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Technical Paper

Development of “Virtual and Real Simulator” for Engine

We developed a progressive system, “virtual and real simulator (V&R-S)” for engine. To innovate the process of engine development, the test system creates dynamic load of drivetrain, wheel, body and road with the virtual vehicle model. We set the phenomena such as drivetrain vibration for reproducing object of this system. The load is transmitted to the engine crankshaft end as torque with the connecting shaft made of fiberglass. The mainly developed technologies are the dynamometer with rotational inertia as low as engine, correction method of transmitted torque error of connecting shaft by H-infinity control. Thanks to these, we achieved the capability of optimization for most of dynamic characteristics (emission, fuel consumption, drivability) on engine test bench. And we now be able to limit real vehicle test to the final tuning. As a result, we have realized new engine evaluation and optimization process.
Technical Paper

Study of a Two-Degree-of-Freedom Exhaust System

An investigation was conducted into pressure pulsation in the exhaust port, which greatly affects volumetric efficiency and engine performance. From experiments using a single blow-down generator, it was established that the amplitude of the pressure pulsation increases as the manifold branch is lengthened and that large negative pressure synchronized with the timing of valve overlap can be obtained if a proper branch length is used. The performance of a 2ℓ test engine was optimized by varying the length of both the manifold branches and front pipe forks. It was found that whereas front pipe fork length affects engine performance over only a narrow range of engine speed, optimizing manifold branch length results in a considerable improvement over a wide engine speed range. In the course of optimizing the exhaust pipe manifold length of this two-degree-of-freedom exhaust system, abnormal exhaust noises were emitted at specific engine speeds during deceleration.
Technical Paper

Toyota New TNGA High-Efficiency Eight-Speed Automatic Transmission Direct Shift-8AT for FWD Vehicles

The new eight-speed automatic transmission direct shift-8AT (UA80) is the first automatic transmission to be developed based on the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) design philosophy. Commonizing or optimizing the main components of the UA80 enables compatibility with a wide torque range, including both inline 4-cylinder and V6 engines, while shortening development terms and minimizing investment. Additionally, it has superior packaging performance by optimizing the transmission size and arrangement achieving a low gravity center. It contributes to Vehicle’s attractiveness by improving driving performance and NVH. At the same time, it drastically improves fuel economy and quietness.
Technical Paper

Development of CFD Inverse Analysis Technology Targeting Heat or Concentration Performance Using the Adjoint Method and Its Application to Actual Components

To resolve two major problems of conventional CFD-based shape optimization technology: (1) dependence of the outcome on the selection of design parameters, and (2) high computational costs, two types of innovative inverse analysis technologies based on a mathematical theory called the Adjoint Method were developed in previous studies for maximizing an arbitrary hydrodynamic performance aspect as the cost function: surface geometry deformation sensitivity analysis to identify the locations to be modified, and topology optimization to generate an optimal shape. Furthermore, these technologies were extended to transient flows by the application of the transient Adjoint Method theory. However, there are many cases around flow path shapes in vehicles where performance with respect to heat or concentration, such as the total amount of heat transfer or the flow rate of a specific gas component, is very important.
Technical Paper

CAE Methodology for Optimizing NVH, Functional Reliability, and Mass Reduction at Engine Concept Design Phase

Due to the global economic downturn and higher environmental awareness, the social demands for low cost and fuel efficient vehicles are increasing. At the same time the engine power is increasing and customer expectations of reliability and NVH levels are increasing. To meet all the requirements, engineers are challenged to design light weight parts with higher performance. However, unconsidered mass reduction carries a risk of compromised NVH, Functional Reliability, and other functional demands. In order to resolve this contradiction, it is important to establish a basic structure with minimum necessary mass at the concept design phase, when there are still many degrees of freedom in the design space. Hence, a multi-objective optimization CAE methodology applicable for designing the basic structure of the Engine system was developed and is detailed below.
Technical Paper

A Robustness-Focused Shape Optimization Method for Intake Ports

Merging a CAE shape optimization system and a concept Taguchi method SN-ratio index, a robustness-focused automated shape optimization method has been developed. Applying this method to diesel intake ports, with mold position tolerance set as the error factor, SN-ratio was defined for swirl stability. As a result of the optimization provided by a multi-objective genetic algorithm, simultaneous improvement of flux, swirl rotation and SN ratio was achieved.
Technical Paper

V6-SUV Engine Sound Development

This paper describes the development and achievement of a target engine sound for a V6 SUV in consideration of the sound quality preferences of customers in the U.S. First, a simple definition for engine sound under acceleration was found using order arrangement, frequency balance, and linearity. These elements are the product of commonly used characteristics in conventional development and can be applied simply when setting component targets. The development focused on order arrangement as the most important of these elements, and sounds with and without integer orders were selected as target candidates. Next, subjective auditory evaluations were performed in the U.S. using digitally processed sounds and an evaluation panel comprising roughly 40 subjects. The target sound was determined after classifying the results of this evaluation using cluster analysis.
Technical Paper

