Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Noise and Vibration Reduction Technology in Hybrid Vehicle Development

2001-04-30
2001-01-1415
The world's first mass production gasoline hybrid passenger car, the “Prius”, was introduced into the Japanese market in 1997. By the time it was introduced into the American and European markets in Mid-2000, its fuel consumption and exhaust emissions had been further improved while achieving superior NV performance compared with conventional vehicles with 1.5-liter engines even in these competitive markets. This paper describes NV reduction technology for problems peculiar to the hybrid vehicle such as engine start/stop vibration, drone noise and vibration at low engine speed and motor/generator noise and vibration. It also compares the overall NV performance of the hybrid vehicle with conventional gasoline engine vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development of “Virtual and Real Simulator” for Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1355
We developed a progressive system, “virtual and real simulator (V&R-S)” for engine. To innovate the process of engine development, the test system creates dynamic load of drivetrain, wheel, body and road with the virtual vehicle model. We set the phenomena such as drivetrain vibration for reproducing object of this system. The load is transmitted to the engine crankshaft end as torque with the connecting shaft made of fiberglass. The mainly developed technologies are the dynamometer with rotational inertia as low as engine, correction method of transmitted torque error of connecting shaft by H-infinity control. Thanks to these, we achieved the capability of optimization for most of dynamic characteristics (emission, fuel consumption, drivability) on engine test bench. And we now be able to limit real vehicle test to the final tuning. As a result, we have realized new engine evaluation and optimization process.
Technical Paper

Combustion Analysis on Piston Cavity Shape of a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-2029
This paper describes the analyses to improve both stratified and homogeneous charge combustion of a gasoline direct injection engine. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and high-speed hydrocarbon (HC) measurement were employed to observe the mixture formation process. The analysis of the combustion flame propagation was conducted by in-cylinder visualization and ion current measurement. As a result of the analyses, the following conclusions were made: 1 An oval shaped wall cavity can direct the mixture gas to the vicinity of the spark plug better than a conventional shell-shaped wall cavity. The oval shaped wall cavity can improve fuel consumption and HC emission at stratified charge combustion. 2 A shallow cavity improves the homogenization of mixture gases and wide open throttle (WOT) performance.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties on Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2003-05-19
2003-01-1815
Effects of fuel distillation characteristics and cetane number on premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion were investigated for the purpose of reducing NOx and PM emissions from a direct injection diesel engine. The test engine had a hole type injection nozzle for conventional diesel combustion at high load operation. A low compression ratio and cooled EGR were applied to the test engine in order to reduce the compression temperature for avoiding pre-ignition. The investigation results show that, in the case of ignition control by EGR, a light fuel with lower distillation characteristics had an advantage of reducing smoke at higher loads. This means that high volatility fuel is effective in promoting lean mixture formation of fuel and air during the ignition delay. Moreover, lowering the cetane number was effective in reducing NOx emissions by suppression of combustion temperature.
Technical Paper

Toyota Newly Developed 2VZ-FE Type Engine

1988-11-01
881775
Newly developed 2VZ-FE engine for CAMRY is a 2.5-liter water cooled and V-type 6-cylinder engine exported from TOYOTA for the first time. This engine has the TOYOTA original 4-valve DOHC system. That is, exhaust camshafts driven by intake camshafts using scissors gears. By its compact configuration with the gear driven camshafts, this V-type 6-cylinder engine is mounted on a front-wheel-drive vehicle which originally had an in-line 4-cylinder engine. By increasing IVZ-FE engine displacement (for domestic), compact pentroof-type combustion chambers, optimum air-fuel ratio and ignition timing by TCCS (TOYOTA Computer Controlled System) and other technologies, a high performance 153HP/5600rpm and a large torque 155ft·lbs/4400rpm have been achieved with a low fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Multipoint Spark Ignition for Lean Combustion

1985-10-01
852092
Effects of multipoint spark ignition on combustion duration, fuel consumption and lean misfire limit are discussed in this paper. A plate, which consists of 12 spark gaps in each cylinder, and a new CD ignition system have been developed for accomplishing the multipoint spark ignition. This plate was installed between cylinder block and head in a 4 cylinder engine. Compared with a single gap, the results of 12 gaps showed a reduced combustion duration by about 50%, a 5% decrease in fuel consumption and an extended lean misfire limit by about 3 air-fuel ratio numbers. Furthermore, the multipoint spark ignition on both sides of the combustion chamber was more effective than only on one side. With this system, HC emission can be reduced as well. The results of this study showed that, compared to those obtained with swirl, this multipoint spark ignition was more effective on improving fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Improvement of DI Diesel Engine System by Utilizing GTL Fuels Characteristics

