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Technical Paper

Development of New Concept Iridium Plug

2001-03-05
2001-01-1201
In the field of automotive gasoline engines, new products aiming at greater fuel economy and cleaner exhaust gases are under development with the aim of preventing environmental destruction. Severe ignition environments such as lean combustion, stronger charge motion, and large quantities of EGR require ever greater combustion stability. In an effort to meet these requirements, an iridium plug has been developed that achieves high ignitability and long service life through reduction of its diameter, using a highly wear-resistant iridium alloy as the center electrode.(1)(2) Recently, direct injection engines have attracted attention. In stratified combustion, a feature of the direct injection engine, the introduction of rich air-fuel mixtures in the vicinity of the plug ignition region tends to cause carbon fouling. This necessitates plug carbon fouling resistance.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Numerical Analysis of NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts - On the Two Effects of Rich-Spike Duration

2001-03-05
2001-01-1297
Two effects of rich-spike duration on NOx-storing have been analyzed. The first one, that NOx-storing speed decreases as rich-spike duration increases, is explained as the influence of NOx diffusion in wash-coat layer, which is quantified by a simple mathematical expression for NOx-storing rate. The second one, a peculiar behavior of NOx-storing in appearance of the outlet NOx concentration, is clarified: Heat produced directly or indirectly (via oxygen storage in ceria) by rich-spike warms up the downstream part, which releases excess NOx at the raised temperature. Contributions of the oxygen storage and the carbonate of NOx-storage material are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of Rain Sensor for Automatic Wiper System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0612
One of the key elements of vehicle safety requires a constantly uninterrupted visible view especially during unexpected weather conditions. Our present development of a light reflection type rain sensor is a key device of our automatic windshield wiper system. The design concept of the sensor is based on the quantification on both detected rainfalls and wiping modes in order to match the wiping mode in an operator's mind by optimizing the optical sensing system and establishing an algorithm for controlling wiping. In addition, auto-initialization of the system has been achieved first in the world.
Technical Paper

Piston Temperature Measuring Technology Using Electromagnetic Induction

2001-05-07
2001-01-2027
Authors have developed an apparatus which measures the piston temperature using electromagnetic induction. The characteristics of this apparatus are as follows; 1 Applicable to 6 points per cylinder and all cylinders 2 Capable of measuring while the engine is running from start to 6000r/min full-load operation 3 Wide measuring range; from -30 to 400 °C 4 High accuracy; ±2.5 °C 5 Quick and easy setup 6 High durability This technology contributes to realizing the best balance of piston reliability and matching of combustion conditions. In this report, authors analyzed its influences upon piston temperature when the ignition timing,the oil/water temperature or the oil flow from piston jet were changed, respectively.
Technical Paper

Development of the Hybrid Vehicle and Its Future Expectation

2000-11-01
2000-01-C042
Following its introduction into the Japanese market, the Prius, Toyota Motor Corporation's hybrid vehicle, was released onto the American and European markets in Mid-2000. This lecture will take the form of an explanation of the new technology used to meet the demands of the western market, including improved driving performance, lower emissions, down-sizing of the system and lower costs. The lecture will also look briefly at the new Toyota hybrid system, the THS-C, which is currently being developed. The talk will include a look at the future of the hybrid vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of the Automotive Exhaust Hydrocarbon Adsorbent

2001-03-05
2001-01-0660
The hydrocarbon adsorption volume character of zeolite was studied. Specifically, the relationship between aluminum content and zeolite hydrocarbon adsorption was investigated, as a potential hydrocarbon adsorbent for exhaust gas. The study also analyzed the relationship between hole diameter and zeolite hydrocarbon adsorption. It was found that hydrocarbon adsorption increased with decreasing aluminum content. Zeolite with a pore size approximately 0.1nm greater than the diameter of hydrocarbon molecules showed the best performance. Zeolites with two different pore sizes were mixed, and succeeded in adsorbing hydrocarbons of carbon number 3 and above. Silver (Ag) ion exchanged zeolite was also used to increase the adsorption of exhaust gas hydrocarbons, including those of carbon number 2.
Technical Paper

Development of the Chemical Recycling Technology of Glass Fiber Reinforced PA6 Parts

2001-03-05
2001-01-0694
Recently, the plastic material is positively introducing for automotive parts due to the Needs of vehicle weight reduction and cost saving. On the other hand, the countermeasure for scrapped car is a big subject to need to consider as a car maker. Therefore, the development of recycling technology for plastic parts has been necessary. In this study, we tried to develop recycling technology for glass fiber reinforced Polyamide6(PA6) which is applied to various automotive parts like an air intake manifold. As a recycling technique, we focused on the chemical recycling which can reclaim raw material of PA6(ε- caprolactams) from the post-consumer automotive parts. The chemical recycling we selected can be put on a higher priority because it has possibility to utilize the limited resource repeatedly. As a result, we could retain high purity of ε- caprolactams using our following two techniques which make possible to recycle Polyamide 6 materials. One is to separate PA6 from glass fiber.
Technical Paper

