporator surface.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Deterioration of Nylon-66 Immersed in GTL Diesel Fuel Part 1. Analysis and Test of Nylon and GTL Diesel Fuel Before and After Immersion

The effect of GTL diesel fuel on organic materials used in fuel delivery systems of vehicles was investigated. Specimens made from 16 kinds of organic materials were immersed in GTL diesel fuels synthesized at Refinery-A and Refinery-B (referred to as GTL-A and GTL-B, respectively) and then subjected to tensile testing. The tensile test results revealed that elongation of the nylon sample immersed in GTL-A was extremely small, about 4% of that of untreated nylon. In the light of this finding, the GTL diesel fuels and nylons before and after immersion test were analyzed in detail using about 20 analysis methods to determine the cause for poor elongation. The following points were found. (1) GTL-A consisted of low molecular-weight paraffins. (2) GTL-A had low molecular-weight i-paraffins. (3) The nylon immersed in GTL-A contained low molecular-weight paraffins. (4) The paraffins in the nylon immersed in GTL-A were richer in i-paraffins than the original GTL-A.
Journal Article

Analysis of Oxidative Deterioration of Biodiesel Fuel

Methyl esters of saturated/unsaturated higher aliphatic acids (FAMEs) and a FAME of waste cooking oil (WCOME) were heated at 120°C in an air gas flow. The samples were analyzed before and after heating, using six different methods including electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. As a result, the samples after heating were found to contain low molecular weight aliphatic compounds and oligomers of the FAME. Based on the chemical structure of these oxidation products, reaction schemes were proposed for the deterioration of FAMEs. In addition, two unsaturated FAMEs containing 2,6-di-t-butyl-p-cresol (BHT) were similarly heated and analyzed to examine the effect of BHT on the oxidation of these FAME.