2009-06-15
2009-01-1933
Gas To Liquid (GTL) fuels synthesized from natural gas are known as clean fuels. Therefore, GTL fuels have been expected to be a promising option that can reduce the NOx and PM emissions from diesel engines and contribute to the energy security. In this study, in order to clarify the emission reduction potentials, the improvement of DI diesel engine and aftertreatment systems were investigated by utilizing GTL fuels characteristics. To achieve a further reduction of both NOx and PM emissions, the combustion chamber, injection pattern and EGR calibration were modified. From the results of tests, the engine out NOx emissions were reduced to the Euro 6 regulation level and in parallel the expected deteriorations of HC emission and fuel consumption were suppressed because of the characteristics of high cetane number and zero poly-aromatics hydrocarbons. Additionally, an aftertreatment system was optimized to GTL fuel in order to improve NOx conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Development of New 1.8-Liter Engine for Hybrid Vehicles

2009-04-20
2009-01-1061
In recent years, attention has been focused on a hybrid vehicle capable of substantial reductions in CO2 exhaust emissions. This paper describes the newly developed 1.8-liter 2ZR-FXE gasoline engine for use with a hybrid system for compact vehicles, which effectively combines higher driving performance with higher fuel efficiency. This engine was based on the 1.8-liter 2ZR-FE engine with outstanding performance and fuel efficiency. This engine has achieved high thermal efficiency by using the high-expansion ratio cycle “Atkinson cycle”, as with the previous 1NZ-FXE engine. Additionally, a new cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system and electric water pump were adopted to further improve fuel efficiency. A high efficiency cooler was used to cool the EGR gas, which enabled the introduction of the EGR gas at high load conditions, and exhaust gas temperature was reduced.
Technical Paper

The Power Performance and the Fuel Economy Estimation of HV for Vehicle Concept Planning Using VHDL-AMS Full Vehicle Simulation

2012-04-16
2012-01-1025
In order to reduce CO₂, Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Vehicles (HV) are effective. Those types of vehicles have powertrains from conventional vehicles. Those new powertrains drastically improve their efficiency from conventional vehicles keeping the same or superior power performance. On the other hand, those vehicles have an issue for thermal energy shortage during warming up process. The thermal energy is very large, and seriously affects the fuel economy for HV and the mileage for EV. In this paper, we propose VHDL-AMS multi-domain simulation technique for the estimation of the vehicle performance at the concept planning stage. The VHDL-AMS is IEEE and IEC standardized language, which supports not only multi-domain (physics) but also encryption. The common modeling language and encryption standard is indispensable for full-vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

Newly Developed Toyota Plug-in Hybrid System and its Vehicle Performance under Real Life Operation

2011-06-09
2011-37-0033
Toyota has been introducing several hybrid vehicles (HV) since 1997 as a countermeasure to the concerns raised by automobile, like CO2 reduction, energy security, and pollutant emission reduction in urban areas. Plug in hybrid Vehicle (PHV) uses electric energy from grid rather than fuel for most short trips and therefore presents a next step forward towards an even more effective solution for these concerns. For longer trips, the PHV works as a conventional hybrid vehicle, providing all the benefits of Toyota full hybrid technology, such as low fuel consumption, user-friendliness and long cruising range. This paper describes a newly developed plug-in hybrid system and its vehicle performance. This system uses a Li-ion battery with high energy density and has an EV-range within usual trip length without sacrificing cabin space.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of Exhaust Emissions in a Natural Gas Diesel Dual Fuel (DDF) Engine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1649
The Diesel Dual Fuel (DDF) vehicle is one of the technologies to convert diesel vehicles for natural gas usage. The purpose of this research was to study the possibility of a DDF vehicle to meet emission standards for diesel vehicles. This research was done for small passenger vehicles and commercial vehicles. The exhaust emissions compliance of such vehicles in a New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) mode which was composed of Urban Driving Cycles (UDC) and an Extra Urban Driving Cycle (EUDC) was evaluated. (see APPENDIXFigure A1) In this study, the passenger vehicle engine, compliant with the EURO4 standard, was converted to a DDF engine. Engine bench tests under steady state conditions showed similar result to previous papers. Total hydrocarbon (HC) emission was extremely high, compared to diesel engine. The NEDC mode emissions of the DDF vehicle were estimated based on these engine bench test results.
Technical Paper

Small Bore Diesel Engine Combustion Concept

2015-04-14
2015-01-0788
Small bore diesel engines often adopt a two-valve cylinder head and a non-central injector layout to expand the port flow passage area. This non-central injector layout causes asymmetrical gas flow and fuel distribution, resulting in worse heat losses and a less homogenous fuel-air mixture than an equivalent four-valve cylinder head layout with a central injector. This paper describes the improvement of piston bowl geometry to achieve a more homogeneous gas flow and fuel-air mixture. This concept reduced fuel consumption by 2.5% compared to the original piston bowl geometry, while also reducing NOx emissions by 10%.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lightweight Soundproof Cover Using the Biot Theory (Vibration Propagation in Elastic Porous Materials), and an Example Application to a Transmission

2016-04-05
2016-01-0517
To reduce cabin noise and vehicle weight (for lower fuel consumption), a lightweight soundproofing cover was developed as a countermeasure to sources of noise, using the Biot theory (vibration propagation theory in poroelastic materials). This report also presents the results of its application to a metal belt-type continuously variable transmission (CVT) used in Toyota Motor Corporation’s 2.0L vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 6-Speed Manual Transmission for Commercial Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1093
In recent years, awareness of environmental problems has increased on a global scale, and the development of low fuel consumption technologies has become more and more important in commercial vehicles, as it has been in passenger vehicles. A new 6-speed manual transmission was developed with direct-drive double-overdrive to contribute to the fuel economy performance and engine power of commercial vehicles through gear ratio optimization.
Technical Paper