Development of Vapor Reducing Fuel Tank System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0729
In succession to the world-first introduction of a mass production gasoline hybrid passenger car into the Japanese market in 1997, Toyota also has introduced an enhanced version of the above to the US and European markets in 2000. Upon introduction of Toyota Hybrid System (THS) into the US market, a drastic reduction of gasoline vapor evaporation from the fuel tank was necessary, in order to meet the most stringent exhaust emission (SULEV) and evaporative emission standards in the world. In order to meet this requirement, a fuel tank system named “Vapor Reducing Fuel Tank System” was developed. This is the first commercial application in the world to use a variable tank volume to drastically reduce gasoline vapor generation.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Ignition Control in HCCI Engine

2003-05-19
2003-01-1817
The UNIBUS (Uniform Bulky Combustion System) based on the HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) concept uses an early injection quantity, timing, boost pressure, EGR, etc. for ignition control [1]. To further expand the operation range from the present level, the effects of the atmospheric conditions on ignition and combustion were calculated using CHEMKIN in the present study. When controlling the start timing of the high temperature reaction to suppress the early ignition, it is more effective to apply EGR than boost pressure. If fuel quantity is increased to expand load, it is possible to suppress a sharp cylinder pressure rising rate by increasing the boost pressure. Furthermore, it has become apparent that the cause of this is an increase in heat capacity.
Technical Paper

Analyses of Exhaust Hydrocarbon Compositions and Ozone Forming Potential During Cold Start

1996-10-01
961954
A newly-developed time resolved exhaust gas analysis system was utilized in this study. The hydrocarbon compositions upstream and downstream of the catalytic converter were investigated during cold start and warm up of the Federal Test Procedure(FTP), with three fuels of different aromatic contents. Although engine-out hydrocarbon emissions had high concentrations right after cold start, the specific reactivity was low. This can be explained by the selective adsorption of the high boiling point components which had a high Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) in the intake manifold and engine-oil films. Thereafter, the high boiling point components were desorbed rapidly and consequently specific reactivity increased. Hydrocarbon adsorption of high boiling point components and hydrocarbon conversion of low boiling point components occurred simultaneously on the catalyst during warm up.
Technical Paper

Development of Direct Injection Gasoline Engine - Study of Stratified Mixture Formation

1997-02-24
970539
Effects of spray characteristics for stratified combustion of direct injection gasoline engine have been researched. The highly functional piezoelectric (PZT) injector was selected for this research. A hole and swirl nozzle were examined in a wide range of fuel pressure. The hole nozzle aims to make stratified mixture formation by vaporizing fuel on the piston, and the swirl nozzle aims to do so in the air above the piston by utilizing the spray characteristic of lower penetration and higher dispersibility. Both sprays could realize stable stratified combustion. The stability mainly depends on the combination of spray characteristic and piston cavity shape, and the swirl air motion which strength changes corresponding to engine operating conditions. The hole nozzle requires high, and the swirl nozzle less fuel pressure. Even by a large amount of EGR, stratified combustion has the advantage of combustion stability, and is useful to reduce exhaust emissions, especially NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

The Paint Sludge Recycling

1997-04-08
971207
Since paint sludge, one of the industrial wastes, is tacky and generated in a large volume in mass production vehicle painting shops, handling and disposal are very difficult. We have this time succeeded in recycling this sludge as lightweight filler of vinyl chloride plastisol for coating underfloor (popularly called as under-body coating material) through thermal setting, crushing and pulverization after making it completely detackified and dewatered with centrifuging.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Inventory Study of Automotive Fuel Tank

1997-04-08
971177
As a means of effectively incorporating the concept of “life cycle” for reducing the environmental impact of the automobile, we carried out a life cycle inventory study on a part-by-part basis. The targets of our study are the fuel tanks that are made of different materials and manufacturing processes. One is made of steel, and the other is made of plastic, both perform identical functions. Our evaluation study encompasses the period from the manufacturing of the main materials until the disposal of the tanks. The evaluation items consist of the amount of energy consumed and the emissions (of CO2, NOx, SOx, and PM) that are released into the atmosphere. The results show that the plastic tank poses a greater burden in terms of the amount of energy consumed and the CO2 and NOx emitted.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Particulate Emissions from D.I. Engine - Relationship among Diesel Fuel, Exhaust Gas and Particulates

1997-05-01
971605
The compositions of hydrocarbons in diesel fuel, exhaust gas and particulates were analyzed and the relationships among them were determined. It was found that the compositions of the hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas were almost the same as that of the fuel, and that the hydrocarbons in the particulates corresponded to their heavy fractions. When the engine condition was fixed, both the soluble organic fraction (SOF) and insoluble fraction ( ISF) showed positive correlation coefficients versus HC×R310, where HC denotes the hydrocarbon emission and R310 denotes the backend fraction, as measured by the fraction of fuel boiling above 310°C. On the other hand, when the engine condition was varied, ISF had negative correlation coefficients versus HC×R310, while SOF showed positive correlation coefficients.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Diesel Particulate Matter by Oil Consumption Improvement Utilizing Radioisotope Tracer Techniques

