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Technical Paper

Thin wall and lightweight cylinder block production technology

2000-06-12
2000-05-0067
The automobile industry currently faces many challenges which may greatly impact on its foundry operations. One of these challenges, consumers'' demand for greater fuel efficiency, can be met by reducing the weight of castings used in automobiles, and minimizing engineering tolerances. In answer to this particular demand, engine foundries have begun to either produce cylinder blocks or other castings with aluminum rather than cast iron. However, if a reduction in weight (thin wall and near-net shaping) can be realized with cast iron, there would be numerous merits from the perspective of cost and compactness and there would be much more flexibility in automotive parts design.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Inventory Study of Automotive Fuel Tank

1997-04-08
971177
As a means of effectively incorporating the concept of “life cycle” for reducing the environmental impact of the automobile, we carried out a life cycle inventory study on a part-by-part basis. The targets of our study are the fuel tanks that are made of different materials and manufacturing processes. One is made of steel, and the other is made of plastic, both perform identical functions. Our evaluation study encompasses the period from the manufacturing of the main materials until the disposal of the tanks. The evaluation items consist of the amount of energy consumed and the emissions (of CO2, NOx, SOx, and PM) that are released into the atmosphere. The results show that the plastic tank poses a greater burden in terms of the amount of energy consumed and the CO2 and NOx emitted.
Technical Paper

Binding Force Control of Uni-Pressure Cushion in Automobile Panel Stamping

1995-02-01
950916
Recently, single action draw with cushion replaces draw with double action presses. In the single action draw, binding fluctuation problem occurs by its structure. We applied an NC cushion to prevent the problem. We compared the cushion force wave with and without an NC cushion. The NC cushion showed effective damping. We studied the binding force control of a side member outer panel. The panel didn't have the formable range of binding. This means the lowest binding force to avoid wrinkling, still had crack problems. We introduce four patterns of binding force control with the NC cushion. As a result, we found the suitable pattern to suppress the surface distortion. Controlling the binding force shows effectiveness as a means of suppressing surface distortions.
Technical Paper

Development of Painted Super Olefin Bumper Recycling Technology

1996-02-01
960283
In automotive plastic parts, bumpers are rather bigger parts and easy to be detached. And there is growing need to develop bumpers recycling technology. Now we developed the recycling technology for waste painted Super Olefin Polymer (SOP) bumpers from car dealers in production. This technology consists of discriminating from the repair in market by dyeing, and of melting SOP resin and hydrolysis of the paint film which are carried out simultaneously in a twin-screw extruder Reactive Processing System.
Technical Paper

Development of Sleeve Clinching Method and Making Practicable

1997-02-24
970372
We developed a fastening method to reduce noise levels and fastening work loads. The development was based on research into improved tools and fasteners. This was done in preparation for an increase in elderly worker and female worker population in the Automobile Assembly Shop. The principle of this method is to form female threads inside a straight sleeve by clinching the sleeve around a threaded bolt. We achieved improvements in component material clinching force and a durability for loosening torque compared to conventional bolt and nut methods.
Technical Paper

Development of Assembly Line Verification

1994-03-01
940890
To more effectively improve the work on a vehicle assembly line, it is desirable to have a method by which the degree of work load on each person can be evaluated quantitatively; enables us to decide the priority order of improvement; and calculates the improvement effect. We developed a quantitative evaluation method of work load by introducing a concept of physiological stress generated regardless of the type of muscles involved. Applying the burden borne by the body to the load evaluation of various assembly operations involved the problem of complex load measuring methods. We solved this problem by categorizing the load conditions for various assembly operations and converting each to a standard state of loads evaluated by experiments.
Technical Paper

Development of Ductile Cast Iron Flywheel Integrated with Hot Form-Rolled Gear

1998-02-01
980568
New ductile cast iron flywheel integrated with gear and its manufacturing process were developed to reduce the manufacturing steps and cost compared with conventional flywheel around which a steel ring gear is fit. In this process, the ring gear teeth around a cast iron flywheel are formed directly in net shape and free from any defect by the hot form-rolling method, followed by the thermomechanical treatment in a short time. The gear is superior to that made by the conventional hobbing and heat treatment in accuracy, strength and anti-wear property.
Technical Paper