GTL Fuel Impact on DI Diesel Emissions

2007-07-23
2007-01-2004
Reduction of exhaust emissions was investigated in a modern diesel engine equipped with advanced diesel after treatment system using a Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuel, a cleaner burning alternative diesel fuel. This fuel has near zero sulfur and aromatics and high cetane number. Some specially prepared GTL fuel samples were used to study the effects of GTL fuel distillation characteristics on exhaust emissions before engine modification. Test results indicated that distillation range of GTL fuels has a significant impact on engine out PM. High cetane number also improved HC and CO emissions, while these fuel properties have little effect on NOx emissions. From these results, it was found that low distillation range and high cetane number GTL fuel can provide a favorable potential in NOx/PM emissions trade-off. In order to improve the tail-pipe emissions in the latest diesel engine system, the engine modifications were carried out for the most favorable GTL fuel sample.
Technical Paper

Study of Future Engine Oil (First Report): Future Engine Oil Scenario

2007-07-23
2007-01-1977
In recent years, problems such as global warming, the depletion of natural resources, and air pollution caused by emissions are emerging on a global scale. These problems call for efforts directed toward the development of fuel-efficient engines and exhaust gas reduction measures. As a solution to these issues, performance improvements should be achieved on the oil that lubricates the sliding sections of engines. This report points to features required of future engine oil-such as contribution to fuel consumption, minimized adverse effects on the exhaust gas aftertreatment system, and improved reliability achieved by sludge reduction-and discusses the significance of these features. For engine oil to contribution of engine oil to lower fuel consumption, we examined the effects of reduced oil viscosity on friction using gasoline and diesel engines.
Technical Paper

A Study of Evaluating the Real-time Property for Engine Control Software

2001-03-05
2001-01-0058
Recently, the role of ECU(Electronic Control Unit) on vehicles has been becoming more important year by year in order to meet the requirements for safety and the environmental matters. Particularly, the ECU of Engine Management Systems has been becoming indispensable in order to realize high performance, low fuel consumption and low exhaust emission. Therefore, the size of software has also been increasing, and been becoming more complex and complicated. As the ECU software size becomes large and complex, the verification and validation of the software by using the current development method has been becoming more difficult. Especially it has been becoming more difficult to validate the Real-time property of the software. The Real-time property means whether the execution of the software is in time for the deadline which is decided on the software design.
Technical Paper

Development of resin back door glass for ES3

2003-10-27
2003-01-2816
Toyota is implementing various technical developments in various fields for protection of environment. Reducing the fuel consumption is a matter of great urgency for the reduction of CO2 emissions. In the technology of vehicle body development, mass reduction and the improvement of aerodynamics are mainly important for fuel economy. As the one of way for this, we adopted resin glass as the back door glass of ES3, small-sized low-fuel consumption vehicle. (Figure 1,2,3) The first advantage of resin glass is the low density that weights about a half of inorganic glass. However resin glass is needed higher thickness for equivalent rigidity, as the result approximately 41% mass reduction was achieved. However resin glass is relatively expensive. Therefore it seems to be difficult to expand the usage of resin for this application. Then, we focused on additional advantage of resin glass, in order to make good use of resin glass. The second advantage of resin glass is design flexibility.
Technical Paper

Continuously Variable Transmission Control System for Toyota Intelligent Idling Stop System

2004-03-08
2004-01-1635
As requirements for protecting the global environment are being heightened on a worldwide scale in recent years, the development of low fuel consumption technologies in order to inhibit the discharge of CO2 is an important issue for the automotive industry. Recently, Toyota has developed a Super CVT for the 1.3-to 1.5-liter class vehicles to further improve their fuel economy. This CVT has been adopted on vehicles equipped with the ‘idling stop system’. The ‘idling stop system’ automatically stops the engine when the vehicle is stopped and the transmission shift lever is in the ‘D’ position (e.g. when the vehicle is at a stoplight). This improves the fuel economy of the vehicle by eliminating fuel consumption while the vehicle is stopped. The conventional CVT poses unique conditions such as startoff time lag or shock after the engine is restarted. These conditions occur because the CVT oil pump cannot generate hydraulic pressure while the engine is stopped.
Technical Paper

Development of Vehicle Dynamics Management System for Hybrid Vehicles - ECB System for Improved Environmental and Vehicle Dynamic Performance -

2002-05-07
2002-01-1586
In anticipation of the increased needs to further reduce exhaust gas emissions and improve fuel consumption, a new brake-by-wire system called an “Electronically Controlled Brake” system (hereafter referred to as “ECB”) has been developed. With this brake system, which is able to smoothly control the hydraulic pressure that is applied to each of the four wheel cylinders on an individual basis, functional enhancements can be added by appropriately modifying its software. This paper discusses the necessity of the ECB, the system configuration, and the results of its application on hybrid vehicles.
X