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Technical Paper

Development of the Chemical Recycling Technology of Glass Fiber Reinforced PA6 Parts

Recently, the plastic material is positively introducing for automotive parts due to the Needs of vehicle weight reduction and cost saving. On the other hand, the countermeasure for scrapped car is a big subject to need to consider as a car maker. Therefore, the development of recycling technology for plastic parts has been necessary. In this study, we tried to develop recycling technology for glass fiber reinforced Polyamide6(PA6) which is applied to various automotive parts like an air intake manifold. As a recycling technique, we focused on the chemical recycling which can reclaim raw material of PA6(ε- caprolactams) from the post-consumer automotive parts. The chemical recycling we selected can be put on a higher priority because it has possibility to utilize the limited resource repeatedly. As a result, we could retain high purity of ε- caprolactams using our following two techniques which make possible to recycle Polyamide 6 materials. One is to separate PA6 from glass fiber.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a New Automatic Transmission Control System for LEXUS LS400

A new automatic transmission, engineered from concept for “intelligent” and “anti-aging” (long life), has been designed and developed for TOYOTA's luxury passenger car, LEXUS LS400. This system, which has resulted in silky-smooth shift quality without changes in the long term, is composed of a transmission computer that interacts with engine computer, a number of sensors, an electronically controlled hydraulic unit with linear solenoid valves and assorted devices. As new control logic being developed with the aid of computer simulation to achieve distinction, the hydraulic and engine controls are combined in this system. There is a “feedback control”, where the clutch pressure is controlled according to the rate of acceleration and compensated for dispersion to applied pressure, engine torque and/or the coefficient of dynamic friction of clutches, and at the same time engine torque is reduced by retarding ignition timing.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Abnormal Fuel Injection in Diesel Engines

Abnormal fuel injection in light-duty, high-speed diesel engines was analyzed by developing a mathematical simulation program. It predicts the transient hydraulic phenomena and the dynamics of the mechanical components by applying the injection system design data. The results show the existence of marked changes of injection quantity against residual pressure, cavity content and pump speed, in the case of abnormal fuel injection. Closer observation reveals that the injection rate change from two-stage to one-stage causes a marked change in injection quantity.
Technical Paper

Stability of a One Box Type Vehicle in a Cross-Wind-An Analysis of Transient Aerodynamic Forces and Moments

One-box type vehicles are especially liable to a loss of stability when entering a region of cross-wind. The reasons for this instability were investigated using scale models and by means of a mathematical simulation. Results indicated that yawing moment attains a peak at a precise position of the vehicle relative to the cross-wind. Visualization of the air flow and measurement of the pressure distributions established the cause of the phenomenon. Furthermore a study was conducted into the effects of body shape on stability and the efficacy of various modifications was assessed.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Simulation of Stamping a Laser-Welded Blank

In order to achieve higher assembly accuracy for automotive body, increased body rigidity, and decreased stamping and assembly costs in car body manufacturing, a new method of sheet metal stamping has been developed, in which several blanks of different strength and thickness are integrated using CO2 laser-welding. The stamping formability of the laser-welded blank is limited compared with that of the conventional single blank. It is very difficult to predict the exact decrease in formability for different positions of the weld line and for different matching of materials. Because experimental estimations were indispensable for stamping die designers to evaluate formability at the stage of planning dies, many man-hours were spent conducting actual experiments.
Technical Paper

Development of New Control Methods to Improve Response of Throttle Type Traction Control System

A description is made of new control methods to improve response of wheel slip regulation. These methods enabled a new Traction Control (TRC) system based on throttle control rather than brake pressure to be developed. Major points are as follows: (1) Use of fuel injection cut-off to minimize delay (2) Additional adaptive throttle control logic By these means, a response nearly equal to that with brake pressure control is achieved at lower cost and with a considerable weight saving. Furthermore, the system, by suppressing noise and vibration, enhances the driver's control ability.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis for the Improvement of Radiator Cooling Air Intake and Discharge

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS for the increase of the radiator cooling air has been performed with special attention to the utilization of air pressure in high-speed running conditions. Measurements of pressure distributions at the radiator cooling air intake showed that the prevention of the occurrence of separations around the bumper is the efficient method to increase the cooling air. Furthermore, the optimum configuration for the radiator cooling air discharge has also been experimentally studied using a simplified model which simulates the under part of the engine compartment. These improvements made the vehicle radiator cooling air volume increase 14% under high-speed running conditions.
Technical Paper

