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Technical Paper

Flow Noise Reduction upon Quick Opening the Throttle

2001-04-30
2001-01-1429
With the advance in modularization of engine parts in recent years, there is increased use of plastic-made products in air intake systems. Plastic-made intake manifolds (Fig. 1) provide many advantages including reduced weight, reduced cost, and lower intake air temperatures. However, these manifolds have one disadvantage when compared with conventional aluminum-made intake manifolds, in that they transmit more noise because of their lower material density. For example, plastic intake manifolds of early development often generate flow noise when the throttle is opened quickly. With conventional aluminum intake manifolds, this flow noise had generated, but was not heard. This flow noise is presumed to be generated because of high-speed airflow generated when the throttle is opened quickly, but the mechanism of this noise generation has not been clarified.
Technical Paper

Development of the Chemical Recycling Technology of Glass Fiber Reinforced PA6 Parts

2001-03-05
2001-01-0694
Recently, the plastic material is positively introducing for automotive parts due to the Needs of vehicle weight reduction and cost saving. On the other hand, the countermeasure for scrapped car is a big subject to need to consider as a car maker. Therefore, the development of recycling technology for plastic parts has been necessary. In this study, we tried to develop recycling technology for glass fiber reinforced Polyamide6(PA6) which is applied to various automotive parts like an air intake manifold. As a recycling technique, we focused on the chemical recycling which can reclaim raw material of PA6(ε- caprolactams) from the post-consumer automotive parts. The chemical recycling we selected can be put on a higher priority because it has possibility to utilize the limited resource repeatedly. As a result, we could retain high purity of ε- caprolactams using our following two techniques which make possible to recycle Polyamide 6 materials. One is to separate PA6 from glass fiber.
Technical Paper

Development of Direct Injection Gasoline Engine - Study of Stratified Mixture Formation

1997-02-24
970539
Effects of spray characteristics for stratified combustion of direct injection gasoline engine have been researched. The highly functional piezoelectric (PZT) injector was selected for this research. A hole and swirl nozzle were examined in a wide range of fuel pressure. The hole nozzle aims to make stratified mixture formation by vaporizing fuel on the piston, and the swirl nozzle aims to do so in the air above the piston by utilizing the spray characteristic of lower penetration and higher dispersibility. Both sprays could realize stable stratified combustion. The stability mainly depends on the combination of spray characteristic and piston cavity shape, and the swirl air motion which strength changes corresponding to engine operating conditions. The hole nozzle requires high, and the swirl nozzle less fuel pressure. Even by a large amount of EGR, stratified combustion has the advantage of combustion stability, and is useful to reduce exhaust emissions, especially NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Fuel Behavior in a Port-Injection Gasoline Engine

1997-02-24
970878
Three-dimensional numerical analysis of fuel liquid and mixture behavior in a port-injection gasoline engine is assessed by comparing calculations with measurements. The fuel mass distributed in the intake port and cylinder is measured using an engine with hydraulic valve and gas sampling system. The experimental results show that about half of the fuel mass per injection enters the cylinder, and the rest stays in the port. The difference of the mass fraction of injected fuel directly entering the cylinder is small between the cases of single pulse injection and serial injection. Therefore, three-dimensional calculation presupposing single pulse injection has difficulty in predicting the in-cylinder mixture formation process, although it can analyze the amount of fuel wetting the port wall. The calculations are performed for a port-injection engine, and the differences of fuel behavior with respect to swirl control valve opening and wall temperature are discussed.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Diesel Particulate Matter by Oil Consumption Improvement Utilizing Radioisotope Tracer Techniques

1997-05-01
971630
A study was conducted to reduce unburned oil fractions in diesel particulate matter (PM) by improving oil consumption. A method utilizing radioisotope 14C was developed to measure the unburned oil fractions separately for the four paths by which oil is consumed: valve stem seals, piston rings, PCV system, turbocharger. The conversion ratio of oil consumption to PM was calculated by comparing the unburned oil emission rates with oil consumption rates, which were obtained by the use of the 35S tracer method. The result in an experimental diesel engine shows the highest conversion ratio for the oil leaking through the valve stem seals. The modifications to the engine were thereby focused on reducing the leakage of the stem seals. This stem seal modification, along with piston ring improvements, reduced oil consumption, resulting in the unburned oil fractions in PM being effectively reduced.
Technical Paper

