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Technical Paper

Development of Rain Sensor for Automatic Wiper System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0612
One of the key elements of vehicle safety requires a constantly uninterrupted visible view especially during unexpected weather conditions. Our present development of a light reflection type rain sensor is a key device of our automatic windshield wiper system. The design concept of the sensor is based on the quantification on both detected rainfalls and wiping modes in order to match the wiping mode in an operator's mind by optimizing the optical sensing system and establishing an algorithm for controlling wiping. In addition, auto-initialization of the system has been achieved first in the world.
Technical Paper

Development of Shape Optimization Technique Based on The Basis Vector Method

1995-02-01
950575
A practical shape optimization technique is presented. We employed the basis vector method to parameterize the shape of the structural domain that is usually discretized by the finite element method. VMA/GENESIS software, the optimization system with finite element analysis, sensitivity analysis, and numerical optimization capabilities, was used for this study. Various design problems such as body, chassis, and engine parts design are solved to demonstrate the effectiveness and the robustness of the present approach for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Development of the All-Mechanical Air Bag System

1991-02-01
910149
A highly reliable all-mechanical air bag system has been developed with a production cost lower than the electrical air bag system. All components, such as the bag, inflator and sensor are integrated into the steering wheel. Regarding the sensor design, we first discussed the requirements of the sensor to optimize the driver's protection, and then we designed it using a simulation method. We have confirmed by crash tests that this method is correct, and have found that this system is effective for reducing facial injuries.
Technical Paper

Vibration Analysis of Drive Line and Suspension Using Finite Element Models

1993-05-01
931306
Finite element aodels have been developed to analyze drive line and suspension vibration. For the analysis of booming noise, we have addressed the optimization of the differential gear carrier mounting system by using a virtual system and realization of it considering many constraints. To reduce the differential whine noise, a simulation method considering the transmitting error of the differential gear was applied. And we have approached for the subtle arrangements of many structural resonances with detail research of the drive line and suspension. For the reduction of road noise, we adopted the approach of shifting the node of the rear suspension member mode.
Technical Paper

Lateral Shake Analysis of Open Top Cars

1992-02-01
920409
This paper analyzes the vibration of open-top cars known as lateral shake. The characteristics of the phenomenon were identified by means of road tests and a test method called the shake test was devised to reproduce these characteristics in order that the respective roles of the suspension, body and engine could be determined. On the basis of the analysis findings, a simple but practical simulation model was realized and used to investigate various methods of reducing lateral shake. The simulations indicated that although changing the natural frequency of the suspension has little effect, increasing the natural torsional frequency of the body and/or utilizing the engine as a dynamic damper results in a significant improvement. Further experiments conclusively demonstrated that by optimizing the body structure in accordance with FEM analysis results and optimizing the spring constant of the engine mounts, the level of lateral shake can be halved.
Technical Paper

Structural Design Technology for Brake Squeal Reduction Using Sensitivity Analysis

2010-10-10
2010-01-1691
The finite element method (FEM) is effective for analyzing brake squeal phenomena. Although FEM analysis can be used to easily obtain squeal frequencies and complex vibration modes, it is difficult to identify how to modify brake structure design or contact conditions between components. Therefore, this study deals with a practical design method using sensitivity analysis to reduce brake squeal, which is capable of optimizing both the structure of components and contact conditions. A series of analysis processes that consist of modal reduction, complex eigenvalue analysis, sensitivity analysis and optimization analysis is shown and some application results are described using disk brake systems.
Technical Paper

Development of Planar Oxygen Sensor

2001-03-05
2001-01-0228
In preparation for compliance with California's SULEV standard and Euro STAGE 4 standard, which will take effect in 2002 and 2005, respectively, we have developed a laminated planar oxygen sensor. The developed sensor has the following characteristics: high thermal conductivity and superior dielectric characteristic, due to direct joining of the heater element alumina substrate and the sensor element zirconia electrolyte; low heat stress at temperature rise, due to optimized heater design; superior sensor protection from water droplets, and improved sensor response, due to optimized arrangement of intake holes in the sensor cover. With these characteristics, the developed oxygen sensor can be activated in 10 seconds after cold start. This report describes the technologies we used to develop the early-activation oxygen sensor.
Technical Paper