Efficient Direct Yaw Moment Control during Acceleration and Deceleration while Turning (First Report)

The research described in this paper aimed to study the cornering resistance and dissipation power on the tire contact patch, and to develop an efficient direct yaw moment control (DYC) during acceleration and deceleration while turning. A previously reported method [1], which formulates the cornering resistance in steady-state cornering, was extended to so-called quasi steady-state cornering that includes acceleration and deceleration while turning. Simulations revealed that the direct yaw moment reduces the dissipation power due to the load shift between the front and rear wheels. In addition, the optimum direct yaw moment cancels out the understeer augmented by acceleration. In contrast, anti-direct yaw moment optimizes the dissipation power during decelerating to maximize kinetic energy recovery. The optimization method proved that the optimum direct yaw moment can be achieved by equalizing the slip vectors of all the wheels.
Technical Paper

Development of Gasoline Injector Cleaner for Port Fuel Injection and Direct Injection

Port fuel injection (PFI) injector and direct fuel injection (DI) injector clogging from deposits caused by poor fuel quality, is a concern in emerging countries. Then DI injector deposits are sometimes cleaned by injector cleaners in such situation. However deposit cleaners for PFI injectors have not been developed, because of the lack of research of PFI injector deposits. Through chemical analysis, this study showed them to be water-soluble deposits. Subsequently success was achieved in developing a new gasoline injector cleaner applicable to injector deposits in both types of injectors, through optimization of a surface active agent.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Transmission Loss for Lightweight Body Structures

In an effort to reduce mass, future automotive bodies will feature lower gage steel or lighter weight materials such as aluminum. An unfortunate side effect of lighter weight bodies is a reduction in sound transmission loss (TL). For barrier based systems, as the total system mass (including the sheet metal, decoupler, and barrier) goes down the transmission loss is reduced. If the reduced surface density from the sheet metal is added to the barrier, however, performance can be restored (though, of course, this eliminates the mass savings). In fact, if all of the saved mass from the sheet metal is added to the barrier, the TL performance may be improved over the original system. This is because the optimum performance for a barrier based system is achieved when the sheet metal and the barrier have equal surface densities. That is not the case for standard steel constructions where the surface density of the sheet metal is higher than the barrier.
Technical Paper

Development of Suspension Design Technology Applying Principal Elastic Axes

Automobile manufacturers have increased the pace of vehicle development in recent years to respond to diverse market demands. Consequently, it has become crucial for manufacturers to develop new technology which enables a particular vehicle to simultaneously achieve both ride comfort and handling performance at an optimal level. This article introduces the suspension design technology applying the Principal Elastic Axes that has been developed by our company for use in its vehicles. These axes, which consist of three translational and three rotational axes, represent the set of fully decoupled stiffness axes. Applying the Principal Elastic Axes to the suspension reduces the number of design parameters, which enables suspension movements to be considered totally and simply.
Technical Paper

Development of Robust Design Method in Pedestrian Impact Test

This paper describes that a method has been developed to estimate the range of the scatter of Head Injury Criterion (HIC) values in pedestrian impact tests, which could help to reduce the range of the scatter of HIC values by applying the stochastic method for Finite Element (FE) analysis. A major advantage of this method is that it enables the range of scatter of HIC values to be estimated and to explain the mechanics of the behavior. The test procedure of pedestrian impact allows some tolerances for the resultant conditions of impact such that the distance of actual impact location from the selected point is within 10 mm and the impact velocity is within ±0.7 km/h [1]. A HIC value calculated by impact simulation under a deterministic impact condition with the nominal input data does not necessarily represent the variation of measured data in impactor tests.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Acoustic Coupling Vibration of Wheel and Suspension Vibration on Tire Cavity Resonance

It is difficult to improve tire cavity noise since the pressure of cavity resonance acts as a compelling force, and its low damping and high gain characteristics dominate the vibration of both the suspension and body. For this reason, the analysis described in this article aimed to clarify the design factors involved and to improve this phenomenon at the source. This was accomplished by investigating the acoustic coupling vibration mode of the wheel, which is the component that transmits the pressure of cavity resonance at first. In addition, the vibration characteristic of suspension was investigated also. A speaker-equipped sound pressure generator inside the tire and wheel assembly was developed and used to infer that wheel vibration under cavity resonance is a forced vibration mode with respect to the cavity resonance pressure distribution, not an eigenvalue mode, and this phenomenon may therefore be improved by optimizing the out-of-plane torsional stiffness of the disk.
Technical Paper