Development of Toyota 1ZZ-FE Engine

1998-02-23
981087
The 1ZZ-FE engine is a newly developed in-line 4-cylinder, 1.8-liter, DOHC 4-valve engine mounted in the new Corolla. Abounding in new technologies including the laser-clad valve seat, high-pressure die-cast aluminum cylinder block, and the small-pitch chain drive DOHC, coupled with the fundamentally reviewed basic specifications, the new engine is compact and lightweight, offering high performance and good fuel economy. Anticipating even more stringent emission regulations in the future, in addition to the revision of the engine body, the layout of the exhaust system has been improved to enhance warm-up performance of the converter.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Con-Rod Big-End Bearing Lubrication on the Basis of Oil Supply Rate

1998-10-19
982439
The purpose of this study is to analyze con-rod bearing lubrication under reduced oil supply rate conditions. An engine was modified to measure the oil supply rate to a con-rod big-end bearing. Then the effects of the oil supply rate on bearing temperatures and the contact between a journal and a bearing were investigated in order to analyze lubrication characteristics. The bearing temperatures increased in accordance with reduced oil supply rate. On the other hand, the contact frequency hardly changed under almost all conditions, but steeply increased near one-third of the standard oil supply rate at the highest speed of 5000 rpm in the experiments. The results show that the reduced oil supply rate decreases the cooling effect but the hydrodynamic lubrication was sufficiently achieved except the above-mentioned severe condition.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Viscosity-Shear Characteristics of Lubricating Oils

1995-02-01
951029
The viscosity of automotive lubricants containing polymers decreases temporarily in the oil films of sliding parts with the increase in shear rate. This decrease sometimes causes surface damages such as bearing seizure and gear pitting. This paper describes the effect of polymers and base oils on viscosity under high shear rate conditions. The viscometer was newly developed to evaluate the viscosity at high shear rates. Shear rate can vary between 105 sec-1 and 106 sec-1. By using the viscometer, the effects of various factors such as polymer type, molecular weight, polar group and concentration on shear viscosity were investigated. The effects of polymer solubility and molecular weight distribution of base oils were also investigated.
Technical Paper

Super Olefin Polymer for Material Consolidation of Automotive Interior Plastic Parts

1996-02-01
960296
A new automotive interior component material, TSOP-5 has been developed by refining the technology utilized to develop TSOP-1, the high modulus and high flow material for bumper covers. This new interior component material has excellent molding capability (MI=30dg/min.) yet still maintains high impact resistance which enables the material to be used in areas such as the dash board as well as trim covers requiring to meet the FMVSS 214, the new side impact regulation or the FMVSS 201, the new soft upper trim regulation.
Technical Paper

Development of Painted Super Olefin Bumper Recycling Technology

1996-02-01
960283
In automotive plastic parts, bumpers are rather bigger parts and easy to be detached. And there is growing need to develop bumpers recycling technology. Now we developed the recycling technology for waste painted Super Olefin Polymer (SOP) bumpers from car dealers in production. This technology consists of discriminating from the repair in market by dyeing, and of melting SOP resin and hydrolysis of the paint film which are carried out simultaneously in a twin-screw extruder Reactive Processing System.
Technical Paper

Development of Sleeve Clinching Method and Making Practicable

1997-02-24
970372
We developed a fastening method to reduce noise levels and fastening work loads. The development was based on research into improved tools and fasteners. This was done in preparation for an increase in elderly worker and female worker population in the Automobile Assembly Shop. The principle of this method is to form female threads inside a straight sleeve by clinching the sleeve around a threaded bolt. We achieved improvements in component material clinching force and a durability for loosening torque compared to conventional bolt and nut methods.
Technical Paper

Precise Temperature Control for Molten Ferrous Alloy in Induction Furnace

1997-02-24
970376
A precise control system for a molten ferrous alloy temperature above 1700 K after the completion of induction melting has been developed in order to produce high quality casting parts for automobiles. In this system, the molten ferrous alloy temperature is measured just one time by a disposable thermocouple after the melting. The system predicts the temperature transition after the measurement using an original thermal model, and adjusts the supplied electric power to the furnace automatically according to the predicted temperature. Using this thermal model, the system has attained control deviations within ±5K under the following temperature controls, and contributed to the quality control of casting parts and the energy-saving during furnace operations. Casting temperature for a cast-steel of 1813 K in a 300 kg capacity high-frequency induction furnace on the “Toyota Vacuum Casting Process”.
Technical Paper

Development of Bearing with Composite Overlay for High-Performance Engines

1996-02-01
960988
Recently, there has been a tendency of high power and high speed in automotive engines. In addition they have been also required high reliability. And engine bearings have been required to be advanced in wear resistance as well as seizure resistance. Therefore, copper-lead alloy bearings with overlay, which have better seizure resistance, have been widely used for high speed engines up to the present. But it becomes very important for them to advance the overlay wear resistance. In this paper, the composite overlay is mainly researched to improve wear resistance regarding kind of hard particles and their amounts in the overlay.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Metal Cylinder Head Gasket