An Integration Approach on Powertrain Control System

Engine control systems were the precursor of scale automotive electronics systems using microcomputers. Toyota Motor Corporation introduced high - level, total control of the power train by applying system integration through introducing a multi - CPU system to the 1988 MY Toyota Camry. Integration in the ECU has been promoted to parallel with system integration. By adopting single - chip microcomputers, monolithic ICs, and hybrid ICs all designed and developed for car electronics, and semiconductor barometric pressure sensors for car electron into ECU's. etc. ever - expandable functions can be provided in a smaller and more lightweight ECU package with higher reliability.
Technical Paper

Development of “Aero Slit” - Improvement of Aerodynamic Yaw Characteristics for Commercial Vehicles

To reduse crosswind sensitivity, the yaw moment should be decreased under both transient and steady conditions. The transient condition is when a vehicle comes out immediately from a tunnel into a crosswind while the steady condition is when driving straight along the coastline. After studying the pressure distribution and the flow pattern around the body, we have reached the ideal air flow at the front-side corner that reduces the yaw moment under both conditions. And we have devised an entirely new method to achieve this better air flow. The method uses an internal flow generated by a pressure difference in the flow feeld to create a jet effect and by using only a duct for internal flow to control the outside air flow. It is done without any change to the exterior styling, except at the flow exit. We call it “Aero Slit”. This “Aero Slit” is effective only under crosswind conditions, and does not increase aerodynamic drag when a crosswind is not blowing.
Technical Paper

Regenration Process of Ceramic Foam Diesel-Particulate Traps

Periodic regeneration of the diesel particulate trap is essential to maintain the collection efficiency and exhaust gas hack pressure at acceptable levels. The objectives of this study are to describe the phenomenology of ceramic foam filter regeneration process and to present its mathematical model. Further simulation study is carried out to estimate the effects of various factors including fuel additive on the ignition and the filter bed temperature and to investigate conditions of excessive temperature which could result in filter destruction. The model is based on the assumption that the regeneration process is composed of two steps. The first step is the additional heat supply from the external energy source, and the second step is the spontaneous combustion propagation. The results from the analytical model agreed very well with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Cavitating Flow inside the Nozzle Hole Using by Enlarged Acrylic Nozzle

In this study, it is purpose to make clear the effect of cavitation phenomenon on the spray atomization. In this report, the cavitation phenomenon inside the nozzle hole was visualized and the pressure measurements along the wall of the nozzle hole were carried out by use of 25-times enlarged acrylic nozzle. For the representatives of regular gasoline, single and two-component fuels were used as a test fuel. In addition, various cavitating flow patterns same as experimental conditions were simulated by use of Barotropic model incorporated in commercial code of Star-CD scheme, and compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Study of Ignition System for Demand Voltage Reduction

Improving the engine efficiency to respond to climate change and energy security issues is strongly required. In order to improve the engine efficiency, lower fuel consumption, and enhance engine performance, OEMs have been developing high compression ratio engines and downsized turbocharged engines. However, higher compression ratio and turbocharging cause cylinder pressure to increase, which in turn increases the demand voltage for ignition. To reduce the demand voltage, a new ignition system is developed that uses a high voltage Zener diode to maintain a constant output voltage. Maintaining a constant voltage higher than the static breakdown voltage helps limit the amount of overshoot produced during the spark event. This allows discharge to occur at a lower demand voltage than with conventional spark ignition systems. The results show that the maximum reduction in demand voltage is 3.5 kV when the engine is operated at 2800 rpm and 2.6 MPa break mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper

Using the Modal Response of Window Vibrations to Validate SEA Wind Noise Models

The SEA model of wind noise requires the quantification of both the acoustic as well as the turbulent flow contributions to the exterior pressure. The acoustic pressure is difficult to measure because it is usually much lower in amplitude than the turbulent pressure. However, the coupling of the acoustic pressure to the surface vibration is usually much stronger than the turbulent pressure, especially in the acoustic coincidence frequency range. The coupling is determined by the spatial matching between the pressure and the vibration which can be described by the wavenumber spectra. This paper uses measured vibration modes of a vehicle window to determine the coupling to both acoustic and turbulent pressure fields and compares these to the results from an SEA model. The interior acoustic intensity radiating from the window during road tests is also used to validate the results.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Particulate Emissions from D.I. Engines - Precise Analyses and Evaluation of Diesel Fuel