Newly Developed AZ Series Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0327
The design of the newly developed Toyota AZ series 4 cylinder engine has been optimized through both simulations and experiments to improve heat transfer, cooling water flow, vibration noise and other characteristics. The AZ engine was developed to achieve good power performance and significantly reduced vibration noise. The new engine meets the LEV regulations due to the improved combustion and optimized exhaust gas flow. A major reduction in friction has resulted in a significant improvement in fuel economy compared with conventional models. It also pioneered a newly developed resin gear drive balance shaft.
Technical Paper

Development of Multi-Layer Plastic Membrane (Bladder Membrane) for Vapor Reducing Fuel Tank

2001-03-05
2001-01-1120
The Vapor Reducing Fuel Tank System (Bladder Tank System) using a flexible plastic membrane (Bladder Membrane) was newly developed in order to reduce the amount of vaporized gasoline in a steel fuel tank. This Bladder Membrane is flexible to expand in proportion to a fuel volume and prevents the permeation of the vaporized gasoline. As a result of our initial study for various materials, we decided to apply a multi-layer plastic material which could achieve both low fuel permeability and good flexibility. This multi-layer material consists of polyethylene(PE) for structural material and polyamide(PA) for low permeability. The modulus of the PE needs to achieve a sufficient flexibility in order to keep the movement of the membrane. While PA material must have not only low fuel permeability but also strong adhesion with the structural material of PE. We also clarify the membrane design to keep a good flexibility and to reduce a strain.
Journal Article

Measurement of Oil Film Thickness in the Main Bearings of an Operating Engine using Thin-Film Electrode

2011-08-30
2011-01-2117
Oil film thickness is one of the most important issues for optimization of bearing design. A technique has been developed to measure oil film thickness by noting the change in capacitance between the shaft and a thin-film electrode of several micrometers thickness formed on the surface of a bearing. The authors applied this technique to the main journals of an automobile engine and measured the oil film thickness up to maximum speed and full load. The oil film thickness became thinner with increased engine load, and then turned thicker with increased engine speed.
Journal Article

An Application of Shape Optimization to Brake Squeal Phenomena

2015-09-27
2015-01-2658
The present paper describes an application of non-parametric shape optimization to disc brake squeal phenomena. A main problem is defined as complex eigenvalue problem in which the real part of the complex eigenvalue causing the brake squeal is chosen as an objective cost function. The Fre´chet derivative of the objective cost function with respect to the domain variation, named as the shape derivative of the objective cost function, is evaluated using the solution of the main problem and the adjoint problem. A selection criterion of the adoptive mode number in component mode synthesis (CMS), which is used in the main problem, is presented in order to reduce the computational error in complex eigenvalue pairs. A scheme to solve the shape optimization problem is presented using an iterative algorithm based on the H1 gradient method for reshaping. For an application of the optimization method, a numerical example of a practical disc brake model is presented.
Technical Paper

Development of High Accuracy NOx Sensor

2019-04-02
2019-01-0749
This paper presents an improvement in the accuracy of NOx sensors at high NOx concentration regions by optimizing the manufacturing process, sensor electrode materials and structure, in order to suppress the deterioration mechanism of sensor electrodes. Though NOx sensors generally consist of Pt/Au alloy based oxygen pump electrodes and Pt/Rh alloy based sensor electrodes, detailed experimental analysis of aged NOx sensors showed changes in the surface composition and morphology of the sensor electrode. The surface of the sensor electrode was covered with Au, which is not originally contained in the electrode, resulting in a diminished active site for NOx detection on the sensor electrode and a decrease in sensor output. Theoretical analysis using CAE with molecular dynamics supported that Au tends to be concentrated on the surface of the sensor electrode.
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