1998-02-23
980844
With the recent improvements in automotive engine performance, the operating conditions for the cylinder head gasket are becoming more critical. Today's cylinder head gasket is required not only to ensure high durability, but also to contribute to improving engine performance. This paper introduces a new metal cylinder head gasket consisting of two beaded plates and a thin sheet in-between. Because of the thin sheet, this gasket has several superior characteristics for open decked aluminum cylinder block engines. Sealability and durability were significantly improved.
Technical Paper

Toyota New Compact Five-Speed Automatic Transmission for RWD Passenger Cars

1998-02-23
980820
A new compact five-speed automatic transmission (A650E) has been developed for front engine rear wheel drive cars. The development of this transmission has been aimed at improving fuel consumption, power performance, engine noise reduction during highway cruising and smooth acceleration by employing a wide range of gearing and close gear ratios. Generally a five-speed automatic transmission is larger than a four-speed, because of additional friction elements and gears. This can result in a change in the floor panel of the car body. However, by removing a one-way clutch for second gear and employing a unique gear-train layout, this transmission has the same circumference and length as the conventional four-speed automatic transmission (A340E)(1).1 In order to reduce first or second gear noise, gear specification and supporting structures of planetary gears have been optimized by FEM analysis.
Technical Paper

Study of Fuel Flow Rate Change in Injector for Methanol Fueled S.I. Engine

1995-02-01
950071
The change of the fuel flow rate in an injector with mileage accumulation causes poor drivability and exhaust emission deterioration in Otto-type methanol fueled vehicles with a multi-point fuel injection system. This is one of the serious problems which needs to be solved for the practical use of methanol fueled vehicles. The investigation results reveal that the wear of contact surfaces between a valve needle and a valve body increases the resistance force for valve needle movement and causes the change of dynamic fuel flow rate in the injector. The effects of several countermeasures to solve this problem are evaluated.
Technical Paper

Joint PAJ/JAMA Project - Development of a JASO Gasoline Bench Engine Test for Measuring CCDs

1997-10-01
972837
Detergent additives in automotive gasoline fuel are mainly designed to reduce deposit formation on intake valves and fuel injectors, but it has been reported that some additives may contribute to CCD formation. Therefore, a standardized bench engine test method for CCDs needs to be developed in response to industry demands. Cooperative research between the Petroleum Association of Japan (PAJ) and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. (JAMA), has led to the development of a 2.2L Honda engine dynamometer-based CCD test procedure to evaluate CCDs from fuel additives. Ten automobile manufacturers, nine petroleum companies and the Petroleum Energy Center joined the project, which underwent PAJ-JAMA round robin testing. This paper describes the CCD test development activities, which include the selection of an engine and the determination of the optimum test conditions and other test criteria.
Technical Paper

Development of Ductile Cast Iron Flywheel Integrated with Hot Form-Rolled Gear

1998-02-01
980568
New ductile cast iron flywheel integrated with gear and its manufacturing process were developed to reduce the manufacturing steps and cost compared with conventional flywheel around which a steel ring gear is fit. In this process, the ring gear teeth around a cast iron flywheel are formed directly in net shape and free from any defect by the hot form-rolling method, followed by the thermomechanical treatment in a short time. The gear is superior to that made by the conventional hobbing and heat treatment in accuracy, strength and anti-wear property.
Technical Paper

New Plastic Coloring and Forming System

1991-02-01
910363
This paper describes a new plastic coloring and forming system. The system greatly reduces the time and amount of raw materials necessary for color changes, and eliminates the need for manual cleaning during a color change. This system is well-suited for small-lot production with frequent color changes, as well as for automated production systems. The system is being used by auto parts makers, and is practical in a variety of other fields involved with the coloring and forming of plastics.
Technical Paper

Development of Abradable Flame Spray Coating Technology

1991-02-01
910400
The authors, et al. have succeeded in the practical application of the abradable flame spray coating, used in aircraft engines for the prevention of air leakage and the improvement of efficiency, to automobile turbochargers for the first time in the world. Two layers consisting of a bond coated layer and an abradable layer used to be coated by separate spray nozzles under the conventional technique. In this paper, equations of relations between various flame spray coating conditions and the quality of coated film, which were derived from measured results, will be described. Flame spray coating conditions, that allow the double layer coating by the same spray nozzle, have been determined for each layer. Temperatures and speeds of the flame were measured by means of two-color type high-speed cameras, and equations of their relations with the flame spray coating conditions are derived from the measured result.
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