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Technical Paper

Nylon 6-Clay Hybrid - Synthesis, Properties and Application to Automotive Timing Belt Cover

ϵ-caprolactam was polymerized in the interlayer space of montmorillonite, the clay mineral yielding a nylon-clay hybrid (NCH). X-ray and TEM measurements revealed that each template of the silicate, which was 1 nm thick, was dispersed in the nylon 6 matrix, and that the interlayer distance of clay increased continuously from 1.2 nm for the unintercalated material to 21.4 nm for the intercalated material. Thus, NCH is a polymer-based molecular composite or a nano-composite. NCH contains 1-15 vol% of monolayer clay. Injection-molded NCH showed excellent mechanical properties compared with nylon 6 in terms of tensile strength, tensile modulus and heat resistance. The tensile modulus of NCH was twice that of Nylon 6, and the heat distortion temperature increased from 65°C for nylon 6 to 145°C for the NCH containing only 1.6 vol% of a clay mineral. It was found that such excellent properties of an NCH system was due to the strong ionic interaction between nylon 6 and the silicate layer.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Sintered Silicon Nitride Grinding Damage

Sintered silicon nitride, particularly in structural ceramics, has superior properties such as low weight, heat resistance, wear resistance, etc. It is already being applied to automobile engine parts such as the swirl chamber and the turbine rotor. In recent years, the strength of silicon nitride has shown to be above 1000MPa. This has been achieved through advances in manufacturing technology such as materials powder, forming, sintering and so on. But the silicon nitride is easily damaged during grinding because it has less fracture toughness than metal. Consequently, the inherent strength of the material is not demonstrated in the actual products presently produced. It is assumed that the main cause of strength reduction is microcrack. In ordinary grinding methods, the length of microcrack has been estimated at approximately twenty micrometers by fracture mechanics analysis.
Technical Paper

Development of P/M Titanium Engine Valves

In October 1998, a new mass-produced car with titanium engine-valves was released from TOYOTA Motor Corporation. Both intake and exhaust valves were manufactured via a newly developed cost-effective P/M forging process. Furthermore, the material which was specially designed for the exhaust one is a unique titanium metal matrix composite (MMC). This paper discusses the materials and manufacturing methods used. The tensile, fatigue strength and creep resistance of the MMC are always superior to those for the typical heat-resistant steel of 21-4N. Both valves have achieved sufficient durability and reliability with a manufacturing cost acceptable for mass-produced automobile parts.
Technical Paper

Deactivation Mechanism of NOX Storage-Reduction Catalyst and Improvement of Its Performance

A lean burn engine is effective in reducing fuel consumption. NOX storage-reduction catalysts (NSR catalyst) have been developed for these engines. In order to improve the performance of NSR catalysts, suppression of sulfur poisoning, which is one of the main causes of NSR catalyst deactivation, must be improved. In this paper, the sulfur desorption phenomenon has been analyzed from a novel point of view. Based on these results, an NSR catalyst with improved sulfur resistance has been developed by incorporation of highly dispersed titania, and use of a heat resistant zirconia with enhanced basicity.
Technical Paper

A New Proportional Collection System for Extremely Low Emission Measurement in Vehicle Exhaust

A new proportional collection system for extremely low tailpipe emission measurement in transient conditions has been developed. The new system can continuously sample a minute flow of exhaust gas, at a rate that is proportional to the engine exhaust rate. A zero grade gas dilution technique is utilized to prevent the influence of pollutants in atmospheric air that are the same concentration level as those in the exhaust gas. The system has accuracy within ±5%. For the direct exhaust gas flow meter, a pitot tube type flow meter is utilized as it is simple, heat resistant, sufficiently accurate and has low flow-resistance characteristic. For the collection and dilution controllers, two mass flow controllers (MFC) were adopted. The MFCs' output can be adversely influenced by variation of the specific heat of the sample gas, resulting in flow reporting error.
Technical Paper

Development of Three-way Catalyst Using Composite Alumina-Ceria-Zirconia

To realize the high performance of the three-way catalyst, this development focused on the heat resistance of the CeO2-ZrO2 solid solution (CZ) that possesses the oxygen storage capacity (OSC). A new concept of the OSC compound with high durability is proposed. We devised a new method of inhibiting the coagulation of the primary CZ particles by placing diffusion barrier layers made of alumina among the primary CZ particles. This material is called “ACZ”. The specific surface area of ACZ was larger than that of the conventional CZ after durability test. The sintering of Pt on the ACZ-added catalyst is inhibited and the crystal size of CZ in the ACZ-added catalyst is smaller than that in the CZ-added catalyst. The OSC and the light off temperature of the ACZ-added catalyst are improved.