Study on Combustion Chamber Deposit Formation Mechanism -Influence of Fuel Components and Gasoline Detergents-

1997-05-01
971722
The combustion chamber deposit (CCD) forming tendency of gasoline components and detergents were investigated with laboratory tests ad engine dynamometer tests. In the dynamometer tests, the driving conditions under which fuels and detergents influence CCD formation were specified, and the effects of different gasoline components and detergent blends on CCD formation were examined. In the laboratory tests, the CCD forming process was investigated thoroughly [10]. The CCD forming tendency of aromatic compounds in gasoline were dependent not only on physical properties such as molecular weight, but also chemical structure (number or position of the alkyl substituents of aromatic molecules). As for oxygenates, engine dynamometer tests with MTBE blended gasoline yielded less CCD than the test without MTBE. The CCD forming tendency of detergents correlated with the thermal decompositon tendency of the detergent package and the concentration of the main agents.
Technical Paper

New Plastic Coloring and Forming System

1991-02-01
910363
This paper describes a new plastic coloring and forming system. The system greatly reduces the time and amount of raw materials necessary for color changes, and eliminates the need for manual cleaning during a color change. This system is well-suited for small-lot production with frequent color changes, as well as for automated production systems. The system is being used by auto parts makers, and is practical in a variety of other fields involved with the coloring and forming of plastics.
Technical Paper

Nylon 6-Clay Hybrid - Synthesis, Properties and Application to Automotive Timing Belt Cover

1991-02-01
910584
ϵ-caprolactam was polymerized in the interlayer space of montmorillonite, the clay mineral yielding a nylon-clay hybrid (NCH). X-ray and TEM measurements revealed that each template of the silicate, which was 1 nm thick, was dispersed in the nylon 6 matrix, and that the interlayer distance of clay increased continuously from 1.2 nm for the unintercalated material to 21.4 nm for the intercalated material. Thus, NCH is a polymer-based molecular composite or a nano-composite. NCH contains 1-15 vol% of monolayer clay. Injection-molded NCH showed excellent mechanical properties compared with nylon 6 in terms of tensile strength, tensile modulus and heat resistance. The tensile modulus of NCH was twice that of Nylon 6, and the heat distortion temperature increased from 65°C for nylon 6 to 145°C for the NCH containing only 1.6 vol% of a clay mineral. It was found that such excellent properties of an NCH system was due to the strong ionic interaction between nylon 6 and the silicate layer.
Technical Paper

A Study of Additive Effects on ATF Frictional Properties Using New Test Methods

1990-10-01
902150
A new test machine has been developed which can evaluate vibration due to stick-slip using an actual full-scale clutch pack. Using this machine, a static breakaway friction coefficient measurement test method and a stick-slip test method have been established. Both methods have been shown to provide results which correlate with the results from both a full-scale assembly test and a vehicle shudder evaluation test. The evaluation of the frictional properties of commercial oils using these test methods showed that the static breakaway friction coefficient and the stick-slip properties have generally contradictory performance to each other for automatic transmission. The study of the frictional properties for typical additives and an analysis of the surface of the steel plates with ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) showed that the frictional properties are significantly affected by the additives adsorbed on the clutch plate sliding surface.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Simulation of Stamping a Laser-Welded Blank

1993-03-01
930522
In order to achieve higher assembly accuracy for automotive body, increased body rigidity, and decreased stamping and assembly costs in car body manufacturing, a new method of sheet metal stamping has been developed, in which several blanks of different strength and thickness are integrated using CO2 laser-welding. The stamping formability of the laser-welded blank is limited compared with that of the conventional single blank. It is very difficult to predict the exact decrease in formability for different positions of the weld line and for different matching of materials. Because experimental estimations were indispensable for stamping die designers to evaluate formability at the stage of planning dies, many man-hours were spent conducting actual experiments.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Sintered Silicon Nitride Grinding Damage

1993-03-01
930163
Sintered silicon nitride, particularly in structural ceramics, has superior properties such as low weight, heat resistance, wear resistance, etc. It is already being applied to automobile engine parts such as the swirl chamber and the turbine rotor. In recent years, the strength of silicon nitride has shown to be above 1000MPa. This has been achieved through advances in manufacturing technology such as materials powder, forming, sintering and so on. But the silicon nitride is easily damaged during grinding because it has less fracture toughness than metal. Consequently, the inherent strength of the material is not demonstrated in the actual products presently produced. It is assumed that the main cause of strength reduction is microcrack. In ordinary grinding methods, the length of microcrack has been estimated at approximately twenty micrometers by fracture mechanics analysis.
Technical Paper