Precise analytical methods for characterizing diesel fuel yielding the lowest particulate emissions were developed. The methods consist of preparative-scale high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS), analytical-scale HPLC, and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (13C-NMR). A diesel fuel was first separated into an aliphatic fraction and an aromatic fraction by semipreparative-scale HPLC. Then, the aliphatic fraction was analyzed by FIMS and the spectrum was compared with that of the whole fuel. The aromatic fraction was analyzed by analytical-scale HPLC to obtain the chromatogram of the aromatic hydrocarbons with a high S/N. In addition to these analyses, the fuel was analyzed by 13C-NMR to obtain the concentration of the carbon atoms of the straight chain, branched chain and aromatic-ring in hydrocarbons.
Technical Paper

Research of the DI Diesel Spray Characteristics at High Temperature and High Pressure Ambient

In order to clarify the diesel fuel spray characteristics inside the cylinder, we developed two novel techniques, which are preparation of same level of temperature and pressure ambient as inside cylinder and quantitative measurement of vapor concentration. The first one utilizes combustion-type constant-volume chamber (inner volume 110cc), which allows 5 MPa and 873K by igniting the pre-mixture (n-pentane and air) with two spark plugs. In the second technique, TMPD vapor concentration is measured by using Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence method (LIEF). The concentration is compensated by investigation of the influence of ambient pressure (from 3 to 5 MPa) and temperature (from 550 to 900 K) on TMPD fluorescence intensity. By using two techniques, we investigated the influence of nozzle hole diameter, injection pressure and ambient condition on spray characteristics.
Journal Article

Study of the Impact of High Biodiesel Blends on Engine Oil Performance

In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. This report is designed to determine how high biodiesel blends affect oil quality through testing on 2005 regulations engines with DPFs. When blends of 10-20% rapeseed methyl ester (RME) with diesel fuel are employed with 10W-30 engine oil, the oil change interval is reduced to about a half due to a drop in oil pressure. The oil pressure drop occurs because of the reduced kinematic viscosity of engine oil, which resulting from dilution of poorly evaporated RME with engine oil and its accumulation, however, leading to increased wear of piston top rings and cylinder liners.
Journal Article

Development of an On-Board PM Sensor for the OBD System Based on an Electrochemical Polarization

An on-board particulate matter (PM) sensor, consisting of a gas-permeable electrochemical cell with a porous yttria-stabilized zirconia solid oxide electrolyte, was developed to assist the on-board diagnostics (OBD) system of a vehicle. Exhaust is pumped from the anode side to the cathode side and PM deposited on the anode is instantly oxidized by the catalytic effects of the metal component of the electrode at temperatures higher than 350°C. The PM oxidation reaction occurs at the three-phase boundary between the anode, electrolyte and gas phase, and causes a slight change in the bulk average oxygen concentration, which produces electrochemical polarization by the difference in oxygen partial pressures between the anode and cathode. The developed PM sensor has a detection limit of 2 mg/m₃, at which level will enable PM detection in the OBD system according to the EURO VI regulation.
Journal Article

Study of Diesel Engine System for Hybrid Vehicles

In this study, we combined a diesel engine with the Toyota Hybrid System (THS). Utilizing the functions of the THS, reducing engine friction, lowering the compression ratio, and adopting a low pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation system (LPL-EGR) were examined to achieve both low fuel consumption and low nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions over a wide operating range. After applying this system to a test vehicle it was verified that the fuel economy greatly surpassed that of a conventional diesel engine vehicle and that NOx emissions could be reduced below the value specified in the Euro 6 regulations without DeNOx catalysts.
Journal Article

Emissions Reduction Potential of Extremely High Boost and High EGR Rate for an HSDI Diesel Engine and the Reduction Mechanisms of Exhaust Emissions

The effects of an increasing boost pressure, a high EGR rate and a high injection pressure on exhaust emissions from an HSDI (High Speed Direct Injection) diesel engine were examined. The mechanisms were then investigated with both in-cylinder observations and 3DCFD coupled with ϕT-map analysis. Under a high-load condition, increasing the charging efficiency combined with a high injection pressure and a high EGR rate is an effective way to reduce NOx and soot simultaneously, which realized an ultra low NOx of 16ppm at 1.7MPa of IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure). The flame temperature with low NOx and low soot emissions is decreased by 260K from that with conventional emissions. Also, the distribution of the fuel-air mixture plot on a ϕT-map is moved away from the NOx and soot formation peninsula, compared to the conventional emissions case.