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Technical Paper

Investigation on Oxidation Stability of Engine Oils Using Laboratory Scale Simulator

1995-10-01
952528
The purposes of this paper are to develop a new laboratory oxidation stability testing method and to clarify factors relative to the viscosity increase of engine oil. Polymerized products, obtained from the oil after a JASO M333-93 engine test, were found to consist mainly of carboxyl, nitrate and nitro compounds and to increase the oil viscosity. A good similarity between the JASO M333-93 test and the laboratory simulation test was found for the polymerized products. The products were obtained not by heating oil only in air but by heating oil while supplying a synthetic blowby gas consisting of fuel pyrolysis products, NO, SO2 and air. The laboratory test has also revealed that the viscosity increase depends on oil quality, organic Fe content and hydrocarbon composition in the fuel. Moreover, it has been found that blowby gas and organic Fe accelerate ZnDTP consumption and that aromatics concentration in the fuel correlates with the viscosity increase of oil.
Technical Paper

Toyota EC-HYMATIC – A New Full Time 4WD System for Automatic Transmission

1989-02-01
890526
Toyota has developed a new full time 4WD system, called “EC-HYMATIC” or Electronically Controlled - HYdraulic Multi-plate clutch Active Traction Intelligent Control. This system permits an automatic torque transfer, depending on driving conditions, for front and rear wheels under control of the speed difference between the two. The system developed consists of a center differential, a speed difference control clutch system employing multi-plate clutch, and a gear set for rear axle drive. The speed difference control clutch system is controlled by a unique electro-hydraulic system using a microcomputer. An extensive use of computer simulations and vehicle test and evaluation has successfully developed an appropriate control strategy for the clutch system. The new 4WD system, EC-HYMATIC, considerably improves handling characteristics, traction performance and stability of a 4WD vehicle.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Intake Valve Deposit Formation Part III: Effects of Gasoline Quality

1992-10-01
922265
Quality control of gasoline constituents and its effect on the Intake Valve Deposits (IVD) has become a recent issue. In this paper, the effects of gasoline and oil quality on intake valve deposits were investigated using an Intake Valve Deposit Test Bench and a Sludge Simulator. The deposit formation from the gasoline maximized at an intake valve temperature of approximately 160 °C, and the deposits formed from the engine oil were maximum at approximately 250 °C. Therefore, the contribution of the gasoline or the engine oil appears to depend on the engine conditions. The gasoline which contains MTBE or ethanol with no detergent additive slightly increases the deposition amount. The gasoline with a superior detergent significantly decreases the deposition amount even when MTBE or ethanol is blended in the gasoline. Appropriate detergent fuel additive retards the oil deterioration.
Technical Paper

Technical Service Training in the “Hi-Tech” Era

1987-11-08
871243
In recent years, advanced technology has become more and more important in the design of automobiles. Therefore, if we wish our products to continue to display their full potential to the people who buy them, thus ensuring customer satisfaction with our products, we must, even in the area of after-soles service, ensure that the technical proficiency and knowledge of our technicians will continue to keep pace with advances in technology. To do this, we must carry out effective “high-tech” training for our dealer workshops this is our present and future challenge Toyota's technical service training system is now applied to some 50, 000 service technicians in around 10, 000 workshops throughout the world, and the proposed report will introduce this system and give some actual examples of technical training that is actually carried out.
Technical Paper

Simulator Motion Sickness Evaluation Based on Eye Mark Recording during Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex

2014-04-01
2014-01-0441
The driving simulator (DS) developed by Toyota Motor Corporation simulates acceleration using translational (XY direction) and tilting motions. However, the driver of the DS may perceive a feeling of rotation generated by the tilting motion, which is not generated in an actual vehicle. If the driver perceives rotation, a vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is generated that results in an unnecessary correction in the driver's gaze. This generates a conflict between the vestibular and visual sensations of the driver and causes motion sickness. Although such motion sickness can be alleviated by reducing the tilting motion of the DS, this has the effect of increasing the amount of XY motion, which has a limited range. Therefore, it is desirable to limit the reduction in the tilting motion of the DS to the specific timing and amount required to alleviate motion sickness. However, the timing and extent of the VOR has yet to be accurately identified.
Technical Paper

HILS Application for Hybrid System Development

2007-08-05
2007-01-3469
The hybrid system has the typical advantage that it can realize various types of system control, because the system has two power units, engine and motor. On the other hand, however, constraints are increasing due to the complexity of the vehicle system. Compared to the conventional HILS construction and application, there are mainly two typical characteristics or themes for HV-HILS (i.e. HILS for hybrid vehicle control development). Firstly, HV-HILS requires full vehicle simulation environment, because the plural ECU control logic is intricately intertwined. Secondly, recent HILS system needs to run with more accurate or complicated plant models which are necessary to develop more accurate vehicle control logic.
Technical Paper

Handling Analysis with Vehicle Dynamics Simulator

1997-02-24
971058
We have developed a vehicle test system called the Vehicle Dynamics Simulator (VDS). The system measures the handling characteristics in a transient state in the laboratory. The automobile suspensions are moved as on a road with the machine providing relative motion by force transducer platform beneath each tire. The detailed measurements of transitive motions and forces given to the wheel clarify the kinematics and compliance characteristics contributed to the good handling performance and stability. This paper presents the system introduction and the results of analyzing the suspensions characteristics by the new analytical technique for breaking down into a variety of compliance components in a transient state.
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