Development of a Robot Simulation and Off-Line Programming System

1992-09-01
922120
In Toyota, a robot off-line programming system was developed five years ago for the use at spot welding processes. And it has been effective to reduce and level off the engineering time. This time we have developed the new robot simulation system. It has three newly features so that the system becomes capable of simulating and programming robots from various manufacturers with different functions. As a result, the new system can be applied to a variety of processes in automobile manufacturing. First, a universal robot programming language was developed which includes a variety of commands such as definitions of motion attributes, signals of inputs/outputs, control of program flow, special functions proper to each process, and so on. And the language can be translated to and from any particular programming language using pre / post processor, so the simulation system needs to deal with only one language.
Technical Paper

Development of Super Olefin Bumper for Automobiles

1992-02-01
920525
The EMT (Elastomer Modified Thermoplastics) currently used in passenger car bumper fascia are limited in retaining low CLTE (Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion) and impact resistance, although they are highly rigid, which allows a reduction in weight, and also have high flowability during injection molding. We have developed a new bumper material called “Super Olefin Polymer” using a unique theory based upon a reversal of the current concept. The current polymer design concept of the EMT material is to compound and disperse the EPR (Ethylene Propylene Rubber) into the resin matrix such as polypropylene. We reversed the domain and the matrix, and treated the resin phase as the filler and the elastomer phase as the matrix.
Technical Paper

International Technical Transfer of Automobile Manufacturing

1989-11-01
891264
Automobile production technology has been transferred in the order of "automobile assembly technology", "automotive parts manufacturing technology" and "production preparation technology". Transfer of our "automobile assembly technology" has already been nearly 100% completed and, as the manufacture of local parts is promoted and our experiences to undergo model changes are widened, the transfer of "automotive parts manufacturing technology" and "production preparation technology" is making a steady progress. The most critical point that makes the technical transfer difficult is the small automobile markets in developing countries where it is impossible to acquire a sufficient production volume which permits satisfactorily low cost. Various measures to secure a sufficient production volume such as exports and complementation within regions have been taken so far, but any remarkable effect has not been achieved.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Milling Mechanism by Ball End-Mill and Development of High Speed Die-Sinking Method

1988-11-01
881742
Various dies have been used for producing many internal and external parts of an automobile. This paper describes the method of ‘High Speed Die-sinking’ that is one of the key technologies for die-making. We analyzed the milling mechanism of a typical Ball End-Mill used for die-sinking and performed cutting tests. As a result, we have achieved high speed and fine quality die-sinking technology. Its feed speed is about four or five times as fast as before, and the irregularity of the milled surface is under one-fifth as compared with previous level. In addition, we will propose the new method for estimating finishing performance by ball end-mill.
Technical Paper

Wear Mechanisms of Methanol Fueled Engine

1985-11-11
852199
The wear mechanisms of the methanol engine were studied using dynamometer tests. Formic acid from methanol combustion mixes with the lubricant oil and attacks the metal surfaces. The iso tacho prorissis method was successfully applied to analyze the formic acid content of the used oil. A large amount of condensed water is also formed by methanol combustion and accelerates the wear. Wear can be effectively reduced by shortening lubricant oil change intervals, by using a special oil and by durable surface treatment of engine parts.
Technical Paper

Development of a Multi-Purpose Robot Controller and its Application for Automotive Industries

1985-02-01
850409
Since the first robot: was introduced into our factory in 1971, about 1250 playback robots have been operated. But processes in which these robots were installed were limited to particular ones such as spot welding, are welding and painting. In many other processes robots have not been installed. Investing the reasons there is a main factor as follows, As to the application of robot, it is hard to evade the diversity of robot type because robots must be different from each other, if the most suitable robots are chosen in setting space, operating area, load capacity, speed and accurary against applied process and work pieces. If standard robots in the market are fitted to various conditions of processes or work pieces, the types of robots increase and many problems are produced on operation and maintenance.
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