1997-05-01
971630
A study was conducted to reduce unburned oil fractions in diesel particulate matter (PM) by improving oil consumption. A method utilizing radioisotope 14C was developed to measure the unburned oil fractions separately for the four paths by which oil is consumed: valve stem seals, piston rings, PCV system, turbocharger. The conversion ratio of oil consumption to PM was calculated by comparing the unburned oil emission rates with oil consumption rates, which were obtained by the use of the 35S tracer method. The result in an experimental diesel engine shows the highest conversion ratio for the oil leaking through the valve stem seals. The modifications to the engine were thereby focused on reducing the leakage of the stem seals. This stem seal modification, along with piston ring improvements, reduced oil consumption, resulting in the unburned oil fractions in PM being effectively reduced.
Technical Paper

Development of Toyota 1ZZ-FE Engine

1998-02-23
981087
The 1ZZ-FE engine is a newly developed in-line 4-cylinder, 1.8-liter, DOHC 4-valve engine mounted in the new Corolla. Abounding in new technologies including the laser-clad valve seat, high-pressure die-cast aluminum cylinder block, and the small-pitch chain drive DOHC, coupled with the fundamentally reviewed basic specifications, the new engine is compact and lightweight, offering high performance and good fuel economy. Anticipating even more stringent emission regulations in the future, in addition to the revision of the engine body, the layout of the exhaust system has been improved to enhance warm-up performance of the converter.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrocarbon Molecular Structure on Diesel Exhaust Emissions Part 2: Effect of Branched and Ring Structures of Paraffins on Benzene and Soot Formation

1998-10-19
982495
The effect of the chemical reactivity of diesel fuel on PM formation was investigated using a flow reactor and a shock tube. Reaction products from the flow-reactor pyrolysis of the three diesel fuels used for the engine tests in Part 1(1) (“Base”, “Improved” and Swedish “Class-1”) were analyzed by gas chromatography. At 850C, Swedish “Class-1” fuel was found to produce the most PM precursors such as benzene and toluene among the three fuels, even though it contains very low amounts of aromatics. The chemical analyses described in Part 1 revealed that “Class-1” contains a large amount of branched and cyclic structures in the saturated hydrocarbon portion of the fuel. These results suggest that the presence of such branched and ring structures can increase exhaust PM emissions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrocarbon Molecular Structure on Diesel Exhaust Emissions Part 1: Comparison of Combustion and Exhaust Emission Characteristics among Representative Diesel Fuels

1998-10-19
982494
Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics were compared among three representative diesel fuels called “Base (corresponding to a Japanese market fuel)”, “Improved” and Swedish “Class-1” using both a modern small and an optically accessible single-cylinder DI diesel engines. In these tests, the relative amount of PM collected in the exhaust was “Base” >“Class-1” >“Improved” at almost all of the operating conditions. This means that “Class-1” generated more PM than “Improved”, even though “Class-1” has significantly lower distillation temperatures, aromatic content, sulfur, and density compared with “Improved”. There was little difference in combustion characteristics such as heat release rate pattern, mixture formation and flame development processes between these two fuels. However, it was found that “Class-1” contained more branches in the paraffin fraction and more naphthenes.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Dimensional Numerical Method for Predicting Warm-Up Characteristic of Automobile Catalytic Converter Systems

1995-10-01
952413
A multi-dimensional numerical method for predicting the warm-up characteristic of automobile catalytic converter systems was developed to effectively design catalytic converter systems which achieve low tail pipe emissions with satisfactory packagebility. The features of the method are; (1) consideration of the governing phenomena such as gas flow, heat transfer, and chemical reactions (2) capability of predicting warm-up characteristic for not only the catalytic converters but also the system as a whole during emission test modes such as the USA LA-4 mode. The description of the method is presented. The experimental verifications of the method were conducted to assure the accuracy of it. The effect of design parameters such as electrically heated catalyst (EHC), high loading of noble metal and thin honeycomb wall on warm-up characteristic of the catalyst are analyzed in the paper.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Particulate Emissions from D. I. Engine - Chemical Analysis and Characterization of Diesel Fuel

1995-10-01
952351
The properties of diesel fuels were investigated in terms of particulate emissions to clarify the specification of such a diesel fuel for minimizing particulate emissions. Diesel fuels were analyzed using thin layer chromatography (TLC), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These analysis revealed the entire composition of hydrocarbons in diesel fuels according to molecular formula. The entire composition of hydrocarbons in diesel fuels could be expressd on a three-dimensional graph: the X-axis as carbon number, the Y-axis as H/C ratio and the Z-axis as the amount of hydrocarbons of identical molecular formula. By using the graph, the properties reported so far were investigated. Also, simplified images of the fuel sprayed into a cylinder and its flame were derived from the observational results previously reported.
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