Analysis of FEM Results Based upon FOA

In FOA (First Order Analysis) any vehicle body structure might be interpreted as a collective simple structure that can be decomposed into 3 fundamental structure types. The first structure is the “BEAM”, whose cross sectional properties as well as its material dominates the mechanical behavior, the second is the “PANEL (shear panel, plate, and shell)”, whose mechanical behavior can be varied by changing its geometrical properties in the thickness direction, i.e. adding beads or flanges. The third structure is the “JOINT”, which connects the proceeding structures, and transfer complex three-dimensional loads with three-dimensional deformation. In the present work, we shall propose a methodology to identify a portion of an arbitrary FE model of an automotive body structure, with a “BEAM” structure in the FOA approach. In the latter chapter of this paper, cross section loads will be related with cross sectional properties in the aspect of the element strain energy concept.
Technical Paper

A SEA-Based Optimizing Approach for Sound Package Design

Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is a promising tool for developing an efficient sound package design for reducing airborne interior noise at high frequencies. The optimal sound package, however, is not directly predicted by using the SEA vehicle model alone and therefore requires parametric studies of sound package configurations. This paper describes an effective method for using SEA modeling to achieve the desired interior noise level targets. A mathematical model, expressed by one equation, is derived on the assumption that the directions of the power flows are known in the SEA model. This equation describes the relationship between sound package properties and the resulting interior noise level. Using the relationship between weight and performance of sound package, an efficient configuration can be determined. The predicted sound pressure level of the vehicle interior with the optimized sound package correlated well to the experimental data for the case presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Engine Starting System Development by Belt Drive Mechanism

The basic concept of the Toyota mild hybrid system is to provide a smooth and reliable engine restarting method from an idling stop, while at the same time being able to drive all of the accessories during the idling stop. This concept has been realized and marketed for the first time in the world, by utilizing a newly developed simulation of belt behavior to optimize the specification of the belt and its peripheral parts.
Technical Paper

Development of New Generation PP Material for Instrumental Panel and Bumper Application

Toyota has developed new PP Compound materials for Instrument Panel (IP) and Bumper applications. The target of this development is to keep the same level of superior performance as the current Toyota materials, to make these materials available in all main regions, and to achieve the remarkable cost reduction. One of the main points of this development is to adopt the advanced material of “High-Elastomer-contained and High-Crystalline PP (HEHCPP)”. Using this advanced PP significantly reduces the amount of expensive “Added Rubber” that is necessary, and it helps simplify the PP compounding process. By the optimization of the raw material contents and the molecular weight of polymerized rubber, it has been confirmed in all regions that the newly developed materials show equivalent mechanical properties and processability to Toyota's current IP and Bumper materials.
Journal Article

Application of Reference Governor Using Soft Constraints and Steepest Descent Method to Diesel Engine Aftertreatment Temperature Control

This paper considers an application of reference governor (RG) to automotive diesel aftertreatment temperature control. Recently, regulations on vehicle emissions have become more stringent, and engine hardware and software are expected to be more complicated. It is getting more difficult to guarantee constraints in control systems as well as good control performance. Among model-based control methods that can directly treat constraints, this paper focuses on the RG, which has recently attracted a lot of attention as one method of model prediction-based control. In the RG, references in tracking control are modified based on future prediction so that the predicted outputs in a closed-loop system satisfy the constraints. This paper proposes an online RG algorithm, taking account of the real-time implementation on engine embedded controllers.
Journal Article

A Custom Integrated Circuit with On-chip Current-to-Digital Converters for Active Hydraulic Brake System

This paper presents a custom integrated circuit (IC) on which circuit functions necessary for “Active Hydraulic Brake (AHB) system” are integrated, and its key component, “Current-to-Digital Converter” for solenoid current measurement. The AHB system, which realizes a seamless brake feeling for Antilock Brake System (ABS) and Regenerative Brake Cooperative Control of Hybrid Vehicle, and the custom IC are installed in the 4th-generation Prius released in 2015. In the AHB system, as linear solenoid valves are used for hydraulic brake pressure control, high-resolution and high-speed sensing of solenoid current with ripple components due to pulse width modulation (PWM) is one of the key technologies. The proposed current-to-digital converter directly samples the drain-source voltage of the sensing DMOS (double-diffused MOSFET) with an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter (ADC) on the IC, and digitizes it.
Journal Article

Development of CFD Inverse Analysis Technology Using the Transient Adjoint Method and Its Application to Engine In-Cylinder Flow

Conventional CFD-based shape optimization technology that uses parametric shape modification and optimal solutions searching algorithms has the two problems: (1) outcome of optimized shapes depend on the selection of design parameters made by the designer, and (2) high computational costs. To resolve those problems, two innovative inverse analysis technologies based on the Adjoint Method were developed in previous study: surface geometry deformation sensitivity analysis to identify the locations to be modified, and topology optimization to generate an optimal shape for maximizing the cost function in the constrained design space. However, these technologies are only applicable to steady flows. Since most flows in a vehicle (such as engine in-cylinder flow) are transient, a practical technology for surface geometry sensitivity analysis has been developed based on the Transient Adjoint Method.